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  • 401.
    Nasir, Nayla
    et al.
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MYS.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Implementing Value Stream Mapping in a Scrum-based project: An Experience Report2018Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2273, s. 38-43Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    —The value stream mapping is one of the lean practices, that helps to visualize the whole process and identifies any bottlenecks affecting the flow. Proper management of the value stream can significantly contribute towards waste elimination by categorizing process activities to be either value adding or non value-adding. Lean development focuses on the value through the elimination of waste. Adding value through embracing change and customer satisfaction are also the benefits of Scrum. This study reports our experience regarding the implementation of VSM with Scrum. We followed the action research method, with an objective to see if VSM can contribute to the identification and reduction of wastes in a Scrum-based project. We identified a noticeable amount of waste even with strict compliance to the Scrum practices. On the basis of identified waste, their root causes, and possible mitigation strategy we have proposed a future state map, that could help improve the productivity of the process. The results of our study are encouraging, and we suggest that adoption of VSM with Scrum could add more value to the Scrum-based projects. Copyright © 2018 for this paper by its authors.

  • 402.
    Nass, Michel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Augmented testing: Industry feedback to shape a new testing technology2019Inngår i: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 176-183Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Manual testing is the most commonly used approach in the industry today for acceptance-and system-testing of software applications. Test automation has been suggested to address drawbacks with manual testing but both test automation and manual testing have several challenges that limit their return of investment for system-and acceptance-test automation. Hence, there is still an industrial need for another approach to testing that can mitigate the challenges associated with system-and acceptance-testing and make it more efficient and cost effective for the industry. In this paper we present a novel technique we refer to as Augmented Testing (AT). AT is defined as testing through a visual layer between the tester and the System Under Test (SUT) that superimposes information on top of the GUI. We created a prototype for AT and performed an industrial workshop study with 10 software developers to get their perceived benefits and drawbacks of AT. The benefits and drawbacks will be useful for further development of the technique and prototype for AT. The workshop study identified more benefits than drawbacks with AT. Two of the identified benefits were: 'Know what to test and what has been tested' and 'Less manual work'. Due to these results, we believe that AT is a promising technique that deserves more research since it may provide industry with new benefits that current techniques lack. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 403.
    Nekkanti, Lakshmi Sowjanya
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Impact of coordination challenges on quality of global software development projects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Global software development (GSD) gained huge recognition in today’s business world. Most of the software companies day by day are striving hard to evolve globally where software is developed in the context of different environmental settings that are distanced on various factors like geography, timezone, culture and language. Coordination is the factor that plays one of the prominent roles in such a setting for effective teamwork and project success. Although numerous efforts has been done in this research area, there has been no proper evidence from industry about the impact of these coordination challenges on the overall quality of the software when being developed in a distributed setting.

    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to examine and identify the coordination challenges and risks faced in global software development projects that has a negative impact on the quality of software from practitioner’s perspective. It also identify the tools, methods, and techniques that are used in industry to overcome these challenges and maintain quality standards.

    Methods. The aims and objectives of our study are fulfilled by conducting survey among practitioners working in GSD projects all around the globe. Further, 10 interviews are conducted with practitioners working in different companies and geographical locations in order to gain a detailed understanding of the impact of identified coordination challenges on the quality of software in GSD projects.

    Results. A total of 50 survey responses are recorded, out of which 48 respondents specify that coordination challenges has a negative impact on software quality in GSD context. By the ratings given by the participants, we identified the challenges and risks that had a major impact. Mixed results are obtained during interviews where most of them prioritized coordination as a major problem in GSD projects. It also included that use of some tools, methods and processes help them in overcoming this issue. The quality attributes that are mostly affected due to the challenges in GSD projects are also identified.

    Conclusions. After the analysis of survey results, the coordination challenges and associated risks in GSD projects are identified. They were found to havemostly negative impact on software quality. After thematic analysis of interview results, we observed that though the impact of coordination challenges is negative, its extent of implication is moderate in most cases.

  • 404.
    Nielsen, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Tollemark, David
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Code readability: Code comments OR self-documenting code: How does the choice affect the readability of the code?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Code readability is something every software developer tackles every day. In order for efficient maintainability and learning of a program the documentation needs to be of high quality.

    Objectives: This thesis is attempting to show what the general perspective the software developers have. We investigate which method that is preferred and why. We will also look at readability and what similarities and differences there are among students and IT professionals.

    Conclusion: We have collected data from several sources. Firstly from a literature review where different papers within the field are presented. Secondly from two separate surveys conducted on students and IT professionals.

    From our results we found that documentation is something that software developers heavily rely on and that the need for extensive documentation differs with working experience.

  • 405.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Att hindra en Notpetya- och WannaCry-attack: Redogörelse med förebyggande metoder och tekniker2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    WannaCry och NotPetya är två ransomware-program som använder sig av National Security Agency (NSA) läckta penetreringsverktyg EternalBlue för att få operativsystemsbehörighet över ett Windowssystem som tillåter kommunikation med dess Service Message Block (SMB) server. WannaCry och NotPetya utnyttjar detta genom att söka igenom systemets alla lagringsmedier efter användarfiler och krypterar sedan dessa med både symmetriska och asymmetriska krypteringsalgoritmer.

    För att få tillgång till den nyckel som används för att dekryptera filerna krävs det att offret betalar förövaren en specifik summa, vanligtvis i Bitcoin. Det finns ingen garanti att filerna återfås efter betalning utan endast förövarens ord, uttryckt i ett utpressningsmeddelande som först uppenbarar sig efter att alla filer krypterats.

    Det finns flera metoder och tekniker som kan användas för att bygga ett försvar mot att ransomware infekterar eller kryptera data. En metod för att förhindra att NotPetya och WannaCry infektera ett system är att blockera all kommunikation med Windows-systemets SMB-server. Eftersom detta förhindrar alla program från att kommunicera med systemet genom SMB protokollet utgör denna metod endast ett alternativ om systemet inte är beroende av funktioner så som fil och skrivardelning.

    En metod för att förhindra att data försvinner vid en eventuell infektion är att kontinuerligt säkerhetskopiera sina filer till externa lagringsmedier så som till CD-skivor, USB-minnen och hårddiskar. Detta gör det möjligt att återfå data efter en infektion och offret behöver därför inte att förlita sig på förövaren för att få tillbaka sina filer.

  • 406.
    Nilsson, Gunvor
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Smarta gränssnitt för flexibel effektanvändning: - Stäng av ugnen, jag måste ladda bilen!2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom en snar framtid kommer allt fler villaägare välja att skaffa elbil. Därigenom kommer det lokala elnätet att utsättas för stora utmaningar i form av oregelbunden belastning och potentiell överlast. Studien undersöker om man med mjukvara kan underlätta och få till stånd en effektstyrning av energi i lokalnätet, såväl som i den egna villan. Med hjälp av befintliga rapporter,webbfrågor och intervjuer kartläggs olika berörda aktörers inställning till, och beredskap för, attfördela last.

    En testbädd för att ta fram förslag till styrning på olika nivåer med fokus på villor, lokalnät och elbilar med laddplats har tagits fram. Testappar med olika grad av information och olika möjlighet till påverkan har knutits därtill. 

    En slutsats av arbetet är att effektstyrning måste ske och i ökande omfattning. I steg 1 kan det räcka att flytta användningen några timmar från eftermiddag till natt. Framöver när en stor andel fordon blir eldrivna behöver elnätsbolagen mer aktivt få styra sina elnätskunders effektuttag i tiden.

  • 407.
    Nilsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Jonasson, Andreas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Using Artificial Intelligence for Gameplay Testing On Turn-Based Games2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Game development is a constantly evolving multi billion dollar in-dustry, and the need for quality products is very high. Testing the games however isa very time consuming and tedious task, often coming down to repeating sequencesuntil a requirement has been met. But what if some parts of it could be automated,handled by an artificial intelligence that can play the game day and night, givingstatistics about the gameplay as well as reports about errors that occurred duringthe session?

    Objectives. This thesis is done in cooperation with Fall Damage Studio AB, andaims to find and implement a suitable artificial intelligent agent to perform auto-mated test on a game Fall Damage Studio AB are currently developing, ProjectFreedom. The objective is to identify potential problems, benefits, and use casesof using a technique such as this. A secondary objective is to also identify what isneeded by the game for this kind of technique to be useful.

