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  • 401.
    Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Linåker, Johan
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Runeson, Per E.R.
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Open innovation using open source tools: a case study at Sony Mobile2018Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 186-223Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest of Open Innovation (OI) in Software Engineering (SE), little is known about what triggers software organizations to adopt it and how this affects SE practices. OI can be realized in numerous of ways, including Open Source Software (OSS) involvement. Outcomes from OI are not restricted to product innovation but also include process innovation, e.g. improved SE practices and methods. This study explores the involvement of a software organization (Sony Mobile) in OSS communities from an OI perspective and what SE practices (requirements engineering and testing) have been adapted in relation to OI. It also highlights the innovative outcomes resulting from OI. An exploratory embedded case study investigates how Sony Mobile use and contribute to Jenkins and Gerrit; the two central OSS tools in their continuous integration tool chain. Quantitative analysis was performed on change log data from source code repositories in order to identify the top contributors and triangulated with the results from five semi-structured interviews to explore the nature of the commits. The findings of the case study include five major themes: i) The process of opening up towards the tool communities correlates in time with a general adoption of OSS in the organization. ii) Assets not seen as competitive advantage nor a source of revenue are made open to OSS communities, and gradually, the organization turns more open. iii) The requirements engineering process towards the community is informal and based on engagement. iv) The need for systematic and automated testing is still in its infancy, but the needs are identified. v) The innovation outcomes included free features and maintenance, and were believed to increase speed and quality in development. Adopting OI was a result of a paradigm shift of moving from Windows to Linux. This shift enabled Sony Mobile to utilize the Jenkins and Gerrit communities to make their internal development process better for its software developers and testers. © 2017 The Author(s)

  • 402.
    Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    How Companies Use OSS Tools Ecosystems for Open Innovation2019Inngår i: IT Professional Magazine, ISSN 1520-9202, E-ISSN 1941-045X, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 40-45, artikkel-id 8896157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving toward the open innovation (OI) model requires multifaceted transformations within companies. It often involves giving away the tools for product development or sharing future product directions with open tools ecosystems. Moving from the traditional closed innovation model toward an OI model for software development tools shows the potential to increase software development competence and efficiency of organizations. We report a case study in software-intensive company developing embedded devices (e.g., smartphones) followed by a survey in OSS communities such as Gerrit, Git, and Jenkins. The studied branch focuses on developing Android phones. This paper presents contribution strategies and triggers for openness. These strategies include avoid forking OSS tools, empower developers to participate in the ecosystem, steer ecosystems through contributions, create business through differentiation, and create new ecosystems. The triggers of openness are from 30 different companies with examples. Finally, openness requires a cultural change aligned with strategies and business models. © 1999-2012 IEEE.

  • 403.
    Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Lund university, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund university, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Open tools for software engineering: Validation of a theory of openness in the automotive industry2019Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF EASE 2019 - EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, s. 2-11Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Open tools (e.g., Jenkins, Gerrit and Git) offer a lucrative alternative to commercial tools. Many companies and developers from OSS communities make a collaborative effort to improve the tools. Prior to this study, we developed an empirically based theory for companies’ strategic choices on the development of these tools, based on empirical observations in the telecom domain. Aim: The aim of this study is to validate the theory of openness for tools in software engineering, in another domain, automotive. Specifically, we validated the theory propositions and mapped the case companies onto the model of openness. Method: We run focus groups in two automotive companies, collecting data in a survey and followup discussions. We used the repertory grid technique to analyze the survey responses, in combination with qualitative data from the focus group, to validate the propositions. Results: Openness of tools has the potential to reduce development costs and time, and may lead to process and product innovation. This study confirms three out of five theory propositions, on cost and time reduction, and the complementary role of open tools. One propositions was not possible to validate due to lack of investment in OSS tools communities by both companies. However, our findings extend the fifth proposition to require management being involved for both the proactive and reactive strategy. Further, we observe that the move towards open tools happen with a paradigm shift towards openness in the automotive domain, and lead to standardization of tools. Both companies confirm that they need legal procedures for the contribution, as well as an internal champion, driving the open tools strategy. Conclusion: We validated the theory, originating from the telecom domain, partially using two automotive companies. Both case companies are classified as laggards (reactive, cost saving) in the model of openness presented in the theory. Furthermore, we would like to have more validations studies to validate the remaining quadrants (e.g., leverage, lucrativeness and leaders). © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 404. Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moayyed, Misagh
    An experimental evaluation of test driven development vs. test-last development with industry professionals2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development approach where test cases are written before actual development of the code in iterative cycles. Context: TDD has gained attention of many software practitioners during the last decade since it has contributed several benefits to the software development process. However, empirical evidence of its dominance in terms of internal code quality, external code quality and productivity is fairly limited. Objective: The aim behind conducting this controlled experiment with professional Java developers is to see the impact of Test-Driven Development (TDD) on internal code quality, external code quality and productivity compared to Test-Last Development (TLD). Results: Experiment results indicate that values found related to number of acceptance test cases passed, McCabe's Cyclomatic complexity, branch coverage, number of lines of code per person hours, number of user stories implemented per person hours are statistically insignificant. However, static code analysis results were found statistically significant in the favor of TDD. Moreover, the results of the survey revealed that the majority of developers in the experiment prefer TLD over TDD, given the lesser required level of learning curve as well as the minimum effort needed to understand and employ TLD compared to TDD.

  • 405.
    Murari, Bhanu Teja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Impact of Internet of Things on Software Business Model and Software Industry2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Internet of things (IoT) technology is rapidly increasing and changes the business environment for a software organization. There is a need to understand what are important factors of business model should a software company focus on obtaining benefits from the potential that IoT offers. This thesis also focuses on finding the impact of IoT on software business model and software industry especially on software development.

    Objectives: In this thesis, we do research on IoT software business model and also software industry. The objectives of this research are included as follows:

    1. Summarize the current business models for IoT and to identify the important factor for IoT business models.

    2. Analyze the impact of IoT on software business models.

    3. Analyze the impact of IoT on Software development especially on requirement engineering.

    4. Provide recommendations how requirements engineering are connected to provide better support business modeling for IoT.

    Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review based on the guidelines suggested by Wohlin, to find the current business model for the IoT. Next, we designed and executed an industrial survey to explore the impact of IoT on a software business model and software development.The results of survey were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test of significance and Friedman test.

    Results: 21 peer reviewed papers were identified which were analyzed in relation to their rigor and relevance. From the literature reviews, results indicate 9 business model elements are being focused on the IoT business models. In addition to this 4 most important business model factors were identified. On the other hand, the industrial survey resulted from 56 survey responses, identified that value proposition is the most important element for the IoT business model. It was also observed that even the impact is high for the value proposition. Regarding the software development, customer demands is highly impactful and moreover, the results suggest that requirement management is highly impactful.

    Conclusions: The current software business models were found for the IoT industries. In additional the software business model elements which were majorly focused in the IoT industries were also identified and the most important factor which brings the value for IoT business models were also discussed. Furthermore the impact of IoT on software business model element and software development, especially on the requirement phase, was analyzed and discussed. This helps the practitioners to understand the impact of IoT on software business models and software industry and helps the organization to improve IoT business to its full potential.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 406.
    Musatoiu, Mihai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An approach to choosing the right distributed file system: Microsoft DFS vs. Hadoop DFS2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. An important goal of most IT groups is to manage server resources in such a way that their users are provided with fast, reliable and secure access to files. The modern needs of organizations imply that resources are often distributed geographically, asking for new design solutions for the file systems to remain highly available and efficient. This is where distributed file systems (DFSs) come into the picture. A distributed file system (DFS), as opposed to a "classical", local, file system, is accessible across some kind of network and allows clients to access files remotely as if they were stored locally.

    Objectives. This paper has the goal of comparatively analyzing two distributed file systems, Microsoft DFS (MSDFS) and Hadoop DFS (HDFS). The two systems come from different "worlds" (proprietary - Microsoft DFS - vs. open-source - Hadoop DFS); the abundance of solutions and the variety of choices that exist today make such a comparison more relevant. Methods. The comparative analysis is done on a cluster of 4 computers running dual-installations of Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2 (the MSDFS environment) and Linux Ubuntu 14.04 (the HDFS environment). The comparison is done on read and write operations on files and sets of files of increasing sizes, as well as on a set of key usage scenarios.

    Results. Comparative results are produced for reading and writing operations of files of increasing size - 1 MB, 2 MB, 4 MB and so on up to 4096 MB - and of sets of small files (64 KB each) amounting to totals of 128 MB, 256 MB and so on up to 4096 MB. The results expose the behavior of the two DFSs on different types of stressful activities (when the size of the transferred file increases, as well as when the quantity of data is divided into (tens of) thousands of many small files). The behavior in the case of key usage scenarios is observed and analyzed.

