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  • 401.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Understanding the order of agile practice introduction: Comparing agile maturity models and practitioners’ experience2019Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) suggest that agile practices are introduced in a certain order. However, whether the order of agile practice introduction as suggested in the AMMs is relevant in industry has not been evaluated in an empirical study. Objectives: In this study, we want to investigate: (1) order of agile practice introduction mentioned in AMMs, (2) order of introducing agile practices in industry, and (3) similarities and differences between (1) and (2). Methods: We conducted a literature survey to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We then compared the AMMs’ suggestions to the strategies used by practitioners, which we elicited from a survey and a series of interviews from an earlier study. Results: The literature survey revealed 12 AMMs which provide explicit mappings of agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement on when practices should be introduced. Comparison of the AMMs’ suggestions and the empirical study revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned with industry practice. Conclusion: Currently, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for agile adoption that works better than others. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 402.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An Analysis of Change Scenarios of an IT Organization for Flexibility Building2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexibility is important for software organizations to cope with changes demanded in the business environment. So far, flexibility has been extensively studied from a software product and software development process point of view. However, there is little work on how to build flexibility at the level of the whole software organization. Thus, there is no clear understanding of how to effectively improve the ability of an organization to respond to changes in a timely fashion and with little effort. This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study on how flexibility is built and improved in an IT organization and provides a holistic and explanatory view of how this is achieved. Implications for research and practices are also provided.

  • 403.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Towards Understanding How To Build Strategic Flexibility Of An IT Organization2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IT organizations need to react to changes in the business, the domain (e.g., regulatory issues), and the technological development. While some of these changes can be handled by adopting agile practices, others might have large, irreversible effects on the organization as a whole. While flexibility and agility have found their way into software project methodologies, IT organizations struggle with their adaptation at organizational level. This paper presents preliminary results of a grounded-theory study aimed at understanding how experienced managers handle flexibility. The results are a rich empirical source for improving flexibility of an IT organization at the strategic level and also a good starting point for further research towards generalizing agile ideas beyond software projects.

  • 404.
    Ocieszak, Marcin
    et al.
    Kozminski University, POL.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Callele, David
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    On the use of Financial Valuation Techniques in Requirements Engineering2018Inngår i: 2018 1ST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LEARNING FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES FOR REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING (D4RE 2018) / [ed] Trapp M.,Hess A.,Lauenroth K., IEEE Communications Society, 2018, s. 16-17, artikkel-id 8595128Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates methods and techniquesfrom finance for supporting value estimation for features orrequirements. We discuss the applicability and challenges as-sociated with applying financial techniques for feature valueestimation and for supporting requirements prioritization

  • 405.
    Ohlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Öman, Dan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A guide in the Big Data jungle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis looks at the functionality of different frameworks for data analysis atlarge scale and the purpose of it is to serve as a guide among available tools. The amount ofdata that is generated every day keep growing and for companies to take advantage of thedata they collect they need to know how to analyze it to gain maximal use out of it. Thechoice of platform for this analysis plays an important role and you need to look in to thefunctionality of the different alternatives that are available. We have created a guide to makethis research easier and less time consuming. To evaluate our work we created a summaryand a survey which we asked a number of ITstudents,current and previous, to take part in.After analyzing their answers we could see that most of them find our thesis interesting andinformative.

  • 406. Oliinyk, O.
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Schoelzke, M.
    Becker, M.
    Schneickert, S.
    Metrics for the evaluation of feature models in an industrial context: A case study at opel2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context & motivation] Feature models are used in product line engineering to document possible product configurations on the feature level. [Problem] In order to quantify the success of adopting feature modeling in practice, we need to understand the industry relevant metrics for feature model evaluation. [Solution] In order to identify the metrics a Goal-Question-Metric approach was used in the context of a case study conducted at Adam Opel AG. [Contribution:] We identified seven goals (quality criteria) we should strive for and evaluate when using feature models. Furthermore, we identified 18 sub-goals, 27 questions and corresponding metrics. The metrics were used to reflect on the feature modeling conducted at the company. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  • 407.
    Oliinyk, Olesia
    et al.
    Capgemini, DEU.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Schoelzke, Manfred
    Adam Opel AG, DEU.
    Becker, Martin
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn, DEU.
    Schneickert, Soeren
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn, DEU.
    Structuring automotive product lines and feature models: an exploratory study at Opel2017Inngår i: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 22, s. 105-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive systems are highly complex and customized systems containing a vast amount of variability. Feature modeling plays a key role in customization. Empirical evidence through industry application, and in particular methodological guidance of how to structure automotive product lines and their feature models is needed. The overall aim of this work is to provide guidance to practitioners how to structure automotive product lines and their feature models, understanding strengths and weaknesses of alternative structures. The research was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, the context situation was understood using interviews and workshops. In the second phase, possible structures of product lines and feature models were evaluated based on industry feedback collected in workshops. In the third phase, the structures were implemented in the tool GEARS and practitioner feedback was collected. One key challenge was the unavailability of structuring guidelines, which was the focus of this research. The structures considered most suitable for the automotive product line were multiple product lines with modular decomposition. The structures most suitable for the feature model were functional decomposition, using context variability, models corresponding to assets, and feature categories. Other structures have been discarded, and the rationales have been presented. It was possible to support the most suitable structures with the commercial tool GEARS. The implementation in GEARS and the feedback from the practitioners provide early indications for the potential usefulness of the structures and the tool implementation.