    Methods. To test the technique, aMonte-Carlo Tree Searchalgorithm was identi-fied as the most suitable algorithm and implemented for use in two different typesof experiments. The first being to evaluate how varying limitations in terms of thenumber of iterations and depth affected the results of the algorithm. This was doneto see if it was possible to change these factors and find a point where acceptablelevels of plays were achieved and further increases to these factors gave limited en-hancements to this level but increased the time. The second experiment aimed toevaluate what useful data can be extracted from a game, both in terms of gameplayrelated data as well as error information from crashes. Project Freedom was onlyused for the second test due to constraints that was out of scope for this thesis totry and repair.

    Results. The thesis has identified several requirements that is needed for a game touse a technique such as this in an useful way. For Monte-Carlo Tree Search specifi-cally, the game is required to have a gamestate that is quick to create a copy of anda game simulation that can be run in a short time. The game must also be testedfor the depth and iteration point that hit the point where the value of increasingthese values diminish. More generally, the algorithm of choice must be a part of thedesign process and different games might require different kind of algorithms to use.Adding this type of algorithm at a late stage in development, as was done for thisthesis, might be possible if precautions are taken.

    Conclusions. This thesis shows that using artificial intelligence agents for game-play testing is definitely possible, but it needs to be considered in the early part ofthe development process as no one size fits all approach is likely to exist. Differentgames will have their own requirements, some potentially more general for that typeof game, and some will be unique for that specific game. Thus different algorithmswill work better on certain types of games compared to other ones, and they willneed to be tweaked to perform optimally on a specific game.

  • 408.
    Nilsson, Kristian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Jönsson, Hans-Eric
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A comparison of image and object level annotation performance of image recognition cloud services and custom Convolutional Neural Network models2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in machine learning has contributed to an explosive growth of the image recognition field. Simultaneously, multiple Information Technology (IT) service providers such as Google and Amazon have embraced cloud solutions and software as a service. These factors have helped mature many computer vision tasks from scientific curiosity to practical applications. As image recognition is now accessible to the general developer community, a need arises for a comparison of its capabilities, and what can be gained from choosing a cloud service over a custom implementation.

    This thesis empirically studies the performance of five general image recognition services (Google Cloud Vision, Microsoft Computer Vision, IBM Watson, Clarifai and Amazon Rekognition) and image recognition models of the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture that we ourselves have configured and trained. Image and object level annotations of images extracted from different datasets were tested, both in their original state and after being subjected to one of the following six types of distortions: brightness, color, compression, contrast, blurriness and rotation. The output labels and confidence scores were compared to the ground truth of multiple levels of concepts, such as food, soup and clam chowder.

    The results show that out of the services tested, there is currently no clear top performer over all categories and they all have some variations and similarities in their output, but on average Google Cloud Vision performs the best by a small margin. The services are all adept at identifying high level concepts such as food and most mid-level ones such as soup. However, in terms of further specifics, such as clam chowder, they start to vary, some performing better than others in different categories. Amazon was found to be the most capable at identifying multiple unique objects within the same image, on the chosen dataset. Additionally, it was found that by using synonyms of the ground truth labels, performance increased as the semantic gap between our expectations and the actual output from the services was narrowed. The services all showed vulnerability to image distortions, especially compression, blurriness and rotation. The custom models all performed noticeably worse, around half as well compared to the cloud services, possibly due to the difference in training data standards. The best model, configured with three convolutional layers, 128 nodes and a layer density of two, reached an average performance of almost 0.2 or 20%.

    In conclusion, if one is limited by a lack of experience with machine learning, computational resources and time, it is recommended to make use of one of the cloud services to reach a more acceptable performance level. Which to choose depends on the intended application, as the services perform differently in certain categories. The services are all vulnerable to multiple image distortions, potentially allowing adversarial attacks. Finally, there is definitely room for improvement in regards to the performance of these services and the computer vision field as a whole.

  • 409.
    Nilsson, Robin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Battery Performance Comparison Of Unreal Engine 4 And Unity Applications Running On Android2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis evaluates the battery performance of two widely known game engines and compares the results to find the most battery friendly choice. Unity and Unreal Engine 4 are the two engines being compared; it aims to fill the need for research around mobile games battery performance. Smartphones battery life issues becomes more and more common with the powerful smartphones we use in today’s society. They are becoming faster every year, but the batteries stay the same. Power hungry games are not uncommon to find on the biggest game market that has surpassed the combined income of PC and Console games. Tests were performed on an Android system where multiple applications were tested while the battery consumption was measured. The applications are testing how different 2D or 3D components will impact the battery consumption compared to their baseline idling consumption. This thesis provides instructions on how the test applications were developed and which components were included. The findings show that the components had very little impact on the battery consumption for both Unity and Unreal Engine 4. Unity consumed between 1,1 – 1,4 % (36-42mAh) battery for all applications, Unreal Engine 4 consumed between 1,3 – 1,6% (39-48mAh) battery. This thesis conclusion is that Unreal Engine 4 game components require more battery power than the corresponding components of Unity. Therefore, Unity is according to the findings of this thesis a more battery friendly game engine for android games. These results mean that those who looks to create a smaller 2D or 3D game would get a more battery friendly application if they chose to use Unity. However, the results are limited because of how features like gyro, GPS and bigger applications were not included in the performed test cases.

  • 410.
    Nilsson, Sebastian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The Current State of DDoS Defense2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A DDoS attack is an attempt to bring down a machine connected to the Internet. This is done by having multiple computers repeatedly sending requests to tie up a server making it unable to answer legitimate requests. DDoS attacks are currently one of the biggest security threats on the internet according to security experts. We used a qualitative interview with experts in IT security to gather data to our research. We found that most companies are lacking both in knowledge and in their protection against DDoS attacks. The best way to minimize this threat would be to build a system with redundancy, do a risk analysis and revise security policies. Most of the technologies reviewed were found ineffective because of the massive amount of data amplification attacks can generate. Ingress filtering showed promising results in preventing DDoS attacks by blocking packages with spoofed IP addresses thus preventing amplification attacks.

  • 411.
    Nilsson, Simon
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Automated Culling of Data in a Relational Database for Archiving2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Archiving of legacy information systems is challenging. When no options exist for extracting the information in a structured way, the last resort is to save the database. Optimally only the information that is relevant should be saved and the rest of the information could be removed.

    Objectives. The goal is to develop a method for assisting the archivist in the process of culling a database before archiving. The method should be described as rules defining how the tables can be identified.Methods. To get an overview of how the process works today and what archivists think can be improved, a number of interviews with experts in database archiving is done. The results from the interviews are then analysed, together with test databases to define rules that can be used in a general case. The rules are then implemented in a prototype that is tested and evaluated to verify if the method works.

    Results. The results point to the algorithm being both faster and able to exclude more irrelevant tables than a person could do with the manual method. An algorithm for finding candidate keys has also been improved to decrease the number of tests and execution time in the worst case.

    Conclusions. The evaluation shows results that point to the method working as intended while resulting in less work for the archivist. More work should be done on this method to improve it further.

  • 412.
    Nimmakayala, Akhilesh
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gudivada, Venkata Sai Anurudh
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The significance of Software Engineering Management in Software projects: A study on Project Management success factors, an ideal Project Manager and the current state of Project Management Education2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Management is an essential factor in any organization let alone its kind and size. Project management is the art and science of planning and implementing a project to achieve the desired outcome. Project Management (PM) plays a crucial role in businesses which are bound to function in a team-based environment regardless of the type of business. Although a variety of project management practices are employed in different kinds of industries, it is well understood that the style and level of employment of these project management practices have a significant impact on the project success. The software engineering industry has its own project management practices and the employment of these practices depends on the project manager who thus plays a key role in project management. Project manager has been a ubiquitous feature of traditional software projects. Project managers are a merger of personal characteristics and areas of competency that act together to integrate the various components of a project. In this study, the author discusses about the concept of software engineering management, various characteristics and key competencies of a project manager and also the factors influencing the overall success of a project. The authors also discuss about the current state and importance of PM education and its influence in the real time industry.

    Objectives. This research study is to analyze and make conclusions about the ideal features of a project manager and therefore attempt to understand its association with critical factors of PM for a project’s success in terms of delivering the product as scheduled and also understand various non-PM factors that are critical for project success. The study also attempts to show the significance of studying PM specifically in the context of Software Engineering as different from other contexts and the importance of PM education in academics and teaching PM in the industry.