    Conclusions. HDFS performs better at writing large files, while MSDFS is better at writing many small files. At read operations, the two show similar performance, with a slight advantage for MSDFS. In the key usage scenarios, HDFS shows more flexibility, but MSDFS could be the better choice depending on the needs of the users (for example, most of the common functions can be configured through the graphical user interface).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 407.
    Mutyala, Suhrullekha
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Nelapudi, Shravani
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Assessing Barriers and Facilitators to Evidence Use in Decisions: A Tertiary and Interview Study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Decision-making is a significant step in development process of software engineering. Evidence-based Software Engineering has been one of the strategies attempting to facilitate decision-making process. It follows process of gathering suitable evidence in the aim of making a viable use the evidence.

    Objectives. In this study, evidence use in practice was mainly focused as a part of which barriers and facilitators concerning it were aspired to be obtained from the practitioners. Concerning existing evidence, it was also aimed in finding out and gathering the existing evidence in software engineering, as a contribution to the evidence use in practice.

    Methods. To obtain the outcomes for the specified objectives, an extensive tertiary study and 18 interviews were conducted. The tertiary study was replication of study by Kitchenham et al. [1]. It was also an updated version for the years of 2010 to 2016. The interviews were conducted among the software practitioners from several types of industries and regions.

    Results. 67 SLRs were analysed and extracted to gather and obtain existing evidence. 18 interviews were conducted among software practitioners to assess barriers and facilitators to evidence use in making decisions.

    Conclusions. We conclude from results of tertiary study that the research studies in every sub-domain are available under software engineering and are even increasing year by year. From the analysed results of the semi-structured interviews, it was clear that the implementation of research results in practice is inter-dependant on many major as well as trivial factors concerning the practitioners.

    Reference

    [1] B. Kitchenham et al., “Systematic literature reviews in software engineering – A tertiary study,” Inf. Softw. Technol., vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 792–805, Aug. 2010.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 408. Mäntylä, Mika
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lehtinen, Timo O. A.
    Lassenius, Casper
    Time pressure: a controlled experiment of test case development and requirements review2014Inngår i: 36TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (ICSE 2014), Hyderabad: ACM , 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time pressure is prevalent in the software industry in which shorter and shorter deadlines and high customer demands lead to increasingly tight deadlines. However, the effects of time pressure have received little attention in software engineering research. We performed a controlled experiment on time pressure with 97 observations from 54 subjects. Using a two-by-two crossover design, our subjects performed requirements review and test case development tasks. We found statistically significant evidence that time pressure increases efficiency in test case development (high effect size Cohen’s d=1.279) and in requirements review (medium effect size Cohen’s d=0.650). However, we found no statistically significant evidence that time pressure would decrease effectiveness or cause adverse effects on motivation, frustration or perceived performance. We also investigated the role of knowledge but found no evidence of the mediating role of knowledge in time pressure as suggested by prior work, possibly due to our subjects. We conclude that applying moderate time pressure for limited periods could be used to increase efficiency in software engineering tasks that are well structured and straight forward.

  • 409.
    Münch, Jürgen
    et al.
    Reutlingen University, DEU.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Workshops and tutorials2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. Code 221089, s. 365-369Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 19th International Conference on Product-Focused Software Process Improvement (PROFES 2018) hosted two workshops and three tutorials. The workshops and tutorials complemented and enhanced the main conference program, offering a wider knowledge perspective around the conference topics. The topics of the two workshops were Hybrid Development Approaches in Software Systems Development (HELENA) and Managing Quality in Agile & Rapid Software Development Processes (QUaSD). The topics of the tutorials were The human factor in agile transitions – Using the personas concept in agile coaching, Process Management 4.0 – Best Practices, and Domain-specific languages for specification, development, and testing of autonomous systems. The workshop organizers would like to thank all persons that organized the workshop or contributed to the workshops as well as the presenters of the tutorials. The workshops and tutorials provided interesting forums for discussing ideas, presenting novel work, learning and networking. In the following the workshop and tutorials are summarized based on the content of the respective workshop and tutorial web descriptions. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

  • 410.
    Nadikattu, Srikar Reddy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Integrating User Experience (UX)Development with Agile SoftwareDevelopment Practices.: A Multiple Case Study Involving Organizations DevelopingInteractive Healthcare Technology (IHT) Applications2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. User Experience has become key to product development in recent years, as manyorganizations have realized its role in maintaining high user acceptance ratings. User ExperienceDevelopment and Agile Software Development are two highly iterative processes and user-centricprocesses. While both methods stack up well theoretically, there are many challenges encountered whenthey are integrated together in real-world development scenarios. Similar to Agile development, UserExperience Development, has many phases: performing user research, gathering UCD (User-CenteredDesign) requirements, iterating design activities, and performing usability evaluation through user tests.Executing both processes in parallel and mapping their corresponding phases is a major issue andapplying these principles in development environment is even more challenging. This integration bearseven more significance in the field of healthcare technology, where user-centered requirements ofpatients and medical practitioners need to handled systematically, as there are a wide range ofspecifications that cater to unique individuals. Hence, a case study was conducted in two majororganizations involved in the development of Interactive Healthcare Technology (IHT) applications.

    Objectives. Through a case study, the author attempts to investigate the factors that influence theintegration between UX development and Agile methodologies. These factors include the contemporarytools, processes and methods (TPMs) that are being used integration and the challenges that persistwhen it is applied in industry. The study aims to analyze the Agile-UX development approaches of twodistinct organizations, involved in the same domain, to get an understanding of the mentioned factors.

    Methods. The multiple case study was conducted through interviews, surveys and direct observation.The qualitative data analysis of the surveys was done through thematic analysis. Quantitative dataanalysis was performed on the data gathered from the surveys. A literature review was conducted priorto the case study to gain knowledge on this issue, which also partially answers the research questions.The case study design was kept consistent across both organizations.

    Results. Through the results of the case study and a literature review, current UX development practicesin the industry have been identified. The challenges encountered at both case organizations have been studied. These results are further validated and contrasted with the results of the literature review.Following, a retrospection of the methods employed at the case environments, a set of recommendationsfor better integration was generated. A detailed comparative analysis of Agile-UX integration at twoorganizations has been documented. At the end a generic framework has been proposed based on theanalysis of results acquired.

    Conclusions. Numerous conclusions were drawn from the results and data analysis. Several challengeswere identified through the study, in addition to those suggested by relevant literature. Some of thesewere uniquely prevalent in the field of IHT development. It was found that dynamically changing usercenteredrequirements and late integration of usability and UX development with Agile practices werethe most profound challenges. Adoption of UCD techniques such as Design Studio played a positiverole in easing integration. Usability evaluation and user research are also major factors in the integrationprocess. Lack of time to iterate design and issues in scheduling and performing usability testing had abig impact. Involving users in the design and development process from an early stage is essential toensure high usability and good user experience of the product. The framework designed to counter thesechallenges, takes into account, all these aspects to provide a meticulous Agile-UX integrationframework. Some key conclusion drawn from this framework, are that the application of the “One SprintAhead” approach diminishes many challenges, while performing usability testing in parallel withsystem testing can support integration.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 411.
    Namirimu, Victoria
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    User Requirements for Internet Of Things (IoT) Applications: An Observational study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Internet of Things (IoT) is a new trending phase of technology. IoT refers to communication and connectivity between things such as technological devices, actuators, sensors, and people or processes with unique identifiers. The importance of IoT is to improve the daily living standards of an average user. IoT is made for the people and used by the people for many reasons such as improved health, business innovations, and personal health trackers. Examples of IoT applications and services today include  Smart thermostats like NEST, connected cars like Car2Go, activity trackers like BASIS, smart outlets like Belkin, Parking sensors like streetline and so much more services being developed.

    Objectives. The main goal of this study is to identify the challenges users face in understanding IoT and monitoring it as it undergoes change through self-adaptation. Once the challenges have been known then the gap between system requirements and user requirements can be bridged. The study also states the different ways the developers can improve the IoT services and applications for the users through user feedback.

    Methods. In this paper, an observational study is conducted. Within the study, two data collection methods were used; observational of the users and post observation questionnaires. The observational study was done by video recording users while using the IoT application. This was to obtain information about the IoT. The post observational questionnaires were to obtain information about the users’ judgement of their IoT experience. The IoT application used in this study is a Smart Home Starter Kit. The users are to secure a room with the Smart Home Starter kit. Later on, the users are presented with a post observational questionnaire to further elaborate on their experience in case the researcher missed something while recording. The study was performed with 5 users. The users were found through convenience sampling at the Karlskrona central train station and the Hogsland Park. They were then asked, if they were willing to take part in the study. This number of users was enough to reach saturation needed for the research. The author used a deductive approach together with conventional content analysis method to analyze the data and its quality.

