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  • 401.
    Bangabash, Subhasish
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Panda, Srimanta
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Machine Learning - Managerial Perspective: A Study to define concepts and highlight challenges in a product-based IT Organization2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to understand the main managerial challenges that arise in the context of Machine Learning. This research aims to explore the core concepts of Machine Learning and provide the same conceptual foundation to managers to overcome possible obstacles while implementing Machine Learning. Therefore, the main research question is: 

    What are the phases and the main challenges while managing Machine Learning project in a product based IT organization? 

     The focus is on the main concepts of Machine Learning and identifying challenges during each phase through literature review and qualitative data collected from interviews conducted with professionals. The research aims to position itself in the field of research which looks for inputs from consultants and management professionals either associated with Machine Learning or they are planning to start such initiatives. In this research paper we introduce ACDDT (Agile-Customer-Data-Domain-Technology) model framework for managers. This framework is centered on the main challenges in Machine Learning project phases while dealing with customer, data, domain and technology. In addition, the frame work also provides key inputs to managers for managing those challenges and possibly overcome them.

  • 402. Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    et al.
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Tellambura, Chintha
    On the performance of cognitive underlay multihop networks with imperfect channel state information2013In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 61, no 12, p. 4864-4873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and analyzes cognitive multihop decode-and-forward networks in the presence of interference due to channel estimation errors. To reduce interference on the primary network, a simple yet effective back-off control power method is applied for secondary multihop networks. For a given threshold of interference probability at the primary network, we derive the maximum back-off control power coefficient, which provides the best performance for secondary multihop networks. Moreover, it is shown that the number of hops for secondary network is upper-bounded under the fixed settings of the primary network. For secondary multihop networks, new exact and asymptotic expressions for outage probability (OP), bit error rate (BER) and ergodic capacity over Rayleigh fading channels are derived. Based on the asymptotic OP and BEP, a pivotal conclusion is reached that the secondary multihop network offers the same diversity order as compared with the network without back off. Finally, we verify the performance analysis through various numerical examples which confirm the correctness of our analysis for many channel and system settings and provide new insight into the design and optimization of cognitive multihop networks.

  • 403. Baptista, Ana Alice
    et al.
    Linde, PeterBlekinge Institute of Technology, The Library.Lavesson, NiklasBlekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.Brito, Miguel Abrunhosa de
    Social Shaping of Digital Publishing: Exploring the Interplay Between Culture and Technology - Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Electronic Publishing2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the advent of the Web, the processes and forms of electronic publishing have been changing. The open access movement has been a major driver of change in recent years with regard to scholarly communication; however, changes are also evident in other fields of application such as e-government and e-learning. In most cases these changes are driven by technological advances, but there are also cases where a change in social reality pushes technological development. Both the social and mobile web and linked data are currently shaping the edge of research in digital publishing. Liquid publishing is on the more daring agendas. Digital preservation is an issue that poses great challenges which are still far from being solved. The legal issues, security and trust continue to deserve our full attention. We need new visualization techniques and innovative interfaces that will keep pace with the global dimension of information. This is the current scenario, but what will follow? What are the technologies and social and communication paradigms that we will be discussing in ten or twenty years? ELPUB 2012 focuses on the social shaping of digital publishing, exploring the interplay between culture and technology. This makes the fact that it is being held in the European Capital of Culture for 2012, Guimarães, Portugal, all the more appropriate. 52 submissions were received for ELPUB 2012, from which 23 articles and 10 posters were accepted after peer review. Of the accepted articles, 11 were submitted as full articles and 12 as extended abstracts. These articles have been grouped into sessions on the following topics: Sessions 1 and 4 – Digital Scholarship & Publishing; Session 2 – Special Archives; Session 3 – Libraries & Repositories, Session 5 – Digital Texts & Readings, and Session 6 – Future Solutions & Innovations. The programme features two keynote speeches. Kathleen Fitzpatrick's speech is entitled “Planned Obsolescence: Publishing, Technology, and the Future of the Academy”, that of Antonio Câmara is entitled “Publishing in 2021”. Finally we call your attention to the panel on e-books, which is entitled “Academic e-books – Technological hostage or cultural redeemer?”. We believe this is another great edition of the ELPUB conference. We would like to take this opportunity to thank both the members of the ELPUB executive committee and the members of the local advisory committee, for making it happen. Together they provided valuable advice and assistance during the entire organization process. Secondly we would like to mention our colleagues on the program committee, who assured the quality of the conference through the peer review process. Last but not least, we wish to thank the local organization team for ensuring that all this effort culminates in a very interesting scientific event on the 14th and 15th of June. Thank you all for helping us to maintain the quality of ELPUB and merit the trust of our authors and attendees. We wish you all a good conference and we say farewell, hoping to see you again in Sweden in 2013!

  • 404. Barbosa, Manuel
    et al.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Page, Dan
    Rodrigues, Nuno
    Silva, Paulo
    Type checking cryptography implementations2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2012, Vol. 7141, p. 316-334Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptographic software development is a challenging field: high performance must be achieved, while ensuring correctness and compliance with low-level security policies. CAO is a domain specific language designed to assist development of cryptographic software. An important feature of this language is the design of a novel type system introducing native types such as predefined sized vectors, matrices and bit strings, residue classes modulo an integer, finite fields and finite field extensions, allowing for extensive static validation of source code. We present the formalisation, validation and implementation of this type system.