    Methods. To achieve the objectives of this research, we attempt to study project management in the context of Software Engineering by conducting a literature review followed with a descriptive Survey as our research methods for this study to show how far literature complies to the present-day views and overall form a common opinion on this subject by comparing both the findings.

    Results. The results yielded by conducting a literature review conclude that Project Management or Software Engineering Management plays a vital role in software projects. Various factors that contribute towards successful project management were identified. Also, relevant literature was reviewed to identify the characteristics and competencies of an effective project manager and the status of project management education in academics and in the software engineering industry. The results obtained from the literature review were used in designing a survey and were further used to compare with and validate the results of this survey. A thorough analysis of these results yielded in capturing the current status and views with a snapshot of the situation in the present Software Engineering industry. A clear view on the subject area and results from a sample population of 73 software engineering professionals consisting of up to 41 experienced managers were analyzed, commented and documented.

    Conclusions. Various conclusions were drawn including discussions on the compliances and contradictions between present literature and software professionals in the present industry have been made. It was found that the majority of software professionals believe that project management in software engineering is unique from project management in other disciplines. It was found that professionals believe project management to be highly to very highly crucial for the overall success of software projects and that the most important key factors for successful project management were team motivation, communication and risk management. It was found that ‘Ability to foresee a problem’, ‘Decision making’ and ‘Inspires a shared vision’ were among the top three characteristics and ‘Team management’, ‘Leadership’ and ‘Ability to work under pressure’ were among the top three competencies of an effective project manager. It was found that managers feel the need to be taught about project management standards and that the ‘PMBoK’ and ‘ISO 9001’ were the most popular standards implemented. It was found that there are very contrasting views among companies on training project managers before promoting them to managerial positions whereas managers expect to be trained.

    Keywords: Software Engineering Management, Software Project Management, Project Manager, Project Success, Project Management Education, Software Engineering.

  • 413.
    Nitesh Varma Rudraraju, Nitesh
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Varun Boyanapally, Varun
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Data Quality Model for Machine Learning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: - Machine learning is a part of artificial intelligence, this area is now continuously growing day by day. Most internet related services such as Social media service, Email Spam, E-commerce sites, Search engines are now using machine learning. The Quality of machine learning output relies on the input data, so the input data is crucial for machine learning and good quality of input data can give a better outcome to the machine learning system. In order to achieve quality data, a data scientist can use a data quality model on data of machine learning. Data quality model can help data scientists to monitor and control the input data of machine learning. But there is no considerable amount of research done on data quality attributes and data quality model for machine learning.

    Objectives: - The primary objectives of this paper are to find and understand the state-of-art and state-of-practice on data quality attributes for machine learning, and to develop a data quality model for machine learning in collaboration with data scientists.

    Methods: - This paper mainly consists of two studies: - 1) Conducted a literature review in the different database in order to identify literature on data quality attributes and data quality model for machine learning. 2) An in-depth interview study was conducted to allow a better understanding and verifying of data quality attributes that we identified from our literature review study, this process is carried out with the collaboration of data scientists from multiple locations. Totally of 15 interviews were performed and based on the results we proposed a data quality model based on these interviewees perspective.

    Result: - We identified 16 data quality attributes as important from our study which is based on the perspective of experienced data scientists who were interviewed in this study. With these selected data quality attributes, we proposed a data quality model with which quality of data for machine learning can be monitored and improved by data scientists, and effects of these data quality attributes on machine learning have also been stated.

    Conclusion: - This study signifies the importance of quality of data, for which we proposed a data quality model for machine learning based on the industrial experiences of a data scientist. This research gap is a benefit to all machine learning practitioners and data scientists who intended to identify quality data for machine learning. In order to prove that data quality attributes in the data quality model are important, a further experiment can be conducted, which is proposed in future work.

  • 414.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Introduction of Agile Practices: Strategies and Impacts2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software development organizations frequently face changes that require them to be flexible. The principles and practices of Agile software are often associated with improving software organizations’ flexibility. However, introducing Agile practices have its benefits and limitations. To amplify benefits and alleviate challenges, Agile adoption guidelines are being proposed to provide strategies for introducing Agile practices. One instance of such guidelines is known as Agile Maturity Models (AMMs). AMMs typically suggest that Agile practices are introduced in certain orders. However, AMMs provide contradictory strategies. Thus it is not known whether one strategy to introduce Agile practices is better than others.

    Objective: The objective of this thesis is to gather and examine the evidence on the different strategies of introducing Agile practices, particularly on the order of introduction as suggested in the AMMs. The thesis seeks if one order for introducing Agile practices is better than others.

    Method: Combination of empirical studies were used in this thesis. The data collection was done through a survey and semi-structured interviews. This involved analyzing the introduction of Agile practices over time, i.e. the start and/or end of Agile practices. A qualitative method like qualitative coding was used to analyze data obtained from the interviews. Different quantitative methods like inferential statistics and social network analysis were also used. Literature studies were also conducted to provide background and support for the empirical studies.

    Results: The examination of the evidence indicates that there is not one strategy to introduce Agile practices that would yield better results than others. The lack of conclusive evidence could be caused by the lack of consideration on reporting the context of empirical studies, particularly on the baseline situation, i.e. situation prior to Agile introduction. A checklist is proposed to capture a baseline contextual information focusing on internal organizational aspects of a software organization: the constellation of team members’ skills and experience, management principles, existing practices and systems characteristics of the software under development. The checklist was validated  by seven experts in academia. The experts who participated in the validation perceived the checklist to be useful and relevant to research.

    Conclusion:  The studies presented in this thesis can be a useful input for researchers who are conducting an empirical study in Agile software development. The checklist proposed in this thesis could be used to help researchers to improve their research design when evaluating the extent of improvements from introducing Agile practices. If researchers use the checklist, consistency across empirical studies can be improved. Consistency in reporting empirical studies is desired for comparing and aggregating evidence. In turn, this will help practitioners to make a fair assessment whether research results are relevant to their contexts and to what extent the results are helpful for them.

  • 415.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Managing requirements interdependencies in agile software development: A preliminary result2016Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, E-ISSN 1613-0073, Vol. 1564Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently managing requirement interdependencies using Agile practices is relatively unexplored. This study explores the state of practice of managing requirements interdependencies in Agile software development through a survey. A total of 52 complete responses were obtained, with 50% of the respondents suggesting that they consider requirements interdependencies. The preliminary result indicates that requirements interdependencies become a greater concern as the project and product complexity increases.

  • 416.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Understanding flexibility of a software organization2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Flexibility is an important capability for a software organization. Without flexibility a software organization risks losing its competitive advantage. To build software organization flexibility every constituent of the organization need to be taken into account. Otherwise there are unforeseen trade-offs that could have negative impacts on the rest of the organization. However, currently known flexibility approaches, such as, Agile and Lean methodologies are currently implemented at project level. There is a need for an approach that provides a holistic view to build software organization flexibility.

     

    Objective: The aim of this licentiate thesis to understand challenges that a software organization faces with respect to flexibility and how flexibility is built, and explore the potential of Agile and Lean practices to build software organization flexibility. Particularly in understanding the process of building software organization and the associated trade-offs.

    Method: A grounded theory study and a tertiary study were performed as part of this licentiate thesis. A grounded theory study was conducted to gain a better understanding pertaining to the challenges and processes in building software organization flexibility. The data was collected from an IT Department that provides services to a Fortune 500 financial institution. A tertiary study was performed to identify empirically evaluated Agile and Lean practices and their respective impacts. The findings from the tertiary study were synthesized using qualitative meta-study method.

     

    Results: The findings in this thesis uncovered a number of challenges that a software organization faces with respect to flexibility, they include budget cuts, overhead due to inconsistent development process, and regulatory changes. These challenges then can cause uncertainties that impede the organization’s op-erational efficiency, like delays and inefficient use of resources. To cope with the uncertainty, a software organization would build its flexibility through modi- fications of its organization constituents. Processes and trade-offs associatedi with achieving flexibility were also identified. Furthermore, a consolidated view of the impacts of Agile and Lean practices and their empirical support is also provided.