    Results. The research questions of the study focused mainly on learning, maintaining awareness and re-process of the IoT. Re-process of the IoT refers to implementing the IoT with the new information received from user feedback. This enables the IoT to become more user compatible and friendly. When the results of the study were mapped to the research questions, the author deduced that learnability requirements were lacking. The users suggested simpler step by step guidelines would have made their experience with IoT much better. Thus the IoT developers would implement the user feedback through simple online tutorials, an online technician that could guide the users through the IoT application.

    Conclusions. In comparison to related work, the author concluded that there is still a big knowledge gap between the system requirements and the user requirements of the IoT. Many related papers are more focused on what IoT applications to develop and design than the users of the IoT applications. That is where this paper comes in, to bridge the gap. Without focus on users and their needs, then complex IoT systems will fail to accomplish their goal. The users suggested simple step by step approach on how to use the IoT due to the learnability problem that is faced by the majority of them. The product developers can make simpler and more user friendly IoT applications with these results. In the future, User requirements could further get categorized according to the different types of IoT and users. This would make it simpler for the researcher as the scope is narrowed down and at the same time for the IoT developers, as they know what to implement in the IoT applications. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Requirements For Internet of Things (IoT) Applications-An observational study
  • 412.
    Nanduri, V S S N R Ram
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lean + Agile vs Seven Wastes in Software Development2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software Process Improvement uses lean principles for eliminating wastes in the software development process. Waste is defined as anything that does not add value to the customer and product. The seven traditional wastes in software engineering are partially done work, extra process, extra features, waiting, motion, task switching and defects. Using the lean principles and practices, the wastes can be reduced or eliminated. It is important to know the lean practices that are widely used in software development and to know the practices, which captures the seven wastes. From the literature, the ability of waste reduction is theoretically discussed [2], but practically only little empirical evidence is available on ‘which practice is best capable in reducing specific kinds of waste.’ Objectives: Many software development organizations have adopted lean practices and agile practices for eliminating wastes of different kinds. Therefore, this study focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of lean practices in their ability to reduce the seven types of wastes associated with Lean Software Engineering. Methodology: The methodology that is used in this study is systematic literature review and industrial survey. In order to achieve the objective on evaluating the lean practices and agile practices in their ability to reduce the seven types of wastes that have more attention in research, a systematic literature review is conducted. Thereafter, to capture the effectiveness of lean practices in waste removal, a survey is designed to capture the perception of practitioners. Results: The systematic literature review has identified 53 relevant studies to the research topic. From these primary studies, the lean practices/principles, hybrid agile and lean practices, and the efficiency of agile practices in eliminating the seven wastes were identified. In addition to that, wastes that are captured by using lean practices; hybrid lean and agile practices were also identified. The reason for considering agile practices is that, agile and lean have similarities in eliminating the wastes and creating value to the customer [2][3]. Through the systematic literature review, it can be observed that researchers have not investigated all the seven wastes captured by lean practices. Thereafter, survey is the main contribution to this research where, the responses of 55 respondents from different countries were recorded. Most of the respondents are from India with 42% of the responses. We have asked the role of every respondent in their companies, and 19 respondents are Team leaders, 16 respondents are project managers and remaining people perform various other roles in software development. 38 respondents are from large-scale industry, which constitutes the majority part of the survey. The main contribution of the survey is identifying the ability of lean practices in eliminating different wastes. The respondents were asked to provide their level of agreement related to the effectiveness of each lean practices and agile practice in waste removal. A comparison between the results of SLR and survey reveals that there is a lot of variance in the perception of researchers and practitioners regarding the lean practices in eliminating wastes. Survey captures more wastes than SLR. From the results of survey, it was also identified that using the lean practices i.e. Kanban and VSM can eliminate most of the wastes. Kanban (41) and VSM (33) are mostly used and more efficient in industries. Conclusions: To conclude, the obtained results from this study will be quite useful for the real-time execution of lean practices. Team leaders, project managers, and organizations can adopt lean by choosing lean practices in accordance to the wastes that have to be eliminated from their software development process. This study has also identified the benefits and limitations of lean practices implemented in industry. This study helps researchers in providing necessary information that is very useful for further research in lean practices. The combinations of lean practices were also presented, which in terms one lean practice can compensate another in capturing all the seven wastes. In the survey, the additional wastes were identified when compared to SLR and this complements the literature. There is a considerable reach gap between the state of art and state of practice. It has been identified that VSM and Kanban practices have much attention in the literature. The remaining practices like Kotter and Kaizen are less concentrated in most of the research literature. From the literature, it is evident that none of the practices is capable of eliminating all the seven wastes in software development. VSM is capable of capturing wastes like waiting, extra process and motion. In addition, Kanban captures and eliminates wastes like partially done work, defects, task switching and extra features. With respect to the survey, Kanban and VSM practices are efficient in eliminating wastes. When the practitioners consider hybrid lean and agile practices, the combination of Kanban and Scrum, Scrum and VSM are efficient in eliminating wastes. The practitioners can consider the benefits of lean practices that are identified in this research.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 413.
    Nanduru, Pavan Kumar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Non-Functional Requirement Modeling in the Early-Phase Software Product Life Cycle: A Systematic Literature Review and a Meta Model2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Non-functional requirements (NFRs) are important aspects which directly or indirectly determine whether a product is a success or a failure. It becomes essential to incorporate and understand them, before the software product enters the development phase. Despite the increasing emphasis put into NFR studies (namely; models and frameworks etc.) over the past few years, most industries prefer not use these techniques or to deal with NFRs later, in simpler manners. This could limit the efficiency of the development process. Integration of the existing NFR models/frameworks into the earlier phases of the product life cycle can provide a systematic approach to plan and anticipate NFRs for any software product.

    Objectives. This study aims to provide a generic meta model which acts as a compilation of the best NFR models/frameworks integrated into the early phases of the software product life cycle. This study also provides a real-world example which applies the conceptual meta model. Lastly, the meta model undergoes some limited validation to determine its relevance to what is being used and the extent of its practical use.

    Methods. Initially, a systematic literature review (snowballing) was conducted, to identify the different types of NFR models/frameworks. A comparative pro-con analysis was performed on the results of the SLR, which was the basis of the inclusion criteria for the meta model. The conceptual meta model was developed based on the International Software Product Management Association’s (ISPMA) definition of a product life cycle. Each phase of this meta model was imbedded with an NFR model/framework associated to the purpose of that phase and the results from the SLR. The application of the meta model was then demonstrated using a mobile phone example. Finally, the meta model was validated limitedly via an exploratory survey and the results were analyzed.

    Results. The meta model introduced can be used for the constructive inclusion of NFRs from product inception to product development. All phases required for the fulfillment of an NFR, are included. The overall positive feedback of the meta model is at 67%. Validations and assessments by practitioners helped determine to some extent that some industries are open to using the approach. Keeping in mind most of the available models on NFRs have not been validated, the NFR works used in this research have gone through some preliminary validation in this study.

    Conclusions. The study promotes the use of NFR models in the early phases of the software product life cycle. Some of the best modeling techniques were included based on results of literature analysis and their capability to fit into each phase. This study also analyzed the various insights of practitioners and researchers, justifying the significance of modeling, and the proposed technique. Possible extensions to this research were also mentioned.

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  • 414.
    Nasir, Nayla
    et al.
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MYS.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Implementing Value Stream Mapping in a Scrum-based project: An Experience Report2018Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2273, s. 38-43Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    —The value stream mapping is one of the lean practices, that helps to visualize the whole process and identifies any bottlenecks affecting the flow. Proper management of the value stream can significantly contribute towards waste elimination by categorizing process activities to be either value adding or non value-adding. Lean development focuses on the value through the elimination of waste. Adding value through embracing change and customer satisfaction are also the benefits of Scrum. This study reports our experience regarding the implementation of VSM with Scrum. We followed the action research method, with an objective to see if VSM can contribute to the identification and reduction of wastes in a Scrum-based project. We identified a noticeable amount of waste even with strict compliance to the Scrum practices. On the basis of identified waste, their root causes, and possible mitigation strategy we have proposed a future state map, that could help improve the productivity of the process. The results of our study are encouraging, and we suggest that adoption of VSM with Scrum could add more value to the Scrum-based projects. Copyright © 2018 for this paper by its authors.