  • 405.
    Bardici, Minavere
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    ICT Design and Users’ Affect, Cognition and Creativity2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to investigate how ICT design relates to users’ affect, cognition and creativity in task performance. More specifically, the intent is to highlight how ICT design can elicit positive effective states and enhance cognitive abilities, including creative thinking in task activity within distance learning. In addition to this is to emphasize the synergies between ICT design, affect, cognition, and creativity from as well theoretical as empirical perspectives. To achieve the objective of this study, a qualitative empirical method was used. A survey questionnaire was chosen as a collection data technique. As far as analysis is concerned, phenomenology analytic strategy was espoused to explore how the participants perceive the phenomenon under inquiry. As for theory, central themes were selected for review given the synergy between them and their implication for the topic. They include: ICT; design; ICT design aspects: aesthetics, functionality, and usability; affect and cognition; and creativity; as well as the synergies between these concepts. Key findings highlight the role of affective quality of ICT design aesthetics in eliciting positive affective states among users when they acquire and use new ICT products or services regardless of their motivational needs. Most users consider aesthetics, usability, and functionality as design aspects but they tend to differ in ranking them depending on how they emotionally perceive them. Simplicity in ICT design is perceived as pleasurable aesthetic value. Further, natural colors are favored most by ICT users and positively affect their emotions so do the other aesthetical features associated with computers, software graphics, and web design. Using ICT inspire users creativity in task performance through what design affective qualities induce as positive affect in them in addition to software usability and functionality depending on the user. There are some synergies between design aesthetics, affect, cognition, and creativity. Moreover, ICT design can, depending on additional factors, ease and help users’ to carry out complex task and if software applications are skillfully used, they can help stimulate users’ creativity in task performance because of the built-in capabilities that are intended to enhance cognitive and emotional abilities of users. In addition, users differ on the elements they focus on when interacting with ICT depending on their inclination. Human attentional capacity and intensity can play a role in creativity. Crystallization of creativity can be triggered when various ICT design elements are perceived in a useful way.

  • 406.
    Bardici, Nick
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Skarin, Björn
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Röstigenkänning genom Hidden Markov Model: En implementering av teorin på DSP2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master degree project is how to implement a speech recognition system on a DSK – ADSP-BF533 EZ-KIT LITE REV 1.5 based on the theory of the Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The implementation is based on the theory in the master degree project Speech Recognition using Hidden Markov Model by Mikael Nilsson and Marcus Ejnarsson, MEE-01-27. The work accomplished in the project is by reference to the theory, implementing a MFCC, Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient function, a training function, which creates Hidden Markov Models of specific utterances and a testing function, testing utterances on the models created by the training-function. These functions where first created in MatLab. Then the test-function where implemented on the DSK. An evaluation of the implementation is performed.

  • 407. Barkan, Anna
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Daniel
    Postel, Olaf
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sustainable Product Development: A Case of an SME in the Sealing Industry2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our study we provide a case study of implementing sustainability aspects into the product development process of a Small and Medium Enterprise (SME). The objective of the study is to, together with the company, co-create a product development process that represents a step towards sustainability. For this a tool called the Method for Sustainable Product Development (MSPD) is used. The methodology of the study includes mapping the current product development process in the organization, adapting the MSPD based on criteria set by the organization, implementing the MSPD into the product development process of the organization in a co-creative way and finally applying the new product development process to a test case within the organization. Various participatory action techniques including workshops and interviews are used to ensure co-creation of the results. It was found that raising questions on sustainability aspects in product development can be seen as a first step of an organizational move towards sustainability. With this the MSPD worked as intended. The practical application showed that further steps were necessary. Particularly additional education in sustainability and theinvolvement of entities in the organization external to the product development process were found as crucial next steps.

  • 408.
    Barke, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Are we ready for Agile Development?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the rapidly changing market of today, companies need to be responsive and react quickly to changes in both their competitors’ behaviour but also to changes in their own technical environment. In this thesis I have examined the agile characteristics of a number of companies in Stockholm, with focus on three agile concepts; Scrum, eXtreme Programming and Test Driven Development. The work started off by a prestudy, in which I have identified the criteria that a company needs to fulfil in order to be considered agile. This resulted in four main categories of characteristics; Quality, Flexibility, Communication and Competence. After doing the prestudy, these characteristics were investigated through a combination of a quantitative study and a case study. While the results mostly lean towards agile behaviour rather than non agile, it was shown that a lot of work still remains, for instance regarding improvements in the communications area, and also in the way these companies apply the agile methodologies examined.

  • 409. Barney, Sebastian
    Perspectives on Software and their Priorities: Balancing Conflicting Stakeholder Views2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable development of a software product depends on a number of groups working together to achieve a common goal. However, each of the groups interacts with the product in different ways, and can have conflicting aims and objectives. For example, developers trying to correct issues in the software architecture, which will impact future releases of the product, can be stopped by a project manager who is charged with delivering a release on time and within budget. While the functional requirements of a software product are usually documented, there are a number of other investments in software development that are not always as explicitly agreed upon but are still essential to a product's long-term success. The major investment types include software product quality -- a main control variable in software development, and intellectual capital (IC) -- being the key input and tool used in software development. As management requires measurement, it is necessary understand the priorities placed on investment options by the various groups involved in the development of a software product. The objective of this thesis is to develop a method capable of both determining the priorities of different groups, and the level of alignment between these groups in terms of their priorities. Evolving the method from a study into the values used to select requirements for a release of software, Ericsson supported the development of a methodology to determine and compare the priorities of different groups for software product quality, and IC. The method elicited the required information from a series of case studies to build up a picture of the priorities placed on major investment options and constraints -- features, quality, IC, time and cost. The results highlight strengths, and areas for improvement -- through the identification of differing priorities and ambiguities in management of different aspects studied. In conducting this research, systematic biases in the selection of requirements appear to be occurring, adding an objective to understand how bias impacts decision making in a requirements engineering context. This thesis provides a method that determines the priorities on the level of investment on different options in the development of software products. It is concluded that people involved in the development of software need to be aligned on issues of software product quality as these priorities set expectations. The same was not found true for issues of IC, where groups can complete tasks without negatively impacting others, as long as the organisation works effectively as a single entity. On the issue of biases in the prioritisation of these aspects, prospect theory is found to apply to requirements selection in an academic experiment -- suggesting people will prefer functionality over software product quality, and to meet the known requirements of customers over predicting general market requirements.

  • 410. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Hu, Ganglan
    Wohlin, Claes
    Creating Software Product Value in China2009In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459 , Vol. 26, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China has become a formidable player and continues to grow strongly in what has become a dynamic global market for software development. In this highly competitive environment it has never been more difficult or important to maximize the creation of software product value. But each key stakeholder group – purchasers, users, software managers and developers – has a different notion of value when looking at a software product. As the value of a software product is largely derived through the requirements it fulfils, we looked at the criteria used to select and prioritise requirements for a release of software, and the perspectives that motivate them. The value of a software product is largely derived through the requirements it fulfils. To help understand how value is created we looked at the criteria used to select and prioritise requirements for a release of software, and the perspectives that motivate them. We studied three groups of software development companies operating in China – Chinese companies with a domestic market, Chinese companies with an international market, and western companies operating in China. The results were similar for all three groups, except After-sales Support was a significantly greater concern for Chinese companies with an international market.