     

    Conclusion: With the challenges that a software organization face, build- ing software organization flexibility is becoming more prevalent. To improve software organization flexibility different constituents of the organization needs to be considered. Otherwise, the trade-offs associated to achieving flexibility cannot be thoroughly considered. Furthermore, Agile and Lean practices can have positive, negative, or no impacts on quality, budget, schedule, etc. The findings of this thesis can help practitioners identify flexibility needs, as well as improve their awareness of possible negative trade-offs when building software organization flexibility.

     

  • 417.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization2018Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, nr 9, artikkel-id e1937Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software developing organizations strive to achieve flexibility to maintain a competitive advantage. There is no common understanding of what characterize flexibility for a software organization beyond the scope of the software product. Without a common understanding, it is difficult to evaluate the degrees of flexibility of software development approaches. The aim of this literature review is to collect attributes that characterize flexibility. The collected attributes are consolidated into a flexibility framework with 3 main attributes: properties of change, flexibility perspectives, and flexibility enablers. The resulting flexibility framework is then used to evaluate Agile and Lean practices. The evaluation shows that Agile and Lean practices address many flexibility attributes. However, some attributes are not addressed, such as infrastructure flexibility and strategic flexibility. On the basis of our evaluation, the classifications of flexibility attributes that we present in this paper could be used to aid software organization flexibility evaluation.

  • 418.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The impacts of agile and lean practices on project constraints: A tertiary study2016Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 119, s. 162-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in Agile and Lean software development is reflected in the increasing number of secondary studies on the benefits and limitations of Agile and Lean processes and practices. The aim of this tertiary study is to consolidate empirical evidence regarding Agile and Lean practices and their respective impacts on project constraints as defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK): scope, quality, schedule, budget, resources, communication, and risk. In this tertiary study, 13 secondary studies were included for detailed analysis. Given the heterogeneity of the data, we were unable to perform a rigorous synthesis. Instead, we mapped the identified Agile and Lean practices, and their impacts on the project constraints described in PMBOK. From 13 secondary studies, we identified 13 Agile and Lean practices. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is studied in ten secondary studies, meanwhile other practices are studied in only one or two secondary studies. This tertiary study provides a consolidated view of the impacts of Agile and Lean practices. The result of this tertiary study indicates that TDD has a positive impact on external quality. However, due to insufficient data or contradictory results, we were unable to make inferences on other Agile and Lean practices. Implications for research and practice are further discussed in the paper. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 419.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Strategies to Introduce Agile Practices: Comparing Agile Maturity Models with Practitioners’ExperienceInngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) have been proposed to provide guidance for adopting Agile practices. Evaluations of AMMs indicatethat they might not be suitable for industry use. One issue is that AMMs have mainly been evaluated against pre-defined sets of criteria, instead of industry practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to: (1) compare current AMMs regarding their guidance for Agile adoption, (2) investigate the strategies for Agile adoption used by practitioners, and (3) investigate similarities and differences between (1) and (2). Methods: We conducted a literature survey that included grey literature to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We also conducted a survey and 11 interviews to identify the strategies used by practitioners to introduce Agile practices. This study combines quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: From the literature survey we found 26 AMMs, whereof 12 provide explicit mappings of Agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement in when practices should be introduced. Based on 40 survey responses we identified three high-level strategies for introducing Agile practices: big-bang, incremental, and complex strategies. The survey andinterviews revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned well with industry practice and that Agile practices might already be in place before an organization starts a transition to Agile. Conclusion: In their current form, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide Agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for Agile adoption that works better than others.

  • 420.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Preliminary Checklist for Capturing Baseline Situations in Studying the Impacts of Agile Practices Introduction2018Inngår i: IEEE-ACM International Workshop on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry CESI, IEEE Computer Society, 2018, s. 25-28Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the benefits of introducing Agile practices, it is important to get a clear understanding of the baseline situation, i.e. the situation before their introduction. Without a clear baseline, we cannot properly assess the extent of impacts, both positive and negative, of introducing Agile practices. This paper provides a preliminary guideline to help researchers in capturing and reporting baseline situations. The guideline has been developed through the study of literature and interviews with industry practitioners, and validated by experts in academia.

  • 421.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Usage, Retention, and Abandonment of Agile Practices2019Inngår i: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 7-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A number of Agile maturity models (AMMs) have been proposed to guide software organizations in their adoption of Agile practices. Typically the AMMs suggest that higher maturity levels are reached by gradually adding more practices. However, recent research indicates that certain Agile practices, like test-driven development and continuous integration are being abandoned. Little is known on the rationales for abandoning Agile practices. Aim: We aim to identify which Agile practices are abandoned in industry, as well as the reasons for abandoning them. Method: We conducted a web survey with 51 respondents and interviews with 11 industry practitioners with experience in Agile adoption to investigate why Agile practices are abandoned. Results: Of the 17 Agile practices that were included in the survey, all have been abandoned at some point. Nevertheless, respondents who retained all practices as well as those who abandoned one or more practices, perceived their overall adoption of Agile practices as successful. Conclusion: Going against the suggestions of the AMMs, i.e. abandoning Agile one or more practices, could still lead to successful outcomes. This indicates that introducing Agile practices gradually in a certain sequence, as the AMMs suggest, may not always be suitable in different contexts.

  • 422.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Understanding the order of agile practice introduction: Comparing agile maturity models and practitioners’ experience2019Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) suggest that agile practices are introduced in a certain order. However, whether the order of agile practice introduction as suggested in the AMMs is relevant in industry has not been evaluated in an empirical study. Objectives: In this study, we want to investigate: (1) order of agile practice introduction mentioned in AMMs, (2) order of introducing agile practices in industry, and (3) similarities and differences between (1) and (2). Methods: We conducted a literature survey to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We then compared the AMMs’ suggestions to the strategies used by practitioners, which we elicited from a survey and a series of interviews from an earlier study. Results: The literature survey revealed 12 AMMs which provide explicit mappings of agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement on when practices should be introduced. Comparison of the AMMs’ suggestions and the empirical study revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned with industry practice. Conclusion: Currently, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for agile adoption that works better than others. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 423.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An Analysis of Change Scenarios of an IT Organization for Flexibility Building2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexibility is important for software organizations to cope with changes demanded in the business environment. So far, flexibility has been extensively studied from a software product and software development process point of view. However, there is little work on how to build flexibility at the level of the whole software organization. Thus, there is no clear understanding of how to effectively improve the ability of an organization to respond to changes in a timely fashion and with little effort. This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study on how flexibility is built and improved in an IT organization and provides a holistic and explanatory view of how this is achieved. Implications for research and practices are also provided.

  • 424.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Towards Understanding How To Build Strategic Flexibility Of An IT Organization2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IT organizations need to react to changes in the business, the domain (e.g., regulatory issues), and the technological development. While some of these changes can be handled by adopting agile practices, others might have large, irreversible effects on the organization as a whole. While flexibility and agility have found their way into software project methodologies, IT organizations struggle with their adaptation at organizational level. This paper presents preliminary results of a grounded-theory study aimed at understanding how experienced managers handle flexibility. The results are a rich empirical source for improving flexibility of an IT organization at the strategic level and also a good starting point for further research towards generalizing agile ideas beyond software projects.

  • 425.
    Ocieszak, Marcin
    et al.
    Kozminski University, POL.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Callele, David
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    On the use of Financial Valuation Techniques in Requirements Engineering2018Inngår i: 2018 1ST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LEARNING FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES FOR REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING (D4RE 2018) / [ed] Trapp M.,Hess A.,Lauenroth K., IEEE Communications Society, 2018, s. 16-17, artikkel-id 8595128Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates methods and techniquesfrom finance for supporting value estimation for features orrequirements. We discuss the applicability and challenges as-sociated with applying financial techniques for feature valueestimation and for supporting requirements prioritization

  • 426.
    Ocieszak, Marcin
    et al.
    Kozminski University, POL.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Callele, David
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    Using financial valuation techniques to minimize waste in requirements scoping2019Inngår i: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 27th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 3-6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents our initial experiences with employing option theory and NPV techniques for optimizing waste reduction in requirements scoping. Inspired by financial market theories, we analyze a large requirements scoping decision making history from the mobile handset domain. We outline how we can optimize waste reduction in requirements scoping by modeling the neutral, positive and negative scenarios, giving each of the scenarios appropriate budget and development team commitment. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 427.
    Ohlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Öman, Dan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A guide in the Big Data jungle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis looks at the functionality of different frameworks for data analysis atlarge scale and the purpose of it is to serve as a guide among available tools. The amount ofdata that is generated every day keep growing and for companies to take advantage of thedata they collect they need to know how to analyze it to gain maximal use out of it. Thechoice of platform for this analysis plays an important role and you need to look in to thefunctionality of the different alternatives that are available. We have created a guide to makethis research easier and less time consuming. To evaluate our work we created a summaryand a survey which we asked a number of ITstudents,current and previous, to take part in.After analyzing their answers we could see that most of them find our thesis interesting andinformative.