  • 415.
    Nass, Michel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Augmented testing: Industry feedback to shape a new testing technology2019Inngår i: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 176-183Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Manual testing is the most commonly used approach in the industry today for acceptance-and system-testing of software applications. Test automation has been suggested to address drawbacks with manual testing but both test automation and manual testing have several challenges that limit their return of investment for system-and acceptance-test automation. Hence, there is still an industrial need for another approach to testing that can mitigate the challenges associated with system-and acceptance-testing and make it more efficient and cost effective for the industry. In this paper we present a novel technique we refer to as Augmented Testing (AT). AT is defined as testing through a visual layer between the tester and the System Under Test (SUT) that superimposes information on top of the GUI. We created a prototype for AT and performed an industrial workshop study with 10 software developers to get their perceived benefits and drawbacks of AT. The benefits and drawbacks will be useful for further development of the technique and prototype for AT. The workshop study identified more benefits than drawbacks with AT. Two of the identified benefits were: 'Know what to test and what has been tested' and 'Less manual work'. Due to these results, we believe that AT is a promising technique that deserves more research since it may provide industry with new benefits that current techniques lack. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 416.
    Nekkanti, Lakshmi Sowjanya
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Impact of coordination challenges on quality of global software development projects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Global software development (GSD) gained huge recognition in today’s business world. Most of the software companies day by day are striving hard to evolve globally where software is developed in the context of different environmental settings that are distanced on various factors like geography, timezone, culture and language. Coordination is the factor that plays one of the prominent roles in such a setting for effective teamwork and project success. Although numerous efforts has been done in this research area, there has been no proper evidence from industry about the impact of these coordination challenges on the overall quality of the software when being developed in a distributed setting.

    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to examine and identify the coordination challenges and risks faced in global software development projects that has a negative impact on the quality of software from practitioner’s perspective. It also identify the tools, methods, and techniques that are used in industry to overcome these challenges and maintain quality standards.

    Methods. The aims and objectives of our study are fulfilled by conducting survey among practitioners working in GSD projects all around the globe. Further, 10 interviews are conducted with practitioners working in different companies and geographical locations in order to gain a detailed understanding of the impact of identified coordination challenges on the quality of software in GSD projects.

    Results. A total of 50 survey responses are recorded, out of which 48 respondents specify that coordination challenges has a negative impact on software quality in GSD context. By the ratings given by the participants, we identified the challenges and risks that had a major impact. Mixed results are obtained during interviews where most of them prioritized coordination as a major problem in GSD projects. It also included that use of some tools, methods and processes help them in overcoming this issue. The quality attributes that are mostly affected due to the challenges in GSD projects are also identified.

    Conclusions. After the analysis of survey results, the coordination challenges and associated risks in GSD projects are identified. They were found to havemostly negative impact on software quality. After thematic analysis of interview results, we observed that though the impact of coordination challenges is negative, its extent of implication is moderate in most cases.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 417.
    Nielsen, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Tollemark, David
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Code readability: Code comments OR self-documenting code: How does the choice affect the readability of the code?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Code readability is something every software developer tackles every day. In order for efficient maintainability and learning of a program the documentation needs to be of high quality.

    Objectives: This thesis is attempting to show what the general perspective the software developers have. We investigate which method that is preferred and why. We will also look at readability and what similarities and differences there are among students and IT professionals.

    Conclusion: We have collected data from several sources. Firstly from a literature review where different papers within the field are presented. Secondly from two separate surveys conducted on students and IT professionals.

    From our results we found that documentation is something that software developers heavily rely on and that the need for extensive documentation differs with working experience.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 418.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Att hindra en Notpetya- och WannaCry-attack: Redogörelse med förebyggande metoder och tekniker2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    WannaCry och NotPetya är två ransomware-program som använder sig av National Security Agency (NSA) läckta penetreringsverktyg EternalBlue för att få operativsystemsbehörighet över ett Windowssystem som tillåter kommunikation med dess Service Message Block (SMB) server. WannaCry och NotPetya utnyttjar detta genom att söka igenom systemets alla lagringsmedier efter användarfiler och krypterar sedan dessa med både symmetriska och asymmetriska krypteringsalgoritmer.

    För att få tillgång till den nyckel som används för att dekryptera filerna krävs det att offret betalar förövaren en specifik summa, vanligtvis i Bitcoin. Det finns ingen garanti att filerna återfås efter betalning utan endast förövarens ord, uttryckt i ett utpressningsmeddelande som först uppenbarar sig efter att alla filer krypterats.

    Det finns flera metoder och tekniker som kan användas för att bygga ett försvar mot att ransomware infekterar eller kryptera data. En metod för att förhindra att NotPetya och WannaCry infektera ett system är att blockera all kommunikation med Windows-systemets SMB-server. Eftersom detta förhindrar alla program från att kommunicera med systemet genom SMB protokollet utgör denna metod endast ett alternativ om systemet inte är beroende av funktioner så som fil och skrivardelning.

    En metod för att förhindra att data försvinner vid en eventuell infektion är att kontinuerligt säkerhetskopiera sina filer till externa lagringsmedier så som till CD-skivor, USB-minnen och hårddiskar. Detta gör det möjligt att återfå data efter en infektion och offret behöver därför inte att förlita sig på förövaren för att få tillbaka sina filer.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    BTH2018NilssonA
  • 419.
    Nilsson, Gunvor
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Smarta gränssnitt för flexibel effektanvändning: - Stäng av ugnen, jag måste ladda bilen!2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom en snar framtid kommer allt fler villaägare välja att skaffa elbil. Därigenom kommer det lokala elnätet att utsättas för stora utmaningar i form av oregelbunden belastning och potentiell överlast. Studien undersöker om man med mjukvara kan underlätta och få till stånd en effektstyrning av energi i lokalnätet, såväl som i den egna villan. Med hjälp av befintliga rapporter,webbfrågor och intervjuer kartläggs olika berörda aktörers inställning till, och beredskap för, attfördela last.

    En testbädd för att ta fram förslag till styrning på olika nivåer med fokus på villor, lokalnät och elbilar med laddplats har tagits fram. Testappar med olika grad av information och olika möjlighet till påverkan har knutits därtill. 

    En slutsats av arbetet är att effektstyrning måste ske och i ökande omfattning. I steg 1 kan det räcka att flytta användningen några timmar från eftermiddag till natt. Framöver när en stor andel fordon blir eldrivna behöver elnätsbolagen mer aktivt få styra sina elnätskunders effektuttag i tiden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    BTH2018Nilsson
  • 420.
    Nilsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Jonasson, Andreas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Using Artificial Intelligence for Gameplay Testing On Turn-Based Games2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Game development is a constantly evolving multi billion dollar in-dustry, and the need for quality products is very high. Testing the games however isa very time consuming and tedious task, often coming down to repeating sequencesuntil a requirement has been met. But what if some parts of it could be automated,handled by an artificial intelligence that can play the game day and night, givingstatistics about the gameplay as well as reports about errors that occurred duringthe session?

    Objectives. This thesis is done in cooperation with Fall Damage Studio AB, andaims to find and implement a suitable artificial intelligent agent to perform auto-mated test on a game Fall Damage Studio AB are currently developing, ProjectFreedom. The objective is to identify potential problems, benefits, and use casesof using a technique such as this. A secondary objective is to also identify what isneeded by the game for this kind of technique to be useful.

    Methods. To test the technique, aMonte-Carlo Tree Searchalgorithm was identi-fied as the most suitable algorithm and implemented for use in two different typesof experiments. The first being to evaluate how varying limitations in terms of thenumber of iterations and depth affected the results of the algorithm. This was doneto see if it was possible to change these factors and find a point where acceptablelevels of plays were achieved and further increases to these factors gave limited en-hancements to this level but increased the time. The second experiment aimed toevaluate what useful data can be extracted from a game, both in terms of gameplayrelated data as well as error information from crashes. Project Freedom was onlyused for the second test due to constraints that was out of scope for this thesis totry and repair.

    Results. The thesis has identified several requirements that is needed for a game touse a technique such as this in an useful way. For Monte-Carlo Tree Search specifi-cally, the game is required to have a gamestate that is quick to create a copy of anda game simulation that can be run in a short time. The game must also be testedfor the depth and iteration point that hit the point where the value of increasingthese values diminish. More generally, the algorithm of choice must be a part of thedesign process and different games might require different kind of algorithms to use.Adding this type of algorithm at a late stage in development, as was done for thisthesis, might be possible if precautions are taken.

    Conclusions. This thesis shows that using artificial intelligence agents for game-play testing is definitely possible, but it needs to be considered in the early part ofthe development process as no one size fits all approach is likely to exist. Differentgames will have their own requirements, some potentially more general for that typeof game, and some will be unique for that specific game. Thus different algorithmswill work better on certain types of games compared to other ones, and they willneed to be tweaked to perform optimally on a specific game.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 421.
    Nilsson, Kristian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Jönsson, Hans-Eric
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A comparison of image and object level annotation performance of image recognition cloud services and custom Convolutional Neural Network models2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in machine learning has contributed to an explosive growth of the image recognition field. Simultaneously, multiple Information Technology (IT) service providers such as Google and Amazon have embraced cloud solutions and software as a service. These factors have helped mature many computer vision tasks from scientific curiosity to practical applications. As image recognition is now accessible to the general developer community, a need arises for a comparison of its capabilities, and what can be gained from choosing a cloud service over a custom implementation.