  • 411. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Product Management Challenge: Creating Software Product Value through Requirements Selection2008In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 576-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for a software company to maximize value creation for a given investment. The purpose of requirements engineering activities is to add business value that is accounted for in terms of return on investment of a software product. This paper provides insight into the release planning processes used in the software industry to create software product value, by presenting three case studies. It examines how IT professionals perceive value creation through requirements engineering and how the release planning process is conducted to create software product value. It also presents to what degree the major stakeholders' perspectives are represented in the decision-making process. Our findings show that the client and market base of the software product represents the most influential group in the decision to implement specific requirements. This is reflected both in terms of deciding the processes followed and the decision-making criteria applied when selecting requirements for the product. Furthermore, the management of software product value is dependant on the context in which the product exists. Factors, such as the maturity of the product, the marketplace in which it exists, and the development tools and methods available, influence the criteria that decide whether a requirement is included in a specific project or release.

  • 412. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    A product management challenge: Creating software product value through requirements selection2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for a software company to maximize value creation for a given investment. The purpose of requirements engineering activities is to add business value that is accounted for in terms of return on investment of a software product. This paper provides insight into the release planning processes used in the software industry to create software product value, by presenting three case studies. It examines how IT professionals perceive value creation through requirements engineering and how the release planning process is conducted to create software product value. It also presents to what degree the major stakeholders' perspectives are represented in the decision-making process. Our findings show that the client and market base of the software product represents the most influential group in the decision to implement specific requirements. This is reflected both in terms of deciding the processes followed and the decision-making criteria applied when selecting requirements for the product. Furthermore, the management of software product value is dependant on the context in which the product exists. Factors, such as the maturity of the product, the marketplace in which it exists, and the development tools and methods available, influence the criteria that decide whether a requirement is included in a specific project or release. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 413. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Quest for a Silver Bullet: Creating Software Product Value through Requirements Selection2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 414. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    The Relative Importance of Aspects of Intellectual Capital for Software Companies2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intellectual capital (IC) is both the key input and tool used in the development of software today. It covers the value provided to an organisation by the employees, the processes and products that support the organisation, and the knowledge held in the relationships between the organisation and external parties – covering human capital, structural capital, and relationship capital respectively. This paper presents a method that seeks to understand the level of alignment between the different success-critical stakeholders in the importance of different aspects of intellectual capital. The method is applied in a case study and provides a number of interesting insights, with the authors concluding that the groups do not necessarily need to be aligned as each groups has a different informational role within the organisation to fulfil.

  • 415.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Khurum, Mahvish
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Improving Students With Rubric-Based Self-Assessment and Oral Feedback2012In: IEEE Transactions on Education, ISSN 0018-9359, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 319-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rubrics and oral feedback are approaches to help students improve performance and meet learning outcomes. However, their effect on the actual improvement achieved is inconclusive. This paper evaluates the effect of rubrics and oral feedback on student learning outcomes. An experiment was conducted in a software engineering course on requirements engineering, using the two approaches in course assignments. Both approaches led to statistically significant improvements, though no material improvement (i.e., a change by more than one grade) was achieved. The rubrics led to a significant decrease in the number of complaints and questions regarding grades.

  • 416.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Mohankumar, Varun
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Software quality across borders: Three case studies on company internal alignment2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 20-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software quality issues are commonly reported when offshoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Objective: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholder groups within a company on the priority given to aspects of software quality developed as part of an offshoring relationship. Furthermore, the study aims to identify factors impacting the levels of alignment identified. Method: Three case studies were conducted, with representatives of key stakeholder groups ranking aspects of software quality in a hierarchical cumulative exercise. The results are analysed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients and inertia. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding of the issues impacting alignment. Results: Various levels of alignment were found between the various groups. The reasons for misalignment were found to include cultural factors, control of quality in the development process, short-term versus long-term orientations, understanding of cost-benefits of quality improvements, communication and coordination. Conclusions: The factors that negatively affect alignment can vary greatly between different cases. The work emphasises the need for greater support to align company internal success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when offshoring software development.

  • 417.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Barney, Hamish
    Software quality trade-offs: A systematic map2012In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 651-662Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality is complex with over investment, under investment and the interplay between aspects often being overlooked as many researchers aim to advance individual aspects of software quality. Aim: This paper aims to provide a consolidated overview the literature that addresses trade-offs between aspects of software product quality. Method: A systematic literature map is employed to provide an overview of software quality trade-off literature in general. Specific analysis is also done of empirical literature addressing the topic. Results: The results show a wide range of solution proposals being considered. However, there is insufficient empirical evidence to adequately evaluate and compare these proposals. Further a very large vocabulary has been found to describe software quality. Conclusion: Greater empirical research is required to sufficiently evaluate and compare the wide range of solution proposals. This will allow researchers to focus on the proposals showing greater signs of success and better support industrial practitioners.

  • 418. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Alignment of Software Product Quality Goals in Two Outsourcing Relationships2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Issues with software product quality are commonly reported when organisations engage in outsourcing relationships. To address this issue, value-based software engineering literature emphasises the need for all success-critical stakeholder groups to work towards a mutually agreed goal. Aim: This paper presents a case study that aims to compare and contrast the priority two groups place on software product quality — stakeholders internal to the development organisation, and stakeholders from outsourcing relationships. Method: A model of software product quality was developed and used for this study based on ISO 9126 standard. Questionnaires were collected from 38 representatives of the two key stakeholder groups, in which each person rates the relative importance of aspects of software product quality using the hierarchical cumulative voting (HCV) technique. The results of these two groups were then analysed and compared. Results: The results show the stakeholders priorities to be a merging of the priorities from both the software development organsiation, and the firm providing the outsourced services. Further, stakeholders from outsourced relationships had greater difficulty define an ideal future balance of software product qualities. Conclusions: One of the keys to success when outsourcing is to ensure both the internal and external groups understand the needs of each other — and ensure they can work towards a sufficiently compatible goal. It may be necessary to change the way work is outsourced to align the goals of both firms to be compatible.