  • 428. Oliinyk, O.
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Schoelzke, M.
    Becker, M.
    Schneickert, S.
    Metrics for the evaluation of feature models in an industrial context: A case study at opel2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context & motivation] Feature models are used in product line engineering to document possible product configurations on the feature level. [Problem] In order to quantify the success of adopting feature modeling in practice, we need to understand the industry relevant metrics for feature model evaluation. [Solution] In order to identify the metrics a Goal-Question-Metric approach was used in the context of a case study conducted at Adam Opel AG. [Contribution:] We identified seven goals (quality criteria) we should strive for and evaluate when using feature models. Furthermore, we identified 18 sub-goals, 27 questions and corresponding metrics. The metrics were used to reflect on the feature modeling conducted at the company. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  • 429.
    Oliinyk, Olesia
    et al.
    Capgemini, DEU.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Schoelzke, Manfred
    Adam Opel AG, DEU.
    Becker, Martin
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn, DEU.
    Schneickert, Soeren
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn, DEU.
    Structuring automotive product lines and feature models: an exploratory study at Opel2017Inngår i: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 22, s. 105-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive systems are highly complex and customized systems containing a vast amount of variability. Feature modeling plays a key role in customization. Empirical evidence through industry application, and in particular methodological guidance of how to structure automotive product lines and their feature models is needed. The overall aim of this work is to provide guidance to practitioners how to structure automotive product lines and their feature models, understanding strengths and weaknesses of alternative structures. The research was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, the context situation was understood using interviews and workshops. In the second phase, possible structures of product lines and feature models were evaluated based on industry feedback collected in workshops. In the third phase, the structures were implemented in the tool GEARS and practitioner feedback was collected. One key challenge was the unavailability of structuring guidelines, which was the focus of this research. The structures considered most suitable for the automotive product line were multiple product lines with modular decomposition. The structures most suitable for the feature model were functional decomposition, using context variability, models corresponding to assets, and feature categories. Other structures have been discarded, and the rationales have been presented. It was possible to support the most suitable structures with the commercial tool GEARS. The implementation in GEARS and the feedback from the practitioners provide early indications for the potential usefulness of the structures and the tool implementation.

  • 430.
    Oliveira, Pedro Almir
    et al.
    Federal Institute of Maranhão (IFMA), BRA.
    Santos Neto, Pedro
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Rabêlo, Ricardo De Andrade Lira
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Braga, Ronyerison
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Souza, Matheus
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    CIaaS: computational intelligence as a service with Athena2018Inngår i: Computer languages, systems & structures, ISSN 1477-8424, E-ISSN 1873-6866, Vol. 54, s. 95-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational Intelligence (CI) is a sub-branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that focus on studying adaptive mechanisms to enable intelligent behavior in complex environments. CI techniques have been successful in solving complex problems in many different knowledge areas. However, despite their usefulness, developing solutions based on CI techniques is not a trivial activity, since it involves the codification/adaptation of algorithms to specific context and problems. In this paper, we present and validate through a quasi-experiment a new paradigm to develop CI-based solutions using a more mature version of Athena (2.0): Computational Intelligence as a Service (CIaaS). Using this tool, both researchers and practitioners can design and evaluate CI-based solutions by dragging and dropping components in a visual environment, in a cloud-based platform. The results of the quasi-experiment suggest that our approach can help researchers to design and evaluate CI-based systems in a simple, reliable and fast way. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 431. Oliveira, Pedro
    et al.
    Souza, Matheus
    Braga, Ronyerison
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Santos Neto, Pedro
    Rabêlo, Ricardo
    Athena: A Visual Tool to Support the Development of Computational Intelligence Systems2014Inngår i: Proceedings-International Conference on Tools With Artificial Intelligence, IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 950-957Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational Intelligence (CI) embraces techniques designed to address complex real-world problems in which traditional approaches are ineffective or infeasible. Some of these techniques are being used to solve several complex problems, such as the team allocation, building products portfolios in a software product line and test case selection/prioritization. However, despite the usefulness of these applications, the development of solutions based in CI techniques is not a trivial activity, since it involves the implementation/adaptation of algorithms to specific context and problems. This work presents Athena, a visual tool developed aiming at offering a simple approachto develop CI-based software systems. In order to do this, we proposed a drag-and-drop approach, which we called CI as a Service (CIaaS). Based on a preliminary study, we can state that Athenacan help researchers to save time during the development of computational intelligence approaches.

  • 432.
    Olle, Emilsson
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Marcus, Hrvatin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Using containers in a continuous integration and delivery environment: A performance and scalability comparison2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With a software industry that is moving at a fast pace, continuous integration and delivery is something important for many products today. Moreover, with containers being on the rise since 2013, more companies are moving their CI/CD environment into containers not only for development but also for testing. This thesis begins with giving the reader an introduction to containers, container orchestration, and Jenkins, which is a continuous integration and delivery tool. The experiment was then set up with one container based cluster and one single node machine. Two kinds of experiments were run on them, one big job and one small job. The system scalability is assessed, and with smaller clusters the memory overhead could be an issue. Performance wise, the container cluster is performing better than a single node machine, as long as it is utilizing all its nodes. Security with containers is still an issue and it could be fatal for a cluster if it is compromised.

  • 433.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Riktlinjer för mobil applikationsutveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknaden för mobila system har utvecklats enormt snabbt de senaste åren. Idag är det ett område med en allt större omsättning och det har vuxit fram som en helt ny gren inom Software Engineering. Utvecklare av mobila applikationer står ständigt inför en utmaning när det gäller att välja vilket mobilt system man ska satsa på när man utvecklar applikationer. Valet av system kan vara helt avgörande för om man hittar rätt målgrupp av konsumenter och därmed kan generera tillräckligt med omsättning för att driva lönsam utveckling av applikationer. Det räcker inte att enbart kolla på vilket system som har mest användare eller vilket system som genererar mest omsättning, utan man bör noggrant överväga de förhållande som gäller för just den applikation som ska utvecklas. Genom att följa denna guiden och överväga de olika faktorer som vi har sammanställt så kan man som utvecklare göra ett val som är baserat på aktuella marknadsundersökningar. Även inom andra områden så kan man ha nytta av denna artikel, exempelvis inom den akademiska världen där man utbildar inom mobil utveckling.

  • 434.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE SICS AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements2019Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, s. 217-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 435.
    Oriol, M.
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Stade, M.
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestem Switzerland, CHE.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Nadal, S.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Varga, J.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Seyff, N.
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestem Switzerland, CHE.
    Abello, A.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Franch, X.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Marco, J.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Schmidt, O.
    SEnerCon GmbH, DEU.
    FAME: Supporting continuous requirements elicitation by combining user feedback and monitoring2018Inngår i: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 217-227Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software evolution ensures that software systems in use stay up to date and provide value for end-users. However, it is challenging for requirements engineers to continuously elicit needs for systems used by heterogeneous end-users who are out of organisational reach. Objective: We aim at supporting continuous requirements elicitation by combining user feedback and usage monitoring. Online feedback mechanisms enable end-users to remotely communicate problems, experiences, and opinions, while monitoring provides valuable information about runtime events. It is argued that bringing both information sources together can help requirements engineers to understand end-user needs better. Method/Tool: We present FAME, a framework for the combined and simultaneous collection of feedback and monitoring data in web and mobile contexts to support continuous requirements elicitation. In addition to a detailed discussion of our technical solution, we present the first evidence that FAME can be successfully introduced in real-world contexts. Therefore, we deployed FAME in a web application of a German small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to collect user feedback and usage data. Results/Conclusion: Our results suggest that FAME not only can be successfully used in industrial environments but that bringing feedback and monitoring data together helps the SME to improve their understanding of end-user needs, ultimately supporting continuous requirements elicitation. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 436.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Understanding and Supporting Knowledge Management in Agile Software Development2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     Background. Agile Software Development (ASD) promises agility and flexibility in dealing with uncertainty by prioritizing interaction between people supported by informal communication and knowledge sharing. The lack of practices to manage the knowledge as a resource might jeopardize the application of knowledge in the production of goods and service. The utilization of Knowledge Management (KM) strategies can significantly support achieving and sustaining competitive advantage and brings several benefits to software development. However, how to manage knowledge in ASD is still not well understood or investigated.