  • 408.
    Oliveira, Pedro Almir
    et al.
    Federal Institute of Maranhão (IFMA), BRA.
    Santos Neto, Pedro
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Rabêlo, Ricardo De Andrade Lira
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Braga, Ronyerison
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Souza, Matheus
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    CIaaS: computational intelligence as a service with Athena2018Inngår i: Computer languages, systems & structures, ISSN 1477-8424, E-ISSN 1873-6866, Vol. 54, s. 95-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational Intelligence (CI) is a sub-branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that focus on studying adaptive mechanisms to enable intelligent behavior in complex environments. CI techniques have been successful in solving complex problems in many different knowledge areas. However, despite their usefulness, developing solutions based on CI techniques is not a trivial activity, since it involves the codification/adaptation of algorithms to specific context and problems. In this paper, we present and validate through a quasi-experiment a new paradigm to develop CI-based solutions using a more mature version of Athena (2.0): Computational Intelligence as a Service (CIaaS). Using this tool, both researchers and practitioners can design and evaluate CI-based solutions by dragging and dropping components in a visual environment, in a cloud-based platform. The results of the quasi-experiment suggest that our approach can help researchers to design and evaluate CI-based systems in a simple, reliable and fast way. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 409. Oliveira, Pedro
    et al.
    Souza, Matheus
    Braga, Ronyerison
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Santos Neto, Pedro
    Rabêlo, Ricardo
    Athena: A Visual Tool to Support the Development of Computational Intelligence Systems2014Inngår i: Proceedings-International Conference on Tools With Artificial Intelligence, IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 950-957Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational Intelligence (CI) embraces techniques designed to address complex real-world problems in which traditional approaches are ineffective or infeasible. Some of these techniques are being used to solve several complex problems, such as the team allocation, building products portfolios in a software product line and test case selection/prioritization. However, despite the usefulness of these applications, the development of solutions based in CI techniques is not a trivial activity, since it involves the implementation/adaptation of algorithms to specific context and problems. This work presents Athena, a visual tool developed aiming at offering a simple approachto develop CI-based software systems. In order to do this, we proposed a drag-and-drop approach, which we called CI as a Service (CIaaS). Based on a preliminary study, we can state that Athenacan help researchers to save time during the development of computational intelligence approaches.

  • 410.
    Olle, Emilsson
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Marcus, Hrvatin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Using containers in a continuous integration and delivery environment: A performance and scalability comparison2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With a software industry that is moving at a fast pace, continuous integration and delivery is something important for many products today. Moreover, with containers being on the rise since 2013, more companies are moving their CI/CD environment into containers not only for development but also for testing. This thesis begins with giving the reader an introduction to containers, container orchestration, and Jenkins, which is a continuous integration and delivery tool. The experiment was then set up with one container based cluster and one single node machine. Two kinds of experiments were run on them, one big job and one small job. The system scalability is assessed, and with smaller clusters the memory overhead could be an issue. Performance wise, the container cluster is performing better than a single node machine, as long as it is utilizing all its nodes. Security with containers is still an issue and it could be fatal for a cluster if it is compromised.

  • 411.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Riktlinjer för mobil applikationsutveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknaden för mobila system har utvecklats enormt snabbt de senaste åren. Idag är det ett område med en allt större omsättning och det har vuxit fram som en helt ny gren inom Software Engineering. Utvecklare av mobila applikationer står ständigt inför en utmaning när det gäller att välja vilket mobilt system man ska satsa på när man utvecklar applikationer. Valet av system kan vara helt avgörande för om man hittar rätt målgrupp av konsumenter och därmed kan generera tillräckligt med omsättning för att driva lönsam utveckling av applikationer. Det räcker inte att enbart kolla på vilket system som har mest användare eller vilket system som genererar mest omsättning, utan man bör noggrant överväga de förhållande som gäller för just den applikation som ska utvecklas. Genom att följa denna guiden och överväga de olika faktorer som vi har sammanställt så kan man som utvecklare göra ett val som är baserat på aktuella marknadsundersökningar. Även inom andra områden så kan man ha nytta av denna artikel, exempelvis inom den akademiska världen där man utbildar inom mobil utveckling.