  • 419. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software Product Quality: Ensuring a Common Goal2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software qualities are in many cases tacit and hard to measure. Thus, there is a potential risk that they get lower priority than deadlines, cost and functionality. Yet software qualities impact customers, profits and even developer efficiency. This paper presents a method to evaluate the priority of software qualities in an industrial context. The method is applied in an exploratory case study, where the ISO 9126 model for software quality is combined with Theory-W to create a process for evaluating the alignment between success- critical stakeholder groups in the area of software product quality. The results of the case study using this tool is then presented and discussed. It is shown that the method provides valuable information about software qualities.

  • 420. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Balancing Software Product Investments2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term sustainability of a software product depends on more than developing features. Priorities are placed on aspects that support the development of software, like software product quality (eg. ISO 9126), project constraints -- time and cost, and even the development of intellectual capital (IC). A greater focus on any one aspect takes priority from another, but as each aspects delivers a different type of value managers have trouble comparing and balancing these aspects. This paper presents a method to help determine the balance between key priorities in the software development process. The method is applied to a new case study, that also combines with results from previous studies. The results show it is possible to compare features, quality, time, cost and IC in a comprehensive way, with the case study showing that participants perceive a change from a shorter-term product perspective to a longer-term organisation beneficial to the business.

  • 421. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Offshore insourcing: A case study on software quality alignment2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality issues are commonly reported when off shoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Aim: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholders on aspects of software quality for two products developed as part of an offshore in sourcing arrangement. The study further aims to explain the levels of alignment identified. Method: Representatives of key stakeholder groups for both products ranked aspects of software quality. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding. Results: Low levels of alignment were found between the groups studied. This is associated with insufficiently defined quality requirements, a culture that does not question management and conflicting temporal reflections on the product's quality. Conclusion: The work emphasizes the need for greater support to align success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when off shoring software development

  • 422.
    Barry, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    ROOTS: What could emerge out of thinking and acting networked roots as design?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    ROOTS – What Could Emerge Out of Thinking and Acting Networked ROOTS as Design?

     

    This bachelor’s thesis uses ROOTS as a method designed to engage in both thinking and acting inside networks, by creating a hydroponic gardening network. As a designer one engages in many different fields of design. The most complicated design is designing networks with function, interlaced and embedded in everyday life. This is known as accountability, to be accountable to ones decisions and to act on many perspectives when designing. Accountability is designing from somewhere, and being aware of where that somewhere stems from. ROOTS visualizes accountability in a network, as accountability entails thinking and acting inside a network, and by doing so one actively engages in thinking about futures and design as a whole. When asking oneself what could emerge out of thinking and acting networked ROOTS as design, one begins to speculate in matters of vast networked complexity. From observation using methods such as ANT, the technologic extension T-ANT and also conducting a study in messiness, information is created and from the information, valuing becomes present, from valuing knowledge grows, from knowledge comes accountability and the network creates another cycle of ROOTS.

     

    Keywords: Design, Network, Accountability, Complexity

  • 423.
    Barysau, Mikalai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Developers' performance analysis based on code review data: How to perform comparisons of different groups of developers2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays more and more IT companies switch to the distributed development model. This trend has a number of advantages and disadvantages, which are studied by researchers through different aspects of the modern code development. One of such aspects is code review, which is used by many companies and produces a big amount of data. A number of studies describe different data mining and data analysis approaches, which are based on a link between code review data and performance. According to these studies analysis of the code review data can give a good insight to the development performance and help software companies to detect a number of performance issues and improve the quality of their code.

    The main goal of this Thesis was to collect reported knowledge about the code review data analysis and implement a solution, which will help to perform such analysis in a real industrial setting.

    During the performance of the research the author used multiple research techniques, such as Snowballing literature review, Case study and Semi-structured interviews.

    The results of the research contain a list of code review data metrics, extracted from the literature and a software tool for collecting and visualizing data.

    The performed literature review showed that among the literature sources, related to the code review, relatively small amount of sources are related to the topic of the Thesis, which exposes a field for a future research. Application of the found metrics showed that most of the found metrics are possible to use in the context of the studied environment. Presentation of the results and interviews with company's representatives showed that the graphic plots are useful for observing trends and correlations in development of company's development sites and help the company to improve its performance and decision making process.

  • 424.
    Basa, Srinivas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Ganji, Naveen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Enhanced NMS Tool Architecture for Discovery and Monitoring of Nodes2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis work intends to provide an architecture for discovery and monitoring of nodes in a network with improved performance and security. The proposed work addresses limitations identified within the scope of this thesis. The limitations are identified by analyzing some of the better existing monitoring tools in the market with the use of different protocols. The proposed work use different protocols depending on the situation of the problem that exists in a network. Analyze the existing network monitoring tools, by performing metrics and overcoming the limitations. We proposed a new architecture motivated from traditional network monitoring tools with subtle changes. Proposed architecture is also conceptually evaluated for its viability.

  • 425.
    Basit, Syed Abdul
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Malik, Omar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Planning and Analysis of Knowledge Intensive Enterprise Resource Planning Systems2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ERP software and applications have become basic requirement of almost every organization in order to compete with each other and in time constraint. In order to develop an efficient application, project planning and analysis play very important role in better understanding of the problem domain and to provide a risk free solution. There are many different approaches which software developers used to develop the systems. These traditional approaches have some drawbacks and constraints. Either these are ad-hoc basis or have some fixed patterns and rules. We discussed all these techniques and suggest that planning and analysis of ERP application during its development can be done by applying more appropriate knowledge engineering commonKADS model. CommonKADS is a structured approach, It comprises of different model suites. Thesis presents that by using commonKADS model for project planning and analysis, real problem domain and efficient solution can be identified. Also domain process is identified. Tasks related to each process in the domain are identified. Knowledge assets related to each task are identified. These features help in defining real knowledge specification. In this way, ERP applications can be made knowledge based. ERP systems were introduced to solve different organizational problems and provide integrated structure. Although ERP packages offer advantages to enterprises, they have not achieved many of their anticipated benefits. Autonomous and heterogeneous applications co-exist in companies with ERP systems and integration problem having not been addressed. This thesis seeks to make some suggestions to this area by studying and analyzing ERP problems, through mapping commonKADS methodology in a case study. Thesis in start, presents an overview about ERP applications, Knowledge Engineering and commonKADS methodology. In the end, thesis presents our contribution a case study ―online courses Registration Portal for BTH which shows that planning and analysis of ERP applications by using commonKADS methodology helps in reaching knowledge based and more accurate solutions.