     Objectives. The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the software engineering field by providing a different perspective on directions that KM can take to improve knowledge-based resource (KBR) management in ASD. The detailed objectives are: (i) Understand the current ASD environment regarding KM; (ii) Identify KBRs in ASD and its implications for KM; and (iii) Provide an initial set of variables to evaluate knowledge criticality of knowledge items in ASD.

     Method. We used a mixed-methods approach to address the objective of this thesis. The methods selected to conduct the studies include systematic literature review, grounded theory, and improvement case study. The data collection comprised a literature review, semi-structured interviews, and practitioners’ feedback through static validation.

     Results. From our SLR we observed that that KM strategies in ASD promote mainly knowledge transfer through practices that stimulate social interaction to share tacit knowledge in the project layer, increasing the risk of losing knowledge by keeping the knowledge localized inside a few individual’s minds. When it comes to coordination, practitioners utilize KBRs in their routines, through social collaboration within teams’ environment/settings. However, this process is nonsystematic, which brings inefficiency to KBR utilization resulting in knowledge loss. It can generate negative implications to the course of the software development, including meaningless searches in databases, frustration because of recurrent problems, and unawareness of knowledge sources. To support decision making related to knowledge retention, we have developed an initial version of the method to evaluate the criticality (KCEM) of a knowledge item, which is divided into two categories, relevance, and scarcity.

     Conclusion. The current results of this thesis are of particular interest. However, we recognize that the work is unfinished. As a complement to this thesis, we have planned our long-term objective, which is to contribute to creating scalable KM solutions for companies adopting ASD.We divide this long-term objective into three studies: Carry out a complementary study to apply KCEM in different companies; explore efficient ways of storing codified knowledge in combination with the KCEM, and investigate how to define metrics to evaluate the outcomes of KM practices.

  • 437.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Ouriques, João Felipe
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Method to Evaluate Knowledge Resources in Agile Software Development2019Inngår i: Proceeding of The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019, IEEE, 2019, artikkel-id 8870167Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizations adopting Agile Software Development (ASD) use different Knowledge Management (KM) practices to retain and share knowledge. However, it is often the case that knowledge retention is carried out in an ad-hoc way.

    Aims: In this study, we report our experience from proposing the Knowledge Critically Evaluation Method (KCEM) to evaluate knowledge items (KIT). Our main goal with KCEMs is to support companies to systematically retain knowledge in ASD contexts.

    Method: We conducted an improvement case study to develop and evaluate KCEM. This research follows the guidelines for technology transfer between industry and academia. The case and unit of analysis is Ericsson, a Swedish company that develops telecommunication solutions.

    Results: In this paper, we provide initial results of both lab and static validation, enriched by the lessons learned.

    Conclusions: The preliminary results show that KCEM is easy to understand and use, provides a different perspective on the KIT by visualizing in the criticality chart, and reduces the level of abstraction associated to a knowledge subject area.

  • 438.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Thinking strategically about knowledge management in agile software development2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. Code 221089, s. 389-395Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile methodologies gave teams more autonomy regarding planning tasks and executing them. As a result, coordination gets more flexible, but much relevant knowledge remains undocumented and inside teams’ borders, due to informal communication and reduced development documentation. Since knowledge plays an essential role in software development, it is important to have effective knowledge management (KM) practices that contribute to a better knowledge resource allocation. Several KM practices have been reported in empirical studies in Agile Software Development (ASD). However, these practices are not evaluated regarding its effectiveness or how do they affect product quality. Besides, the studies do not demonstrate connections between the KM practices in the project level and the strategic level. The lack of connection between these levels can result in deviations from the company’s corporate strategy, wasted resources and irrelevant knowledge acquisition. This paper discusses how the strategic management can contribute to an integrated approach to KM in ASD; considering the organizational structure and the corporate strategy. Based on this discussion, we propose research areas that may help with planning KM strategies that can have their effectiveness measured and contribute to product quality. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

  • 439.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Continuous Assimilation of Change in Agile Software Development: An empirical study on the role of the knowledge-based resourcesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As the software value chain is knowledge-based due to the high dependency on people, the lack of practice to manage knowledge as a resource might jeopardize its application in software development. The resource-based view of the firm provides a different perspective on the utilization of knowledge, assisting the identification of the Knowledge-Based Resources (KBRs) that allow a company to have a continuous readiness to quickly respond to the market changes. To understand how the KBRs support coordination in Agile Software Development (ASD), we applied a grounded theory approach, collecting data from 18 practitioners, coming from five companies. As results, we identified 44 KBRs that were grouped in the Continuous Assimilation Model (CHASM). They support coordination in ASD with continuous assimilation of change which is supported by people’s business analytic perspective and product systemic reasoning. The companies are able to utilize a certain level of their KBRs through social collaboration and team environment/settings. However, the inefficient utilization of these resources results in a significant knowledge loss. Furthermore, CHASM points out areas where practitioners can establish strategies based on the priorities that the companies give to the investigated KBRs, as well as a set of research opportunities for future investigation.

  • 440.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Knowledge Management Strategies and Processes in Agile Software Development: A Systematic Literature Review2019Inngår i: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 345-380Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge-intensive companies that adopt Agile Software Development (ASD) relay on efficient implementation of Knowledge Management (KM) strategies to promotes different Knowledge Processes (KPs) to gain competitive advantage. This study aims to explore how companies that adopt ASD implement KM strategies utilizing practices that promote the KPs in the different organizational layers. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed 32 primary studies, selected by automated search and snowballing in the extant literature. To analyze the data, we applied narrative synthesis. Most of the identified KM practices implement personalization strategies (81 %), supported by codification (19 %). Our review shows that the primary studies do not report KM practices in the strategic layer and two of them in the product portfolio layer; on the other hand, in the project layer, the studies report 33 practices that implement personalization strategy, and seven practices that implement codification. KM strategies in ASD promote mainly the knowledge transfer process with practices that stimulate social interaction to share tacit knowledge in the project layer. As a result of using informal communication, a significant amount of knowledge can be lost or not properly transferred to other individuals and, instead of propagating the knowledge, it remains inside a few individuals minds.

  • 441.
    Padira, Kathyayani
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Investigation of Resources Types for OSLC domains Targeting ISO 26262: Focus on Knowledge Representation of the Right side of the ISO 26262 Software V-model2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: ISO 26262 requires compilation of traceable work products across the application lifecycle as product based safety evidence. The compilation of such safety evidence is a time consuming and arduous task. Open Services Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) is an initiative that supports traceability through tool interoperability. The meta modelling of the ISO 26262 work products in the structure of Resource Description Framework (RDF) can be used for achieving interoperability. Thus, OSLC services used on the RDF exchanged between interoperating tools aids in an effective way of compiling the product based safety evidence for ISO 26262 safety case.

    Objectives: Representing the compilation of traceable work product types for the software testing and verification in ISO 26262, in form of a RDF-based conceptual meta-model. Testing and extending the concepts by instantiating the meta-model with work products to be represented in RDF for a case of a truck Electronic Control Unit (ECU) system. Lastly, validating the effectiveness of the conceptual meta-model for its compliance to ISO 26262.

    Methods: To realise the objectives, a case study was conducted at Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden, a manufacturer of safety critical ECU systems used in heavy automobiles. The case study was conducted in three consecutive cycles. The first cycle of qualitative inductive content analysis of the ISO 26262 standard and its related document at the company for defining the conceptual meta model. The second cycle of qualitative deductive content analysis for testing, extending and refining the conceptual meta model. The last cycle of validating the effectiveness of the tested and extended conceptual meta model for compliance to ISO 26262.

    Results: The main result was the tested, extended and refined RDF based ISO 26262 conceptual meta model depicting traceable work product types for software testing and verification of a safety critical ECU system. The testing and extending of the conceptual meta model was performed with respect to the Main1 (M1) ECU system at Scania. The RDF was defined for the work products of M1 ECU system. Finally, the conceptual meta model was validated for its effectiveness in realising the criteria of abstraction, confirmability and traceability based on ISO 26262. 