    This thesis empirically studies the performance of five general image recognition services (Google Cloud Vision, Microsoft Computer Vision, IBM Watson, Clarifai and Amazon Rekognition) and image recognition models of the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture that we ourselves have configured and trained. Image and object level annotations of images extracted from different datasets were tested, both in their original state and after being subjected to one of the following six types of distortions: brightness, color, compression, contrast, blurriness and rotation. The output labels and confidence scores were compared to the ground truth of multiple levels of concepts, such as food, soup and clam chowder.

    The results show that out of the services tested, there is currently no clear top performer over all categories and they all have some variations and similarities in their output, but on average Google Cloud Vision performs the best by a small margin. The services are all adept at identifying high level concepts such as food and most mid-level ones such as soup. However, in terms of further specifics, such as clam chowder, they start to vary, some performing better than others in different categories. Amazon was found to be the most capable at identifying multiple unique objects within the same image, on the chosen dataset. Additionally, it was found that by using synonyms of the ground truth labels, performance increased as the semantic gap between our expectations and the actual output from the services was narrowed. The services all showed vulnerability to image distortions, especially compression, blurriness and rotation. The custom models all performed noticeably worse, around half as well compared to the cloud services, possibly due to the difference in training data standards. The best model, configured with three convolutional layers, 128 nodes and a layer density of two, reached an average performance of almost 0.2 or 20%.

    In conclusion, if one is limited by a lack of experience with machine learning, computational resources and time, it is recommended to make use of one of the cloud services to reach a more acceptable performance level. Which to choose depends on the intended application, as the services perform differently in certain categories. The services are all vulnerable to multiple image distortions, potentially allowing adversarial attacks. Finally, there is definitely room for improvement in regards to the performance of these services and the computer vision field as a whole.

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  • 422.
    Nilsson, Robin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Battery Performance Comparison Of Unreal Engine 4 And Unity Applications Running On Android2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis evaluates the battery performance of two widely known game engines and compares the results to find the most battery friendly choice. Unity and Unreal Engine 4 are the two engines being compared; it aims to fill the need for research around mobile games battery performance. Smartphones battery life issues becomes more and more common with the powerful smartphones we use in today’s society. They are becoming faster every year, but the batteries stay the same. Power hungry games are not uncommon to find on the biggest game market that has surpassed the combined income of PC and Console games. Tests were performed on an Android system where multiple applications were tested while the battery consumption was measured. The applications are testing how different 2D or 3D components will impact the battery consumption compared to their baseline idling consumption. This thesis provides instructions on how the test applications were developed and which components were included. The findings show that the components had very little impact on the battery consumption for both Unity and Unreal Engine 4. Unity consumed between 1,1 – 1,4 % (36-42mAh) battery for all applications, Unreal Engine 4 consumed between 1,3 – 1,6% (39-48mAh) battery. This thesis conclusion is that Unreal Engine 4 game components require more battery power than the corresponding components of Unity. Therefore, Unity is according to the findings of this thesis a more battery friendly game engine for android games. These results mean that those who looks to create a smaller 2D or 3D game would get a more battery friendly application if they chose to use Unity. However, the results are limited because of how features like gyro, GPS and bigger applications were not included in the performed test cases.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 423.
    Nilsson, Sebastian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The Current State of DDoS Defense2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A DDoS attack is an attempt to bring down a machine connected to the Internet. This is done by having multiple computers repeatedly sending requests to tie up a server making it unable to answer legitimate requests. DDoS attacks are currently one of the biggest security threats on the internet according to security experts. We used a qualitative interview with experts in IT security to gather data to our research. We found that most companies are lacking both in knowledge and in their protection against DDoS attacks. The best way to minimize this threat would be to build a system with redundancy, do a risk analysis and revise security policies. Most of the technologies reviewed were found ineffective because of the massive amount of data amplification attacks can generate. Ingress filtering showed promising results in preventing DDoS attacks by blocking packages with spoofed IP addresses thus preventing amplification attacks.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 424.
    Nilsson, Simon
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Automated Culling of Data in a Relational Database for Archiving2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Archiving of legacy information systems is challenging. When no options exist for extracting the information in a structured way, the last resort is to save the database. Optimally only the information that is relevant should be saved and the rest of the information could be removed.

    Objectives. The goal is to develop a method for assisting the archivist in the process of culling a database before archiving. The method should be described as rules defining how the tables can be identified.Methods. To get an overview of how the process works today and what archivists think can be improved, a number of interviews with experts in database archiving is done. The results from the interviews are then analysed, together with test databases to define rules that can be used in a general case. The rules are then implemented in a prototype that is tested and evaluated to verify if the method works.

    Results. The results point to the algorithm being both faster and able to exclude more irrelevant tables than a person could do with the manual method. An algorithm for finding candidate keys has also been improved to decrease the number of tests and execution time in the worst case.

    Conclusions. The evaluation shows results that point to the method working as intended while resulting in less work for the archivist. More work should be done on this method to improve it further.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 425.
    Nimmakayala, Akhilesh
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gudivada, Venkata Sai Anurudh
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The significance of Software Engineering Management in Software projects: A study on Project Management success factors, an ideal Project Manager and the current state of Project Management Education2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Management is an essential factor in any organization let alone its kind and size. Project management is the art and science of planning and implementing a project to achieve the desired outcome. Project Management (PM) plays a crucial role in businesses which are bound to function in a team-based environment regardless of the type of business. Although a variety of project management practices are employed in different kinds of industries, it is well understood that the style and level of employment of these project management practices have a significant impact on the project success. The software engineering industry has its own project management practices and the employment of these practices depends on the project manager who thus plays a key role in project management. Project manager has been a ubiquitous feature of traditional software projects. Project managers are a merger of personal characteristics and areas of competency that act together to integrate the various components of a project. In this study, the author discusses about the concept of software engineering management, various characteristics and key competencies of a project manager and also the factors influencing the overall success of a project. The authors also discuss about the current state and importance of PM education and its influence in the real time industry.

    Objectives. This research study is to analyze and make conclusions about the ideal features of a project manager and therefore attempt to understand its association with critical factors of PM for a project’s success in terms of delivering the product as scheduled and also understand various non-PM factors that are critical for project success. The study also attempts to show the significance of studying PM specifically in the context of Software Engineering as different from other contexts and the importance of PM education in academics and teaching PM in the industry.

    Methods. To achieve the objectives of this research, we attempt to study project management in the context of Software Engineering by conducting a literature review followed with a descriptive Survey as our research methods for this study to show how far literature complies to the present-day views and overall form a common opinion on this subject by comparing both the findings.

    Results. The results yielded by conducting a literature review conclude that Project Management or Software Engineering Management plays a vital role in software projects. Various factors that contribute towards successful project management were identified. Also, relevant literature was reviewed to identify the characteristics and competencies of an effective project manager and the status of project management education in academics and in the software engineering industry. The results obtained from the literature review were used in designing a survey and were further used to compare with and validate the results of this survey. A thorough analysis of these results yielded in capturing the current status and views with a snapshot of the situation in the present Software Engineering industry. A clear view on the subject area and results from a sample population of 73 software engineering professionals consisting of up to 41 experienced managers were analyzed, commented and documented.

    Conclusions. Various conclusions were drawn including discussions on the compliances and contradictions between present literature and software professionals in the present industry have been made. It was found that the majority of software professionals believe that project management in software engineering is unique from project management in other disciplines. It was found that professionals believe project management to be highly to very highly crucial for the overall success of software projects and that the most important key factors for successful project management were team motivation, communication and risk management. It was found that ‘Ability to foresee a problem’, ‘Decision making’ and ‘Inspires a shared vision’ were among the top three characteristics and ‘Team management’, ‘Leadership’ and ‘Ability to work under pressure’ were among the top three competencies of an effective project manager. It was found that managers feel the need to be taught about project management standards and that the ‘PMBoK’ and ‘ISO 9001’ were the most popular standards implemented. It was found that there are very contrasting views among companies on training project managers before promoting them to managerial positions whereas managers expect to be trained.