  • 426.
    Baskaravel, Yogaraj
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Implementation and evaluation of global router for Information-Centric Networking2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. A huge majority of the current Internet traffic is information dissemination. Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is a future networking paradigm that focuses on global level information dissemination. In ICN, the communication is defined in terms of requesting and providing Named Data Objects (NDO). NetInf is a future networking architecture based on Information-Centric Networking principles. Objectives. In this thesis, a global routing solution for ICN has been implemented. The authority part of NDO's name is mapped to a set of routing hints each with a priority value. Multiple NDOs can share the same authority part and thus the first level aggregation is provided. The routing hints are used to forward a request for a NDO towards a suitable copy of the NDO. The second level aggregation is achieved by aggregating high priority routing hints on low priority routing hints. The performance and scalability of the routing implementation are evaluated with respect to global ICN requirements. Furthermore, some of the notable challenges in implementing global ICN routing are identified. Methods. The NetInf global routing solution is implemented by extending NEC's NetInf Router Platform (NNRP). A NetInf testbed is built over the Internet using the extended NNRP implementation. Performance measurements have been taken from the NetInf testbed. The performance measurements have been discussed in detail in terms of routing scalability. Results. The performance measurements show that hop-by-hop transport has significant impact on the overall request forwarding. A notable amount of time is taken for extracting and inserting binary objects such as routing hints at each router. Conclusions. A more suitable hop-by-hop transport mechanism can be evaluated and used with respect to global ICN requirements. The NetInf message structure can be redefined so that binary objects such as routing hints can be transmitted more efficiently. Apart from that, the performance of the global routing implementation appears to be reasonable. As the NetInf global routing solution provides two levels of aggregation, it can be scalable as well.

  • 427.
    Bassey, Isong
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Adedigba, Adetayo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Structural Design of an RFID-Based System: a way of solving some election problems in Africa2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis work, two major problems confronting elections system in Africa; multiple registrations and diversion/shortages of election materials, taking the Nigerian content into consideration is addressed. These problems have been described as being so corrosive in nature such that ICTs in the form of eVoting if fully implemented will only compound or exacerbate the current situation due to poor ICTs awareness in the continent. However, in order to contain these problems with some form of ICTs tools along side the traditional election system, we proposed an RFID-based framework where voter’s identification and election materials are RFID-based. We believe this will enhance effective and efficient identification and tracking. Operations similar to the chain supply and inventory management are utilized. Also benefits resulting from the adoption of this framework; national ID card, national register, etc. are addressed.

  • 428. Bathelt, Jens
    et al.
    Jönsson, Anders
    How to Implement the Virtual Machine Concept Using xPC Target2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of the historical background of the virtual machine, containing a real control, a machine simulation and a 3D machine visualisation. This setup enables realistic system simulations, since the simulation input comes from a real control. The first known implementation of the virtual machine using xPC Target is described with an existing water jet cutting machine as an example. MathWorks products offer all necessary software for the presented setup, except the interface for the actual speed value from the simulated incremental encoder to the control. The unique xPC driver implementation, as a noninlined C-MEX S-Function, is presented at the end of this paper. The successful implementation of the virtual machine demonstrates the feasibility of the presented approach.

  • 429. Bayer, J.
    et al.
    Eisenbarth, M.
    Lehner, T.
    Petersen, Kai
    Service Engineering Methodology2008In: Semantic Service Provisioning / [ed] Kuropka, D.; Tröger, P.; Weske, S. Staab and M., Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2008, p. 185-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 430.
    Bayer, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Widenfors, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Information Hiding: Steganografic Content in Streaming Media2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, information hiding has focused on carriers like images and audio files. A problem with these carriers is that they do not support hiding in new types of network-based services. Nowadays, these services often arise as a consequence of the increasingly demand for higher connection speed to the Internet. By introducing streaming media as a carrier of hidden information, hiding in new network-based services is supported. The main purposes with this thesis are to investigate how information can be hidden in streaming media and how it measures up compared to images and audio files. In order to evaluate the approach, we have developed a prototype and used it as a proof of concept. This prototype hides information in some of the TCP/IP header fields and is used to collect experimental data as well. As reference, measurements have been collected from other available carriers of hidden information. In some cases, the results of these experiments show that the TCP/IP header is a good carrier of information. Its performance is outstanding and well suited for hiding information quickly. The tests showed that the capacity is slightly worse though.

  • 431.
    Becker, Christoph
    et al.
    University of Toronto, CAN.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mohanani, Rahul
    Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IND.
    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander
    University of Macedonia, GRE.
    Temporal discounting in technical debt: How do software practitioners discount the future?2019In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Technical Debt, TechDebt 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 23-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical Debt management decisions always imply a trade-off among outcomes at different points in time. In such intertemporal choices, distant outcomes are often valued lower than close ones, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting. Technical Debt research largely develops prescriptive approaches for how software engineers should make such decisions. Few have studied how they actually make them. This leaves open central questions about how software practitioners make decisions. This paper investigates how software practitioners discount uncertain future outcomes and whether they exhibit temporal discounting. We adopt experimental methods from intertemporal choice, an active area of research. We administered an online questionnaire to 33 developers from two companies in which we presented choices between developing a feature and making a longer-term investment in architecture. The results show wide-spread temporal discounting with notable differences in individual behavior. The results are consistent with similar studies in consumer behavior and raise a number of questions about the causal factors that influence temporal discounting in software engineering. As the first empirical study on intertemporal choice in SE, the paper establishes an empirical basis for understanding how software developers approach intertemporal choice and provides a blueprint for future studies. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 432.
    Beder, Paweł
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    LANGUAGE LEARNING VIA AN ANDROID AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEM2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented Reality (AR) can be described as one of possible steps between real world and fully virtual reality. Into this mixed reality we can make an overlay with virtual objects onto the real world typically by capturing camera images in real-time to produce a new layer to the environment with which we can interact. Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) is a term used when equipment through which we achieve AR is small in size and typically easy to carry e.g. a smartphone or a tablet. The concept of using AR in facilitating learning and improving its quality seems to attract more attention in the academic world in recent years. One of the areas that receive much attention is AR language learning. In this thesis an experiment on a group of 20 people was conducted to answer the question: “Is MAR language learning system a viable solution for language learning?” For the purpose of the experiment an AR Language Learning Tool was designed for Android smartphones. This AR Language Learning Tool facilitated vocabulary learning by displaying 3D objects along with their spelling and providing audio of pronunciation. Participants were divided into an equal control group and test group. The control group learned new vocabulary through classic flashcards while the test group used the previously designed AR Language Learning Tool. The Vocabulary Knowledge Scale questionnaires were provided for both groups right after learning and one week later. By performing statistical analysis with Student’s t-test on gathered data it was discovered that there is a positive improvement in long term recall rate in the AR Language Learning Tool group when compared with the flashcards learning group. No difference was found in short term recall rate between both groups. Participants also provided feedback about their quality of experience and enthusiasm for new learning methods. Their answers were very positive and provided proof that mobile AR is a viable method of learning vocabulary.