  • 412.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE SICS AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements2019Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, s. 217-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 413.
    Oriol, M.
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Stade, M.
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestem Switzerland, CHE.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Nadal, S.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Varga, J.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Seyff, N.
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestem Switzerland, CHE.
    Abello, A.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Franch, X.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Marco, J.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Schmidt, O.
    SEnerCon GmbH, DEU.
    FAME: Supporting continuous requirements elicitation by combining user feedback and monitoring2018Inngår i: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 217-227Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software evolution ensures that software systems in use stay up to date and provide value for end-users. However, it is challenging for requirements engineers to continuously elicit needs for systems used by heterogeneous end-users who are out of organisational reach. Objective: We aim at supporting continuous requirements elicitation by combining user feedback and usage monitoring. Online feedback mechanisms enable end-users to remotely communicate problems, experiences, and opinions, while monitoring provides valuable information about runtime events. It is argued that bringing both information sources together can help requirements engineers to understand end-user needs better. Method/Tool: We present FAME, a framework for the combined and simultaneous collection of feedback and monitoring data in web and mobile contexts to support continuous requirements elicitation. In addition to a detailed discussion of our technical solution, we present the first evidence that FAME can be successfully introduced in real-world contexts. Therefore, we deployed FAME in a web application of a German small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to collect user feedback and usage data. Results/Conclusion: Our results suggest that FAME not only can be successfully used in industrial environments but that bringing feedback and monitoring data together helps the SME to improve their understanding of end-user needs, ultimately supporting continuous requirements elicitation. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 414.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Understanding and Supporting Knowledge Management in Agile Software Development2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     Background. Agile Software Development (ASD) promises agility and flexibility in dealing with uncertainty by prioritizing interaction between people supported by informal communication and knowledge sharing. The lack of practices to manage the knowledge as a resource might jeopardize the application of knowledge in the production of goods and service. The utilization of Knowledge Management (KM) strategies can significantly support achieving and sustaining competitive advantage and brings several benefits to software development. However, how to manage knowledge in ASD is still not well understood or investigated.

     Objectives. The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the software engineering field by providing a different perspective on directions that KM can take to improve knowledge-based resource (KBR) management in ASD. The detailed objectives are: (i) Understand the current ASD environment regarding KM; (ii) Identify KBRs in ASD and its implications for KM; and (iii) Provide an initial set of variables to evaluate knowledge criticality of knowledge items in ASD.

     Method. We used a mixed-methods approach to address the objective of this thesis. The methods selected to conduct the studies include systematic literature review, grounded theory, and improvement case study. The data collection comprised a literature review, semi-structured interviews, and practitioners’ feedback through static validation.

     Results. From our SLR we observed that that KM strategies in ASD promote mainly knowledge transfer through practices that stimulate social interaction to share tacit knowledge in the project layer, increasing the risk of losing knowledge by keeping the knowledge localized inside a few individual’s minds. When it comes to coordination, practitioners utilize KBRs in their routines, through social collaboration within teams’ environment/settings. However, this process is nonsystematic, which brings inefficiency to KBR utilization resulting in knowledge loss. It can generate negative implications to the course of the software development, including meaningless searches in databases, frustration because of recurrent problems, and unawareness of knowledge sources. To support decision making related to knowledge retention, we have developed an initial version of the method to evaluate the criticality (KCEM) of a knowledge item, which is divided into two categories, relevance, and scarcity.

     Conclusion. The current results of this thesis are of particular interest. However, we recognize that the work is unfinished. As a complement to this thesis, we have planned our long-term objective, which is to contribute to creating scalable KM solutions for companies adopting ASD.We divide this long-term objective into three studies: Carry out a complementary study to apply KCEM in different companies; explore efficient ways of storing codified knowledge in combination with the KCEM, and investigate how to define metrics to evaluate the outcomes of KM practices.

  • 415.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Ouriques, João Felipe
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Method to Evaluate Knowledge Resources in Agile Software Development2019Inngår i: Proceeding of The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019, IEEE, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizations adopting Agile Software Development (ASD) use different Knowledge Management (KM) practices to retain and share knowledge. However, it is often the case that knowledge retention is carried out in an ad-hoc way.

    Aims: In this study, we report our experience from proposing the Knowledge Critically Evaluation Method (KCEM) to evaluate knowledge items (KIT). Our main goal with KCEMs is to support companies to systematically retain knowledge in ASD contexts.

    Method: We conducted an improvement case study to develop and evaluate KCEM. This research follows the guidelines for technology transfer between industry and academia. The case and unit of analysis is Ericsson, a Swedish company that develops telecommunication solutions.

    Results: In this paper, we provide initial results of both lab and static validation, enriched by the lessons learned.