    Keywords: Software Engineering Management, Software Project Management, Project Manager, Project Success, Project Management Education, Software Engineering.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    BTH2018Nimmakayala
  • 426.
    Nitesh Varma Rudraraju, Nitesh
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Varun Boyanapally, Varun
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Data Quality Model for Machine Learning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: - Machine learning is a part of artificial intelligence, this area is now continuously growing day by day. Most internet related services such as Social media service, Email Spam, E-commerce sites, Search engines are now using machine learning. The Quality of machine learning output relies on the input data, so the input data is crucial for machine learning and good quality of input data can give a better outcome to the machine learning system. In order to achieve quality data, a data scientist can use a data quality model on data of machine learning. Data quality model can help data scientists to monitor and control the input data of machine learning. But there is no considerable amount of research done on data quality attributes and data quality model for machine learning.

    Objectives: - The primary objectives of this paper are to find and understand the state-of-art and state-of-practice on data quality attributes for machine learning, and to develop a data quality model for machine learning in collaboration with data scientists.

    Methods: - This paper mainly consists of two studies: - 1) Conducted a literature review in the different database in order to identify literature on data quality attributes and data quality model for machine learning. 2) An in-depth interview study was conducted to allow a better understanding and verifying of data quality attributes that we identified from our literature review study, this process is carried out with the collaboration of data scientists from multiple locations. Totally of 15 interviews were performed and based on the results we proposed a data quality model based on these interviewees perspective.

    Result: - We identified 16 data quality attributes as important from our study which is based on the perspective of experienced data scientists who were interviewed in this study. With these selected data quality attributes, we proposed a data quality model with which quality of data for machine learning can be monitored and improved by data scientists, and effects of these data quality attributes on machine learning have also been stated.

    Conclusion: - This study signifies the importance of quality of data, for which we proposed a data quality model for machine learning based on the industrial experiences of a data scientist. This research gap is a benefit to all machine learning practitioners and data scientists who intended to identify quality data for machine learning. In order to prove that data quality attributes in the data quality model are important, a further experiment can be conducted, which is proposed in future work.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    BTH2019RudrarajuBoyanapally
  • 427.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Introduction of Agile Practices: Strategies and Impacts2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software development organizations frequently face changes that require them to be flexible. The principles and practices of Agile software are often associated with improving software organizations’ flexibility. However, introducing Agile practices have its benefits and limitations. To amplify benefits and alleviate challenges, Agile adoption guidelines are being proposed to provide strategies for introducing Agile practices. One instance of such guidelines is known as Agile Maturity Models (AMMs). AMMs typically suggest that Agile practices are introduced in certain orders. However, AMMs provide contradictory strategies. Thus it is not known whether one strategy to introduce Agile practices is better than others.

    Objective: The objective of this thesis is to gather and examine the evidence on the different strategies of introducing Agile practices, particularly on the order of introduction as suggested in the AMMs. The thesis seeks if one order for introducing Agile practices is better than others.

    Method: Combination of empirical studies were used in this thesis. The data collection was done through a survey and semi-structured interviews. This involved analyzing the introduction of Agile practices over time, i.e. the start and/or end of Agile practices. A qualitative method like qualitative coding was used to analyze data obtained from the interviews. Different quantitative methods like inferential statistics and social network analysis were also used. Literature studies were also conducted to provide background and support for the empirical studies.

    Results: The examination of the evidence indicates that there is not one strategy to introduce Agile practices that would yield better results than others. The lack of conclusive evidence could be caused by the lack of consideration on reporting the context of empirical studies, particularly on the baseline situation, i.e. situation prior to Agile introduction. A checklist is proposed to capture a baseline contextual information focusing on internal organizational aspects of a software organization: the constellation of team members’ skills and experience, management principles, existing practices and systems characteristics of the software under development. The checklist was validated  by seven experts in academia. The experts who participated in the validation perceived the checklist to be useful and relevant to research.

    Conclusion:  The studies presented in this thesis can be a useful input for researchers who are conducting an empirical study in Agile software development. The checklist proposed in this thesis could be used to help researchers to improve their research design when evaluating the extent of improvements from introducing Agile practices. If researchers use the checklist, consistency across empirical studies can be improved. Consistency in reporting empirical studies is desired for comparing and aggregating evidence. In turn, this will help practitioners to make a fair assessment whether research results are relevant to their contexts and to what extent the results are helpful for them.

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  • 428.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Managing requirements interdependencies in agile software development: A preliminary result2016Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, E-ISSN 1613-0073, Vol. 1564Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently managing requirement interdependencies using Agile practices is relatively unexplored. This study explores the state of practice of managing requirements interdependencies in Agile software development through a survey. A total of 52 complete responses were obtained, with 50% of the respondents suggesting that they consider requirements interdependencies. The preliminary result indicates that requirements interdependencies become a greater concern as the project and product complexity increases.

  • 429.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Understanding flexibility of a software organization2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Flexibility is an important capability for a software organization. Without flexibility a software organization risks losing its competitive advantage. To build software organization flexibility every constituent of the organization need to be taken into account. Otherwise there are unforeseen trade-offs that could have negative impacts on the rest of the organization. However, currently known flexibility approaches, such as, Agile and Lean methodologies are currently implemented at project level. There is a need for an approach that provides a holistic view to build software organization flexibility.

     

    Objective: The aim of this licentiate thesis to understand challenges that a software organization faces with respect to flexibility and how flexibility is built, and explore the potential of Agile and Lean practices to build software organization flexibility. Particularly in understanding the process of building software organization and the associated trade-offs.

    Method: A grounded theory study and a tertiary study were performed as part of this licentiate thesis. A grounded theory study was conducted to gain a better understanding pertaining to the challenges and processes in building software organization flexibility. The data was collected from an IT Department that provides services to a Fortune 500 financial institution. A tertiary study was performed to identify empirically evaluated Agile and Lean practices and their respective impacts. The findings from the tertiary study were synthesized using qualitative meta-study method.

     

    Results: The findings in this thesis uncovered a number of challenges that a software organization faces with respect to flexibility, they include budget cuts, overhead due to inconsistent development process, and regulatory changes. These challenges then can cause uncertainties that impede the organization’s op-erational efficiency, like delays and inefficient use of resources. To cope with the uncertainty, a software organization would build its flexibility through modi- fications of its organization constituents. Processes and trade-offs associatedi with achieving flexibility were also identified. Furthermore, a consolidated view of the impacts of Agile and Lean practices and their empirical support is also provided.

     

    Conclusion: With the challenges that a software organization face, build- ing software organization flexibility is becoming more prevalent. To improve software organization flexibility different constituents of the organization needs to be considered. Otherwise, the trade-offs associated to achieving flexibility cannot be thoroughly considered. Furthermore, Agile and Lean practices can have positive, negative, or no impacts on quality, budget, schedule, etc. The findings of this thesis can help practitioners identify flexibility needs, as well as improve their awareness of possible negative trade-offs when building software organization flexibility.

     

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  • 430.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization2018Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, nr 9, artikkel-id e1937Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software developing organizations strive to achieve flexibility to maintain a competitive advantage. There is no common understanding of what characterize flexibility for a software organization beyond the scope of the software product. Without a common understanding, it is difficult to evaluate the degrees of flexibility of software development approaches. The aim of this literature review is to collect attributes that characterize flexibility. The collected attributes are consolidated into a flexibility framework with 3 main attributes: properties of change, flexibility perspectives, and flexibility enablers. The resulting flexibility framework is then used to evaluate Agile and Lean practices. The evaluation shows that Agile and Lean practices address many flexibility attributes. However, some attributes are not addressed, such as infrastructure flexibility and strategic flexibility. On the basis of our evaluation, the classifications of flexibility attributes that we present in this paper could be used to aid software organization flexibility evaluation.

  • 431.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The impacts of agile and lean practices on project constraints: A tertiary study2016Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 119, s. 162-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in Agile and Lean software development is reflected in the increasing number of secondary studies on the benefits and limitations of Agile and Lean processes and practices. The aim of this tertiary study is to consolidate empirical evidence regarding Agile and Lean practices and their respective impacts on project constraints as defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK): scope, quality, schedule, budget, resources, communication, and risk. In this tertiary study, 13 secondary studies were included for detailed analysis. Given the heterogeneity of the data, we were unable to perform a rigorous synthesis. Instead, we mapped the identified Agile and Lean practices, and their impacts on the project constraints described in PMBOK. From 13 secondary studies, we identified 13 Agile and Lean practices. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is studied in ten secondary studies, meanwhile other practices are studied in only one or two secondary studies. This tertiary study provides a consolidated view of the impacts of Agile and Lean practices. The result of this tertiary study indicates that TDD has a positive impact on external quality. However, due to insufficient data or contradictory results, we were unable to make inferences on other Agile and Lean practices. Implications for research and practice are further discussed in the paper. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 432.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Strategies to Introduce Agile Practices: Comparing Agile Maturity Models with Practitioners’ExperienceInngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) have been proposed to provide guidance for adopting Agile practices. Evaluations of AMMs indicatethat they might not be suitable for industry use. One issue is that AMMs have mainly been evaluated against pre-defined sets of criteria, instead of industry practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to: (1) compare current AMMs regarding their guidance for Agile adoption, (2) investigate the strategies for Agile adoption used by practitioners, and (3) investigate similarities and differences between (1) and (2). Methods: We conducted a literature survey that included grey literature to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We also conducted a survey and 11 interviews to identify the strategies used by practitioners to introduce Agile practices. This study combines quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: From the literature survey we found 26 AMMs, whereof 12 provide explicit mappings of Agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement in when practices should be introduced. Based on 40 survey responses we identified three high-level strategies for introducing Agile practices: big-bang, incremental, and complex strategies. The survey andinterviews revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned well with industry practice and that Agile practices might already be in place before an organization starts a transition to Agile. Conclusion: In their current form, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide Agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for Agile adoption that works better than others.