  • 433.
    Bednarz, Andrzej
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Transformation of Rational Unified Process analysis model to design model according to architectural patterns2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Applying Rational Unified Process (RUP) in a project means to develop a set of models before the system could be implemented. The models depict the essentials of the system from requirements to detailed design. They facilitate getting a system that has appropriate and rich documentation (therefore highly maintainable) and addresses user needs. However, creation of the models may cause overheads since a lot of work has to be put to elaborate the artefacts. In this paper a method that makes RUP more efficient is proposed. The method makes use of the fact that every subsequent model is developed basing on the previous model. In other words, models are successively transformed from requirements up to executable code. In particular, design model bases on an analysis model. The proposed method applies automatic model transformation from an analysis model to a design model. Firstly, an approach for performing automatic transformation is chosen. Secondly, a tool applying this approach is implemented. Finally, the transformation tool is tested and evaluated in an empirical study. The results show that automation of model transformation may be beneficial, and therefore can help in getting better systems in shorten time.

  • 434.
    Beer, Armin
    et al.
    BVA and Beer Test Consulting, AUT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Measuring and improving testability of system requirements in an industrial context by applying the goal question metric approach2018In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society , 2018, p. 25-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is subject to two basic constraints, namely cost and quality. The cost depends on the efficiency of the testing activities as well as their quality and testability. The author's practical experience in large-scale systems shows that if the requirements are adapted iteratively or the architecture is altered, testability decreases. However, what is often lacking is a root cause analysis of the testability degradations and the introduction of improvement measures during software development. In order to introduce agile practices in the rigid strategy of the V-model, good testability of software artifacts is vital. So testability is also the bridgehead towards agility. In this paper, we report on a case study in which we measure and improve testability on the basis of the Goal Question Metric Approach. © 2018 ACM.

  • 435.
    Begnert, Joel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Tilljander, Rasmus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Combining Regional Time Stepping With Two-Scale PCISPH Method2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In computer graphics, realistic looking fluid is often desired. Simulating realistic fluids is a time consuming and computationally expensive task, therefore, much research has been devoted to reducing the simulation time while maintaining the realism. Two of the more recent optimization algorithms within particle based simulations are two-scale simulation and regional time stepping (RTS). Both of them are based on the predictive-corrective incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (PCISPH) algorithm.

    Objectives. These algorithms improve on two separate aspects of PCISPH, two-scale simulation reduces the number of particles and RTS focuses computational power on regions of the fluid where it is most needed. In this paper we have developed and investigated the performance of an algorithm combining them, utilizing both optimizations.

    Methods. We implemented both of the base algorithms, as well as PCISPH, before combining them. Therefore we had equal conditions for all algorithms when we performed our experiments, which consisted of measuring the time it took to run each algorithm in three different scene configurations.

    Results. Results showed that our combined algorithm on average was faster than the other three algorithms. However, our implementation of two-scale simulation gave results inconsistent with the original paper, showing a slower time than even PCISPH. This invalidates the results for our combined algorithm since it utilizes the same implementation.

    Conclusions. We see that our combined algorithm has potential to speed up fluid simulations, but since the two-scale implementation was incorrect, our results are inconclusive.

  • 436. Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Nemati, Farhang
    Nolte, Thomas
    Grahn, Håkan
    Towards an efficient approach for resource sharing in real-time multiprocessor systems2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting resource sharing in multiprocessor architectures is one of the major problems that limit the potential performance benefits of using such architectures for real-time systems. Many approaches and algorithms have been proposed to support resource sharing, however, most of them impose either high blocking times on tasks or require a large memory allocation. In this paper we investigate the possibility of combining the lock-based approaches and wait-free approaches (using multiple buffers) in order to decrease both the blocking times that may affect the schedulability of tasks and the required memory. To achieve this, we propose a solution based on evaluating the maximum allowed blocking time on each task according to the schedulability analysis, and then find the minimum memory allocation for each resource that limits the blocking times on tasks to be less than the maximum allowed blocking times.

  • 437.
    Bejjenki, Praneeth Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Goraya, Muneeb Ahmed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Moid, Syed Fovad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    OPTIMIZED FUZZY BASED POWER CONTROL STRATEGY IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS IN MULTI FADING PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENTS2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we have considered a cognitive radio network (CRN) with a pair of primary user (PU) and secondary user (SU) in spectrum sharing networks in path-loss and without path-loss propagation environments under identically distributed m-Nakagami fading channel. The thesis consists of three parts. In the first part we propose an optimized Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) based power control strategy in cognitive radio networks (CRN) in spectrum sharing network in without path-loss propagation environment. The second part proposes an optimized Takagi-Sugeno FIS based power control strategy in cognitive radio networks in spectrum sharing network in path-loss propagation environment. For without path-loss propagation environment the proposed FIS takes the interference channel gain ratio between SU transmitter (CUtx) and PU receiver (PUrx) and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) towards PU transmitter (PUtx) as antecedents and outputs the power scaling factor for SU. For path-loss propagation environment the proposed FIS takes the relative distance ratio between CUtx and PUrx and SNR towards PUtx as antecedents and outputs the power scaling factor for SU. The output power scaling factor is used to vary the transmit power of SU such that it does not degrade the quality of service (QoS) of PU link. The third part presents an implementation of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission technique in CRN. The OFDM technique has intellectual attractive features like coping with the inter symbol interference (ISI), while providing increasing spectral efficiency and improved performance. This can be used in emergency conditions where transmission requires reliability and high data rate. The OFDM transmission technique is applied towards SU transmitter in CRN, which enables SU to utilize the spectrum efficiently under various fading environments. Spectrum sharing networks in with and without path-loss propagation environments and OFDM transmission were tested for bit error rate (BER) performance after fading effects from m-Nakagami fading channel. We conclude that by applying Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) based power control strategy we can improve the BER performance of PU when compared with no power control strategy and with other fuzzy based power control technique. OFDM transmission technique gives us better data rate and slightly improved BER in CRN hence making it suitable for use in emergency conditions.