    Conclusions: Thus, the RDF-based conceptual meta-model depicting product based safety evidence provides a structure for realising the traceability required for compiling the software testing and verification part of ISO 26262 safety case. The meta model was tested by defining the RDF for the work products of a truck ECU system that would be exchanged for achieving interoperability. Finally, the conceptual meta-model was validated for representing the knowledge required for showing traceable product based safety evidence for ISO 26262 safety case.

  • 442.
    Pakki, Neetika Roy
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kavuri, Sritheja
    Managing Quality Requirements in Requirements Engineering Process: A survey2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Requirements play vital role in building the software application.These requirements are of two types: Functional requirements andNon-functional requirements (or quality requirements). Many of the organizationsconsider only functional requirements during the early stages ofdevelopment cycle. Poor management of the non-functional requirementsmay affect factors such as success rate, project cost and standards of thebuilding product. So it is important to manage the quality requirements inthe right phase at the right time. Our thesis mainly concentrates on fivequality aspects of Requirements Engineering Process. The quality aspectsElicitation, Quality Requirements Metrics, Dependencies, Cost Estimationand Prioritization.We have concentrated on whether there are any changesin the focus on the quality requirements depending on the quality aspectsof requirement engineering process and in identifying which quality requirementis analysed at each of the five quality aspects depending on the functionalrequirements. And we also tried to identify the challenges faced bythe organizations due to handling of quality requirements at each of the fivequality aspects of the requirement engineering process in order to provideuseful information to the further studies to this problem.

    Objectives. In this thesis, we investigated how the quality requirementsare handled and managed in the 5 quality aspects of requirements engineeringprocess. The main objectives in this thesis are: To identify if the focus on quality requirements change with respect to tothe quality aspects of RE process. To identify a correlation between focusing on certain functional requirementand the resulting type of quality requirement i.e.; impact onquality requirements based on selected functional requirement. To identify the challenges faced by the organizations when focusing onthe quality requirements in each of quality aspects mentioned earlier.

    Methods. In this thesis study we first conducted a Systematic LiteratureReview (SLR) through Snowballing process to identify available literatureabout functional and non-functional requirements. Later Narrative analysiswas used to analyse the SLR results. Further an industrial survey wasconducted. Statistical analysis was performed, chi-square test of significancewas used to analyse the results.

    Results. The results for the research questions of this thesis are observedentirely through survey results. Data that is collected through SLR is usedto validate the obtained results. From the survey responses, it is observedthat among the five quality aspects that are identified through SLR, qualitymetrics is given more importance by large number of organisations and isfollowed by cost estimation. It is observed that elicitation is identified byless number of respondents. It is also observed that more number of respondentssuggested that there will not be any change in the focus of qualityrequirements depending on the quality aspects of RE process. It is identifiedthat there is a high impact of the selection of functional requirementson the quality requirements as per the survey results and majority of therespondents stated that the selection of quality requirements is dependenton the functional requirements. It is interesting that from the survey results,it is identified that almost half of the respondents’ organisations aretreating functional requirements equally and half of them are treating separately.Several challenges that may arise while implementing the qualityrequirements are also identified through both SLR and survey.

    Conclusions. This thesis help the further researches to get a detailed ideaon quality requirements, their usage in the organisations and the challengesfaced by them while implementing quality requirements. As this study involvedseveral observations that are related to the influence of functionalrequirements on quality requirements and the relation between the managementof quality requirements and RE process, it serves as a reference forfurther studies on quality requirements and gives scope to derive many newideas related to the maintenance of quality requirements. This work can befurther improved by considering large population of survey.

  • 443.
    Palma, Francis
    et al.
    Concordia Univ, CAN.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Founi, Mohamed
    Univ Quebec Montreal, CAN.
    Moha, Naouel
    Univ Quebec Montreal, CAN.
    Tremblay, Guy
    Univ Quebec Montreal, CAN.
    Gueheneuc, Yann-Gael
    Ecole Polytech Montreal, CAN.
    Semantic Analysis of RESTful APIs for the Detection of Linguistic Patterns and Antipatterns2017Inngår i: International journal of intelligent and cooperative information systems, ISSN 0218-2157, E-ISSN 0218-8430, Vol. 26, nr 2, artikkel-id 1742001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifier lexicon may have a direct impact on software understandability and reusability and, thus, on the quality of the final software product. Understandability and reusability are two important characteristics of software quality. REpresentational State Transfer (REST) style is becoming a de facto standard adopted by software organizations to build their Web applications. Understandable and reusable Uniform Resource Identifers (URIs) are important to attract client developers of RESTful APIs because good URIs support the client developers to understand and reuse the APIs. Consequently, the use of proper lexicon in RESTful APIs has also a direct impact on the quality of Web applications that integrate these APIs. Linguistic antipatterns represent poor practices in the naming, documentation, and choice of identifiers in the APIs as opposed to linguistic patterns that represent the corresponding best practices. In this paper, we present the Semantic Analysis of RESTful APIs (SARA) approach that employs both syntactic and semantic analyses for the detection of linguistic patterns and antipatterns in RESTful APIs. We provide detailed definitions of 12 linguistic patterns and antipatterns and define and apply their detection algorithms on 18 widely-used RESTful APIs, including Facebook, Twitter, and Dropbox. Our detection results show that linguistic patterns and antipatterns do occur in major RESTful APIs in particular in the form of poor documentation practices. Those results also show that SARA can detect linguistic patterns and antipatterns with higher accuracy compared to its state-of-the-art approach - DOLAR.

  • 444.
    Pampana, Lavanya Vinod
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Compliant mHealth app: A case study from app developers' perspective2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. With the pervasive nature of mobile phones, many mobile health (mHealth) apps are released in market. It is of supreme importance to consolidate compliance right in the development of app. There are many policies and regulations formed in various countries that fundamentally protect patient information. Further, there are stringent actions taken for not complying with the regulations. This being the case, how do app developers from start-up to small scale companies find solutions to the problem? It is necessary to study the situation from developer’s perspective to create innovation and sustain.

    Objectives. In this study, we identify tools, techniques, methods or process used by developers to create a compliant app. This study also throws light on challenges being faced by the developers. Finally, a guideline is devised for the app developers to facilitate in development of a compliant app.

    Methods. A case study is performed with two data collection methods namely interviews and survey questionnaire to strengthen the findings. With not much of literature support, interview study helped in gaining perspective of developers instrumental in creation of survey instrument.

    Results. Different tools, techniques, methods, processes used by developers were identified. Alongside, challenges were also listed based on the importance level. Further, a guideline was drafted that serves as recommendation for the app developers in development of complaint mobile health app. The guideline devised is at a higher level that can help developers focus on key aspects with regards to development of a complaint mHealth app.  

    Conclusions. Author concludes that app developers mainly use project management tools available. There is a need for specific tools, techniques to be developed for the developers such that it becomes easy for app developers to develop compliant mHealth app. In fact, there must be effective guidelines drafted in the clearest possible way that can be used by developers without any ambiguity. This research acts as an exploratory study aimed at identifying the current practice of developers. More research is needed in this field to solve the developers’ problem.

  • 445.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Carlson, Jan
    Malardalen Research and Technology Centre, SWE.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Malardalen Research and Technology Centre, SWE.
    Sentilles, Severine
    Malardalens hogskola, SWE.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Malardalens hogskola, SWE.
    The GRADE decision canvas for classification and reflection on architecture decisions2017Inngår i: ENASE 2017 - Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, SciTePress , 2017, s. 187-194Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a decision canvas for capturing architecture decisions in software and systems engineering. The canvas leverages a dedicated taxonomy, denoted GRADE, meant for establishing the basics of the vocabulary for assessing and choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas serves as a template for practitioners to discuss and document architecture decisions, i.e., capture, understand and communicate decisions among decision-makers and to others. It also serves as a way to reflect on past decision-making activities devoted to both tentative and concluding decisions in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas has been assessed by means of preliminary internal and external evaluations with four scenarios. The results are promising as the canvas fulfills its intended objectives while satisfying most of the needs of the subjects participating in the evaluation. © 2017 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All Rights Reserved.