  • 433.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Preliminary Checklist for Capturing Baseline Situations in Studying the Impacts of Agile Practices Introduction2018Inngår i: IEEE-ACM International Workshop on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry CESI, IEEE Computer Society, 2018, s. 25-28Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the benefits of introducing Agile practices, it is important to get a clear understanding of the baseline situation, i.e. the situation before their introduction. Without a clear baseline, we cannot properly assess the extent of impacts, both positive and negative, of introducing Agile practices. This paper provides a preliminary guideline to help researchers in capturing and reporting baseline situations. The guideline has been developed through the study of literature and interviews with industry practitioners, and validated by experts in academia.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 434.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Usage, Retention, and Abandonment of Agile Practices2019Inngår i: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 7-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A number of Agile maturity models (AMMs) have been proposed to guide software organizations in their adoption of Agile practices. Typically the AMMs suggest that higher maturity levels are reached by gradually adding more practices. However, recent research indicates that certain Agile practices, like test-driven development and continuous integration are being abandoned. Little is known on the rationales for abandoning Agile practices. Aim: We aim to identify which Agile practices are abandoned in industry, as well as the reasons for abandoning them. Method: We conducted a web survey with 51 respondents and interviews with 11 industry practitioners with experience in Agile adoption to investigate why Agile practices are abandoned. Results: Of the 17 Agile practices that were included in the survey, all have been abandoned at some point. Nevertheless, respondents who retained all practices as well as those who abandoned one or more practices, perceived their overall adoption of Agile practices as successful. Conclusion: Going against the suggestions of the AMMs, i.e. abandoning Agile one or more practices, could still lead to successful outcomes. This indicates that introducing Agile practices gradually in a certain sequence, as the AMMs suggest, may not always be suitable in different contexts.

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    fulltext
  • 435.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Understanding the order of agile practice introduction: Comparing agile maturity models and practitioners’ experience2019Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) suggest that agile practices are introduced in a certain order. However, whether the order of agile practice introduction as suggested in the AMMs is relevant in industry has not been evaluated in an empirical study. Objectives: In this study, we want to investigate: (1) order of agile practice introduction mentioned in AMMs, (2) order of introducing agile practices in industry, and (3) similarities and differences between (1) and (2). Methods: We conducted a literature survey to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We then compared the AMMs’ suggestions to the strategies used by practitioners, which we elicited from a survey and a series of interviews from an earlier study. Results: The literature survey revealed 12 AMMs which provide explicit mappings of agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement on when practices should be introduced. Comparison of the AMMs’ suggestions and the empirical study revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned with industry practice. Conclusion: Currently, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for agile adoption that works better than others. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 436.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An Analysis of Change Scenarios of an IT Organization for Flexibility Building2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexibility is important for software organizations to cope with changes demanded in the business environment. So far, flexibility has been extensively studied from a software product and software development process point of view. However, there is little work on how to build flexibility at the level of the whole software organization. Thus, there is no clear understanding of how to effectively improve the ability of an organization to respond to changes in a timely fashion and with little effort. This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study on how flexibility is built and improved in an IT organization and provides a holistic and explanatory view of how this is achieved. Implications for research and practices are also provided.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 437.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Towards Understanding How To Build Strategic Flexibility Of An IT Organization2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IT organizations need to react to changes in the business, the domain (e.g., regulatory issues), and the technological development. While some of these changes can be handled by adopting agile practices, others might have large, irreversible effects on the organization as a whole. While flexibility and agility have found their way into software project methodologies, IT organizations struggle with their adaptation at organizational level. This paper presents preliminary results of a grounded-theory study aimed at understanding how experienced managers handle flexibility. The results are a rich empirical source for improving flexibility of an IT organization at the strategic level and also a good starting point for further research towards generalizing agile ideas beyond software projects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 438.
    Ocieszak, Marcin
    et al.
    Kozminski University, POL.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Callele, David
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    On the use of Financial Valuation Techniques in Requirements Engineering2018Inngår i: 2018 1ST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LEARNING FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES FOR REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING (D4RE 2018) / [ed] Trapp M.,Hess A.,Lauenroth K., IEEE Communications Society, 2018, s. 16-17, artikkel-id 8595128Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates methods and techniquesfrom finance for supporting value estimation for features orrequirements. We discuss the applicability and challenges as-sociated with applying financial techniques for feature valueestimation and for supporting requirements prioritization

  • 439.
    Ocieszak, Marcin
    et al.
    Kozminski University, POL.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Callele, David
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    Using financial valuation techniques to minimize waste in requirements scoping2019Inngår i: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 27th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 3-6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents our initial experiences with employing option theory and NPV techniques for optimizing waste reduction in requirements scoping. Inspired by financial market theories, we analyze a large requirements scoping decision making history from the mobile handset domain. We outline how we can optimize waste reduction in requirements scoping by modeling the neutral, positive and negative scenarios, giving each of the scenarios appropriate budget and development team commitment. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 440.
    Ohlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Öman, Dan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A guide in the Big Data jungle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis looks at the functionality of different frameworks for data analysis atlarge scale and the purpose of it is to serve as a guide among available tools. The amount ofdata that is generated every day keep growing and for companies to take advantage of thedata they collect they need to know how to analyze it to gain maximal use out of it. Thechoice of platform for this analysis plays an important role and you need to look in to thefunctionality of the different alternatives that are available. We have created a guide to makethis research easier and less time consuming. To evaluate our work we created a summaryand a survey which we asked a number of ITstudents,current and previous, to take part in.After analyzing their answers we could see that most of them find our thesis interesting andinformative.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 441. Oliinyk, O.
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Schoelzke, M.
    Becker, M.
    Schneickert, S.
    Metrics for the evaluation of feature models in an industrial context: A case study at opel2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context & motivation] Feature models are used in product line engineering to document possible product configurations on the feature level. [Problem] In order to quantify the success of adopting feature modeling in practice, we need to understand the industry relevant metrics for feature model evaluation. [Solution] In order to identify the metrics a Goal-Question-Metric approach was used in the context of a case study conducted at Adam Opel AG. [Contribution:] We identified seven goals (quality criteria) we should strive for and evaluate when using feature models. Furthermore, we identified 18 sub-goals, 27 questions and corresponding metrics. The metrics were used to reflect on the feature modeling conducted at the company. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  • 442.
    Oliinyk, Olesia
    et al.
    Capgemini, DEU.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Schoelzke, Manfred
    Adam Opel AG, DEU.
    Becker, Martin
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn, DEU.
    Schneickert, Soeren
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn, DEU.
    Structuring automotive product lines and feature models: an exploratory study at Opel2017Inngår i: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 22, s. 105-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive systems are highly complex and customized systems containing a vast amount of variability. Feature modeling plays a key role in customization. Empirical evidence through industry application, and in particular methodological guidance of how to structure automotive product lines and their feature models is needed. The overall aim of this work is to provide guidance to practitioners how to structure automotive product lines and their feature models, understanding strengths and weaknesses of alternative structures. The research was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, the context situation was understood using interviews and workshops. In the second phase, possible structures of product lines and feature models were evaluated based on industry feedback collected in workshops. In the third phase, the structures were implemented in the tool GEARS and practitioner feedback was collected. One key challenge was the unavailability of structuring guidelines, which was the focus of this research. The structures considered most suitable for the automotive product line were multiple product lines with modular decomposition. The structures most suitable for the feature model were functional decomposition, using context variability, models corresponding to assets, and feature categories. Other structures have been discarded, and the rationales have been presented. It was possible to support the most suitable structures with the commercial tool GEARS. The implementation in GEARS and the feedback from the practitioners provide early indications for the potential usefulness of the structures and the tool implementation.