  • 438. Bell, Tim
    et al.
    Aspvall, Bengt
    Sorting algorithms as special cases of a priority queue sort2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers an exercise for revisiting the main sorting algorithms after they have been taught to students. This is done in a way that emphasizes the relationships between them, and shows how considering abstraction and extreme cases can lead to the generation of new algorithms. A number of authors (including textbook authors) have noted particular relationships between algorithms, such as an uneven split in merge sort being equivalent to insertion sort. In this paper we use a flexible priority queue, the d-heap, to derive three common sorting algorithms. We combine this with using a BST as a priority queue, plus prior observations in the literature, to show strong relationships between the main sorting algorithms that appear in textbooks. In the process students are able to revisit a number of algorithms and data structures and explore elegant relationships between them. This approach can also lead to exercises and exam questions that go beyond desk-checking to evaluate students' understanding of these algorithms.

  • 439. Bell, Tim
    et al.
    Wada, Ben T
    Kanemunu, Susumu
    Xia, Xie
    Lee, WonGyu
    Choi, SookKyoung
    Aspvall, Bengt
    , Anna Wingkvist
    Making Computer Science Activities Accessible for the Languages and Cultures of Japan, Korea, China and Sweden2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When teaching material is translated into another language, text-based examples can lose their significance, analogies may be meaningless in the local culture, and there may even be problems with physical access to the material. We consider principles for addressing these issues so that teaching examples can be made accessible to a diverse range of languages and cultures. We present a case study of the adaptation of a free resource for school outreach and lecture demonstrations (csunplugged.org), looking at issues encountered for Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Swedish translations. These represent a large range of languages, types of alphabets and cultures.

  • 440.
    Bengtsson, Dan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Test Process Evaluation by Combining ODC and Test Technique Effectiveness2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses the importance of test process evaluation in order to improve a test model and to provide developer- and management feedback. The report results in a test evaluation framework, developed in cooperation with a department at Ericsson Software Technology in Karlsrona. The framework is a result of discussions with the developers regarding performed testing, studying defect types from past projects and by analyzing the result from a small survey answered by some of the developers at Ericsson. The overall project aim was to evaluate performed testing in order to improve the test model. This requires a good insight of the test process, which is provided by the developed test evaluation framework. The test process is visualized by extracting test process data, making it possible to achieve the project aim. The project aim can be divided into the three following areas: Firstly to evaluate if the current test model is followed as expected, for example are all test techniques used according to the test model? Secondly to evaluate how well the test model fulfills predefined expectations, i.e. is a defect detected with the expected test technique and in the expected test phase? Finally to evaluate if there are any problematic defects that should receive extra attention during a project such as if one or several defect types occurs more frequently than others? The framework is based on another framework, Orthogonal Defect Classification [Chillarege92], combined with the research area Test Technique Effectiveness. The aim of this combination was to support the developed framework. Further a specific part of the framework is focusing on developer- and management feedback.

  • 441.
    Bengtsson, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Hansson, Emma
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    DRM: Digital Rights Management2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, technological developments have led to digital files being more easily distributed, for example through Napster (a file sharing service on the Internet). In order to manage and control the distribution of digital files, a new concept has been developed, called DRM (Digital Rights Management). The purpose is to set every single file with individual rights that are extremely hard to break, and consequently make people pay and use the files legally. The file will then be fully protected from intrusion and alteration until the set rights expire. The goal of this thesis is to look into and summarise DRM of today. We have concentrated on the mobile DRM market, and especially mobile phones. Especially the solutions/applications that already exist and their functionality and properties, but also requirements regarding security levels, compatibility etc. We have also added predictions of the near future, ours as well as others. Existing applications for DRM are well made but few are constructed for mobile phones. Mobile phones will however be a good and secure platform for DRM. At present there is no DRM application inserted in mobile phones in Europe. The third generation (3G) network will push the progress with the capability of broader bandwidth, with capacity of downloading more content to the phone. Since the mobile phone software is embedded and the mobile phones are within a trusted network, the security level of a DRM application in a mobile phone can be discussed. A lower level of security would make it easier for managing content but also open up the market for hackers that wish to trespass. With a lower level of security you always have to consider the consequences and often it creates more problems than it solves. We believe the DRM market and its value will increase exponentially over the next few years. The number of players on the mobile Internet DRM market will be less than on the Internet DRM market, due to the complexity of getting applications into the phone. The latter will consist of many more players, and remain fragmented, since it is an open market.

  • 442.
    Bengtsson, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Thriving at the Edge of Chaos2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis two different worldviews are compared: a mechanistic, and an organic worldview. The way we think the world and the nature work reflects on how we think organizations work, or how they ought to work. The mechanistic worldview has dominated our way of thinking since the seventeenth century, and it compares the world with a machine. The organic worldview could use a number of different metaphors, but the one addressed in this thesis is complexity theory. Complexity theory is related to chaos theory and is concerned with complex adaptive systems (cas). Complex adaptive systems exist everywhere and are systems such as the human immune system, economies, and ecosystems. What complexity theory tries to do is to understand these systems—how they arise, how they function and how order emerge in them. When looking at complex adaptive systems you can’t just look at the different parts. You must take a more holistic view and look at the whole and the interaction of the parts. If you just look at the parts you will miss the emergent properties that have emerged as the system has self-organized. One prominent aspect of these systems is that they don’t have any central authority, but somehow order do arise. In relation to organizations, complexity theory has something to say about almost all aspects of organizations: from what kind of leadership is needed, and how teams should be organized to the physical structure of the organization. To understand what complexity theory is and how to relate that to (software developing) organizations is the main focus of this thesis. Scrum is an agile and lightweight process which can be applied on development projects in general, but have been used in such diverse examples as software development projects, marketing programs, and business process reengineering (BPR) initiatives. In this thesis Scrum is used as an example of how to apply complexity theory to organizations. The result of the thesis showed that Scrum is highly influenced and compatible with complexity theory, which implies that complexity theory is of some use in software development. However, there are more work to be done to determine how effective it is, how to introduce it into organizations, and to explore more specific implementations. This master thesis should give the reader a good understanding of what complexity theory is, some specific issues to consider when applying complexity theory on organizations, and some specific examples of how to apply complexity theory on organizations.