  • 446.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE SICS, SWE.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens University, SWE.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens University, SWE.
    Muhammad Ali Shah, Syed
    RISE SICS, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Decision support for choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems: The GRADE taxonomy2015Inngår i: ECSAW '15 Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops / [ed] Matthias Galster, ACM Digital Library, 2015, artikkel-id 48Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering software-intensive systems is a complex process that typically involves making many critical decisions. A continuous challenge during system design, analysis and development is deciding on the reference architecture that could reduce risks and deliver the expected functionality and quality of a product or a service to its users. The lack of evidence in documenting strategies supporting decision-making in the selection of architectural assets in systems and software engineering creates an impediment in learning, improving and also reducing the risks involved. In order to fill this gap, ten experienced researchers in the field of decision support for the selection of architectural assets in engineering software-intensive systems conducted a workshop to reduce traceability of strategies and define a dedicated taxonomy. The result was the GRADE taxonomy, whose key elements can be used to support decision-making as exemplified through a real case instantiation for validation purposes. The overall aim is to support future work of researchers and practitioners in decision-making in the context of architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The taxonomy may be used in three ways: (i) identify new opportunities in structuring decisions; (ii) support the review of alternatives and enable informed decisions; and (iii) evaluate decisions by describing in a retrospective fashion decisions, factors impacting the decision and the outcome.

  • 447.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Sentilles, Severine
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    The GRADE taxonomy for supporting decision making asset selection in software-intensive system development2018Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 100, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The development of software-intensive systems includes many decisions involving various stakeholders with often conflicting interests and viewpoints. Objective: Decisions are rarely systematically documented and sporadically explored. This limits the opportunity for learning and improving on important decisions made in the development of software-intensive systems. Method: In this work, we enable support for the systematic documentation of decisions, improve their traceability and contribute to potentially improved decision-making in strategic, tactical and operational contexts. Results: We constructed a taxonomy for documentation supporting decision-making, called GRADE. GRADE was developed in a research project that required composition of a common dedicated language to make feasible the identification of new opportunities for better decision support and evaluation of multiple decision alternatives. The use of the taxonomy has been validated through thirty three decision cases from industry. Conclusion: This paper occupies this important yet greatly unexplored research gap by developing the GRADE taxonomy that serves as a common vocabulary to describe and classify decision-making with respect to architectural assets. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 448.
    Parasa, Nitin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Application of Search-based Software Testing toNon-functional system properties: A Validated Framework2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The importance of testing non-functional properties of the system is growing steadily. Complexity factor of the software is growing proportionally with the growing demands and hence attributes like performance, energy consumption and reliability are proving to be very crucial. Optimizing the software with respect to these properties simultaneously with the functional properties has been found to be a challenge. Search-based Software testing automates this process by using different meta-heuristic techniques. It assures the generation of large number of test cases at a minimal cost. Carrying out testing in this context requires lot of expertise and the aid of a highly flexible approach. There is a strong need of a guide that helps the practitioners(testers) and researchers optimize the non-functional properties using Search-based software testing.

    Objectives: The objective of the work presented in this thesis is to, first, investigate the non-functional properties, challenges encountered and approaches/suggestions by the practitioners on the application of Search-based software testing in academia and industry. Second objective is to map all the information into a conceptual/ theoretical framework that could be used by Search-based software testing practitioners for optimizing the non-functional system properties.

    Methods: A qualitative approach has been employed for this thesis work. A literature review with snowball sampling as the search approach was conducted to collect the information regarding the different kinds of systems being tested, the non-functional system properties being optimized, challenges encountered and the tools used for this purpose. Semi-structured interviews are conducted as a part of the validation process and generalizing the results obtained. A total of 9 interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis technique has been used to analyze the collected data.

    Results: As a result of conducting this research, different dimensions forming the framework have been investigated. The overall result of this study is the formulation fo a framework and that has been validated by conducting interviews. The framework consists of 16 challenges related to the field of Non-functional Search-based software testing.

    Conclusions: It is found out that Search-based testing for non-functional properties has not been extensively applied in the industry. It has been suggested, used and applied in academia for the most part. Several factors influence the selection of non-functional properties for optimization. Most of the challenges being faced in this subject are inclined towards three areas in Search-based testing. Performance, execution time and energy consumption are three most popularly tested attributes. Further research could be done wherein the framework generated could be put to use by different practitioners and researchers to find out interesting things.

  • 449. Paternoster, Nicolò
    et al.
    Giardino, Carmine
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Software Development in Startup Companies: A Systematic Mapping Study2014Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, nr 10, s. 1200-1218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software startups are newly created companies with no operating history and fast in producing cutting-edge technologies. These companies develop software under highly uncertain conditions, tackling fast-growing markets under severe lack of resources. Therefore, software startups present an unique combination of characteristics which pose several challenges to software development activities. Objective: This study aims to structure and analyze the literature on software development in startup companies, determining thereby the potential for technology transfer and identifying software development work practices reported by practitioners and researchers. Method: We conducted a systematic mapping study, developing a classification schema, ranking the selected primary studies according their rigor and relevance, and analyzing reported software development work practices in startups. Results: A total of 43 primary studies were identified and mapped, synthesizing the available evidence on software development in startups. Only 16 studies are entirely dedicated to software development in startups, of which 10 result in a weak contribution (advice and implications (6); lesson learned (3); tool (1)). Nineteen studies focus on managerial and organizational factors. Moreover, only 9 studies exhibit high scientific rigor and relevance. From the reviewed primary studies, 213 software engineering work practices were extracted, categorized and analyzed. Conclusion: This mapping study provides the first systematic exploration of the state-of-art on software startup research. The existing body of knowledge is limited to a few high quality studies. Furthermore, the results indicate that software engineering work practices are chosen opportunistically, adapted and configured to provide value under the constrains imposed by the startup context.

  • 450.
    Penmetsa, Sneha
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lingampalli, Navya
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An Empirical Analysis of the Usageand Impact of RequirementsAttributes on RequirementsEngineering Research and Practice: A mixed method approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirement Engineering (RE) is one of the important phases inthe development of any software. Hence, there is a need to take much careon the elicitation and management of these requirements. Attributes playan important role in order to store and manage the important informationabout the requirements. There has been a lot of research performed inthe literature regarding the attributes of requirements engineering, but stillthere is a gap in the research that is concerned to requirement attributesin particular. Hence we focused more on identification and management ofthese requirement attributes.

    Objectives: In the current thesis, we focused mainly on the requirementattributes used in the companies and how they are managed. The majorobjectives we have framed in order to achieve our aim are:

    1. To identify the publication trends in the literature of requirementsengineering that mainly focus on requirement attributes.

    2. To identify the requirement attributes that are used by the softwarecompanies which includes both global attributes and project specificattributes.

    3. To investigate how the requirement engineering models impact theselection of requirement attributes in companies.

    4. To identify the phase and sequence of the requirement attributesbased on the four phases (elicitation, analysis, documentation and validation)of requirements engineering.

    5. To investigate how the requirement attributes help in documentingand managing the continuous changes to requirements.

    Methods: In this thesis, we have performed Systematic Mapping Study(SMS),Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and Survey methods in order to achieveour aim and objectives. SLR is performed through the snowballing procedurebased on the guidelines of Wohlin[1].SMS is performed based on theguidelines of petersen et al.[2]. The main aim of the SMS is to identifythe publication trends in the literature on requirements engineering. Themain aim of SLR is to extract important information about the RE modelsand changes in requirements engineering. The main aim of the Survey is tovalidate the information retrieved from the SLR.

    Results: 83 requirement attributes were identified through the SLR outof which 15 attributes are in common. These 15 attributes are includedin the survey questionnaire. From these attributes, ID and description areidentified as most commonly used attributes from the survey. Publication trends related to requirement attributes are observed from the past 25 yearsrequirement attributes. From the survey, it is observed that there is a highimpact of RE models on requirement attributes. It is also observed thatmaximum number of attributes is stored in the form of documents and indatabases by the companies and the attributes are generally documented inanalysis phase and in specification phase. Results from the survey indicatedthat there is no particular sequence to document the attributes and theyare identified and documented based on the needs.

    Conclusions: This thesis lists different attributes that are used by thecompanies and also gives important information about the requirement attributesin detail that is close to the practical scenarios. It also gives scopefor further researches related to requirement attributes. This thesis helpthe practitioners to know the importance of consideration of requirementattributes in developing a project and its advantages. This work can beextended further by considering large number of attributes and retrievingresponses and opinions by large population.

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