  • 443.
    Oliveira, Pedro Almir
    et al.
    Federal Institute of Maranhão (IFMA), BRA.
    Santos Neto, Pedro
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Rabêlo, Ricardo De Andrade Lira
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Braga, Ronyerison
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Souza, Matheus
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    CIaaS: computational intelligence as a service with Athena2018Inngår i: Computer languages, systems & structures, ISSN 1477-8424, E-ISSN 1873-6866, Vol. 54, s. 95-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational Intelligence (CI) is a sub-branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that focus on studying adaptive mechanisms to enable intelligent behavior in complex environments. CI techniques have been successful in solving complex problems in many different knowledge areas. However, despite their usefulness, developing solutions based on CI techniques is not a trivial activity, since it involves the codification/adaptation of algorithms to specific context and problems. In this paper, we present and validate through a quasi-experiment a new paradigm to develop CI-based solutions using a more mature version of Athena (2.0): Computational Intelligence as a Service (CIaaS). Using this tool, both researchers and practitioners can design and evaluate CI-based solutions by dragging and dropping components in a visual environment, in a cloud-based platform. The results of the quasi-experiment suggest that our approach can help researchers to design and evaluate CI-based systems in a simple, reliable and fast way. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 444. Oliveira, Pedro
    et al.
    Souza, Matheus
    Braga, Ronyerison
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Santos Neto, Pedro
    Rabêlo, Ricardo
    Athena: A Visual Tool to Support the Development of Computational Intelligence Systems2014Inngår i: Proceedings-International Conference on Tools With Artificial Intelligence, IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 950-957Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational Intelligence (CI) embraces techniques designed to address complex real-world problems in which traditional approaches are ineffective or infeasible. Some of these techniques are being used to solve several complex problems, such as the team allocation, building products portfolios in a software product line and test case selection/prioritization. However, despite the usefulness of these applications, the development of solutions based in CI techniques is not a trivial activity, since it involves the implementation/adaptation of algorithms to specific context and problems. This work presents Athena, a visual tool developed aiming at offering a simple approachto develop CI-based software systems. In order to do this, we proposed a drag-and-drop approach, which we called CI as a Service (CIaaS). Based on a preliminary study, we can state that Athenacan help researchers to save time during the development of computational intelligence approaches.

  • 445.
    Olle, Emilsson
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Marcus, Hrvatin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Using containers in a continuous integration and delivery environment: A performance and scalability comparison2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With a software industry that is moving at a fast pace, continuous integration and delivery is something important for many products today. Moreover, with containers being on the rise since 2013, more companies are moving their CI/CD environment into containers not only for development but also for testing. This thesis begins with giving the reader an introduction to containers, container orchestration, and Jenkins, which is a continuous integration and delivery tool. The experiment was then set up with one container based cluster and one single node machine. Two kinds of experiments were run on them, one big job and one small job. The system scalability is assessed, and with smaller clusters the memory overhead could be an issue. Performance wise, the container cluster is performing better than a single node machine, as long as it is utilizing all its nodes. Security with containers is still an issue and it could be fatal for a cluster if it is compromised.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 446.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Riktlinjer för mobil applikationsutveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknaden för mobila system har utvecklats enormt snabbt de senaste åren. Idag är det ett område med en allt större omsättning och det har vuxit fram som en helt ny gren inom Software Engineering. Utvecklare av mobila applikationer står ständigt inför en utmaning när det gäller att välja vilket mobilt system man ska satsa på när man utvecklar applikationer. Valet av system kan vara helt avgörande för om man hittar rätt målgrupp av konsumenter och därmed kan generera tillräckligt med omsättning för att driva lönsam utveckling av applikationer. Det räcker inte att enbart kolla på vilket system som har mest användare eller vilket system som genererar mest omsättning, utan man bör noggrant överväga de förhållande som gäller för just den applikation som ska utvecklas. Genom att följa denna guiden och överväga de olika faktorer som vi har sammanställt så kan man som utvecklare göra ett val som är baserat på aktuella marknadsundersökningar. Även inom andra områden så kan man ha nytta av denna artikel, exempelvis inom den akademiska världen där man utbildar inom mobil utveckling.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 447.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE SICS AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements2019Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, s. 217-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 448.
    Oriol, M.
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Stade, M.
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestem Switzerland, CHE.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Nadal, S.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Varga, J.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Seyff, N.
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestem Switzerland, CHE.
    Abello, A.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Franch, X.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Marco, J.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Schmidt, O.
    SEnerCon GmbH, DEU.
    FAME: Supporting continuous requirements elicitation by combining user feedback and monitoring2018Inngår i: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 217-227Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software evolution ensures that software systems in use stay up to date and provide value for end-users. However, it is challenging for requirements engineers to continuously elicit needs for systems used by heterogeneous end-users who are out of organisational reach. Objective: We aim at supporting continuous requirements elicitation by combining user feedback and usage monitoring. Online feedback mechanisms enable end-users to remotely communicate problems, experiences, and opinions, while monitoring provides valuable information about runtime events. It is argued that bringing both information sources together can help requirements engineers to understand end-user needs better. Method/Tool: We present FAME, a framework for the combined and simultaneous collection of feedback and monitoring data in web and mobile contexts to support continuous requirements elicitation. In addition to a detailed discussion of our technical solution, we present the first evidence that FAME can be successfully introduced in real-world contexts. Therefore, we deployed FAME in a web application of a German small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to collect user feedback and usage data. Results/Conclusion: Our results suggest that FAME not only can be successfully used in industrial environments but that bringing feedback and monitoring data together helps the SME to improve their understanding of end-user needs, ultimately supporting continuous requirements elicitation. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 449.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Understanding and Supporting Knowledge Management in Agile Software Development2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     Background. Agile Software Development (ASD) promises agility and flexibility in dealing with uncertainty by prioritizing interaction between people supported by informal communication and knowledge sharing. The lack of practices to manage the knowledge as a resource might jeopardize the application of knowledge in the production of goods and service. The utilization of Knowledge Management (KM) strategies can significantly support achieving and sustaining competitive advantage and brings several benefits to software development. However, how to manage knowledge in ASD is still not well understood or investigated.

     Objectives. The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the software engineering field by providing a different perspective on directions that KM can take to improve knowledge-based resource (KBR) management in ASD. The detailed objectives are: (i) Understand the current ASD environment regarding KM; (ii) Identify KBRs in ASD and its implications for KM; and (iii) Provide an initial set of variables to evaluate knowledge criticality of knowledge items in ASD.

     Method. We used a mixed-methods approach to address the objective of this thesis. The methods selected to conduct the studies include systematic literature review, grounded theory, and improvement case study. The data collection comprised a literature review, semi-structured interviews, and practitioners’ feedback through static validation.

     Results. From our SLR we observed that that KM strategies in ASD promote mainly knowledge transfer through practices that stimulate social interaction to share tacit knowledge in the project layer, increasing the risk of losing knowledge by keeping the knowledge localized inside a few individual’s minds. When it comes to coordination, practitioners utilize KBRs in their routines, through social collaboration within teams’ environment/settings. However, this process is nonsystematic, which brings inefficiency to KBR utilization resulting in knowledge loss. It can generate negative implications to the course of the software development, including meaningless searches in databases, frustration because of recurrent problems, and unawareness of knowledge sources. To support decision making related to knowledge retention, we have developed an initial version of the method to evaluate the criticality (KCEM) of a knowledge item, which is divided into two categories, relevance, and scarcity.

     Conclusion. The current results of this thesis are of particular interest. However, we recognize that the work is unfinished. As a complement to this thesis, we have planned our long-term objective, which is to contribute to creating scalable KM solutions for companies adopting ASD.We divide this long-term objective into three studies: Carry out a complementary study to apply KCEM in different companies; explore efficient ways of storing codified knowledge in combination with the KCEM, and investigate how to define metrics to evaluate the outcomes of KM practices.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 450.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Ouriques, João Felipe
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Method to Evaluate Knowledge Resources in Agile Software Development2019Inngår i: Proceeding of The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019, IEEE, 2019, artikkel-id 8870167Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizations adopting Agile Software Development (ASD) use different Knowledge Management (KM) practices to retain and share knowledge. However, it is often the case that knowledge retention is carried out in an ad-hoc way.

    Aims: In this study, we report our experience from proposing the Knowledge Critically Evaluation Method (KCEM) to evaluate knowledge items (KIT). Our main goal with KCEMs is to support companies to systematically retain knowledge in ASD contexts.

    Method: We conducted an improvement case study to develop and evaluate KCEM. This research follows the guidelines for technology transfer between industry and academia. The case and unit of analysis is Ericsson, a Swedish company that develops telecommunication solutions.

    Results: In this paper, we provide initial results of both lab and static validation, enriched by the lessons learned.

    Conclusions: The preliminary results show that KCEM is easy to understand and use, provides a different perspective on the KIT by visualizing in the criticality chart, and reduces the level of abstraction associated to a knowledge subject area.

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