  • 443. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Architecture-Level Modifiability Analysis2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost, quality and lead-time are three main concerns in software engineering projects. The quality of developed software has traditionally been evaluated on completed systems. Evaluating the product quality at completion introduces a great risk of wasting effort on software products with inadequate system qualities. It is the objective of this thesis to define and study methods for assessment, evaluation and prediction of software systems’ modifiability characteristics based on their architecture designs. Since software architecture design is made early in the development, architecture evaluation helps detect inadequate designs and thus reduces the risk of implementing systems of insufficient quality. We present a method for architecture-level analysis of modifiability (ALMA) that analyses the modifiability potential of a software system based on its software architecture design. The method is scenario-based and either compares architecture candidates, assesses the risk associated with modifications of the architecture, or predicts the effort needed to implement anticipated modifications. The modification prediction results in three values; a prediction of the modification effort and the predicted best- and worst-case effort for the same system and change scenario profile. In this way the prediction method provides a frame-of-reference that supports the architect in the decision whether the modifiability is acceptable or not. The method is based on the experiences and results from one controlled experiment and seven case-studies, where five case studies are part of this thesis. The experiment investigates different ways to organize the scenario elicitation and finds that a group of individually prepared persons produce better profiles than individuals or unprepared groups.

  • 444. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Design and Evaluation of Software Architecture1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge in software development is to develop software with the right quality levels. The main problem is not to know if a project is technically feasible concerning functionality, but if a solution exists that meet the software quality requirements. It is therefore desired to get an early indication of the qualities of the resulting software. Software architecture is concerned with what modules are used to compose a system and how these modules are related to each other, i.e. the structure of system. The software architecture of a system sets the boundaries for these qualities. Hence, to design the software architecture to meet the quality requirements is to reduce the risks of not achieving the required quality levels. In this thesis we present the experiences from a software architecture design project with two industry partners. Based on these we propose a method for reengineering architectures and exemplify by an applying the method on a real world example. The method is based on architecture transformations and software quality evaluation of the architecture. Further, we present a method for predicting software maintenance effort from the software architecture, for use in the design and reengineering method. The method uses change scenario profiles to describe future changes to the system and architecture impact analysis provide knowl-edge of the modification volume required for the realization of each sce-nario. The results from a quasi experiment supports that groups consisting of prepared members create better scenario profiles. Also, the results suggest that there is a large room for variation between scenario profiles created by individual persons.

  • 445. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Design and Evaluation of Software Architecture1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge in software development is to develop software with the right quality levels. The main problem is not to know if a project is technically feasible concerning functionality, but if a solution exists that meet the software quality requirements. It is therefore desired to get an early indication of the qualities of the resulting software. Software architecture is concerned with what modules are used to compose a system and how these modules are related to each other, i.e. the structure of system. The software architecture of a system sets the boundaries for these qualities. Hence, to design the software architec-ture to meet the quality requirements is to reduce the risks of not achieving the required quality levels. In this thesis we present the experiences from a software architecture design project with two industry partners. Based on these we propose a method for reengineering architectures and exemplify by an applying the method on a real world example. The method is based on architec-ture transformations and software quality evaluation of the architecture. Further, we present a method for predicting software maintenance effort from the software architecture, for use in the design and reengineering method. The method uses change scenario profiles to describe future changes to the system and architecture impact analysis provide knowl-edge of the modification volume required for the realization of each sce-nario. The results from a quasi experiment supports that groups consisting of prepared members create better scenario profiles. Also, the results suggest that there is a large room for variation between scenario profiles created by individual persons.

  • 446. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    First Swedish Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practise2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is considered as a leading nation in modern IT business. The growth of software development business provides an opportunity to strengthen the software engineering research in Sweden even further. This conference is intended as a starting point for a national network on software engineering and provides opportunity to discuss the current situation in software engineering research. Besides that the conference present a forum for Ph. D. students to meet and exchange ideas.

  • 447. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    First Swedish Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practise: Proceedings2001Report (Other academic)
  • 448. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    SERP'012001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings comprise of eight peer-reviewed articles ranging from software engineering fields such as process improvement to component based development and software architecture.

  • 449.
    Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Bosch, Jan
    An experiment on creating scenario profiles for software change2000In: Annals of Software Engineering, ISSN 1022-7091, E-ISSN 1573-7489, Vol. 9, no 1-4, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenario profiles are used increasingly often for the assessment of quality attributes during the architectural design of software systems. However, the definition of scenario profiles is subjective and no data is available on the effects of individuals on scenario profiles. In this paper we present the design, analysis and results of a controlled experiment on the effect of individuals on scenario profiles, so that others can replicate the experiments on other projects and people. Both scenario profiles created by individuals and by groups are studied. The findings from the experiment showed that groups with prepared members proved to be the best method for creating scenario profiles. Unprepared groups did not perform better than individuals when creating scenario profiles.

  • 450. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    An Experiment on Creating Scenario Profiles for Software Change1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenario profiles are used increasingly often for the assessment of quality attributes during the architectural design of software systems. However, the definition of scenario profiles is subjective and no data is available on the effects of individuals on scenario profiles. In this paper we present the design, analysis and results of a controlled experiment on the effect of individuals on scenario profiles, so that others can replicate the experiments on other projects and people. Both scenario profiles created by individuals and by groups are studied. The findings from the experiment showed that groups with prepared members proved to be the best method for creating scenario profiles. Unprepared groups did not perform better than individuals when creating scenario profiles.

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