    Conclusions: The preliminary results show that KCEM is easy to understand and use, provides a different perspective on the KIT by visualizing in the criticality chart, and reduces the level of abstraction associated to a knowledge subject area.

  • 416.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Thinking strategically about knowledge management in agile software development2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. Code 221089, s. 389-395Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile methodologies gave teams more autonomy regarding planning tasks and executing them. As a result, coordination gets more flexible, but much relevant knowledge remains undocumented and inside teams’ borders, due to informal communication and reduced development documentation. Since knowledge plays an essential role in software development, it is important to have effective knowledge management (KM) practices that contribute to a better knowledge resource allocation. Several KM practices have been reported in empirical studies in Agile Software Development (ASD). However, these practices are not evaluated regarding its effectiveness or how do they affect product quality. Besides, the studies do not demonstrate connections between the KM practices in the project level and the strategic level. The lack of connection between these levels can result in deviations from the company’s corporate strategy, wasted resources and irrelevant knowledge acquisition. This paper discusses how the strategic management can contribute to an integrated approach to KM in ASD; considering the organizational structure and the corporate strategy. Based on this discussion, we propose research areas that may help with planning KM strategies that can have their effectiveness measured and contribute to product quality. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

  • 417.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Continuous Assimilation of Change in Agile Software Development: An empirical study on the role of the knowledge-based resourcesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As the software value chain is knowledge-based due to the high dependency on people, the lack of practice to manage knowledge as a resource might jeopardize its application in software development. The resource-based view of the firm provides a different perspective on the utilization of knowledge, assisting the identification of the Knowledge-Based Resources (KBRs) that allow a company to have a continuous readiness to quickly respond to the market changes. To understand how the KBRs support coordination in Agile Software Development (ASD), we applied a grounded theory approach, collecting data from 18 practitioners, coming from five companies. As results, we identified 44 KBRs that were grouped in the Continuous Assimilation Model (CHASM). They support coordination in ASD with continuous assimilation of change which is supported by people’s business analytic perspective and product systemic reasoning. The companies are able to utilize a certain level of their KBRs through social collaboration and team environment/settings. However, the inefficient utilization of these resources results in a significant knowledge loss. Furthermore, CHASM points out areas where practitioners can establish strategies based on the priorities that the companies give to the investigated KBRs, as well as a set of research opportunities for future investigation.

  • 418.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Knowledge Management Strategies and Processes in Agile Software Development: A Systematic Literature Review2019Inngår i: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 345-380Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge-intensive companies that adopt Agile Software Development (ASD) relay on efficient implementation of Knowledge Management (KM) strategies to promotes different Knowledge Processes (KPs) to gain competitive advantage. This study aims to explore how companies that adopt ASD implement KM strategies utilizing practices that promote the KPs in the different organizational layers. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed 32 primary studies, selected by automated search and snowballing in the extant literature. To analyze the data, we applied narrative synthesis. Most of the identified KM practices implement personalization strategies (81 %), supported by codification (19 %). Our review shows that the primary studies do not report KM practices in the strategic layer and two of them in the product portfolio layer; on the other hand, in the project layer, the studies report 33 practices that implement personalization strategy, and seven practices that implement codification. KM strategies in ASD promote mainly the knowledge transfer process with practices that stimulate social interaction to share tacit knowledge in the project layer. As a result of using informal communication, a significant amount of knowledge can be lost or not properly transferred to other individuals and, instead of propagating the knowledge, it remains inside a few individuals minds.

  • 419.
    Padira, Kathyayani
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Investigation of Resources Types for OSLC domains Targeting ISO 26262: Focus on Knowledge Representation of the Right side of the ISO 26262 Software V-model2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: ISO 26262 requires compilation of traceable work products across the application lifecycle as product based safety evidence. The compilation of such safety evidence is a time consuming and arduous task. Open Services Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) is an initiative that supports traceability through tool interoperability. The meta modelling of the ISO 26262 work products in the structure of Resource Description Framework (RDF) can be used for achieving interoperability. Thus, OSLC services used on the RDF exchanged between interoperating tools aids in an effective way of compiling the product based safety evidence for ISO 26262 safety case.

    Objectives: Representing the compilation of traceable work product types for the software testing and verification in ISO 26262, in form of a RDF-based conceptual meta-model. Testing and extending the concepts by instantiating the meta-model with work products to be represented in RDF for a case of a truck Electronic Control Unit (ECU) system. Lastly, validating the effectiveness of the conceptual meta-model for its compliance to ISO 26262.

    Methods: To realise the objectives, a case study was conducted at Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden, a manufacturer of safety critical ECU systems used in heavy automobiles. The case study was conducted in three consecutive cycles. The first cycle of qualitative inductive content analysis of the ISO 26262 standard and its related document at the company for defining the conceptual meta model. The second cycle of qualitative deductive content analysis for testing, extending and refining the conceptual meta model. The last cycle of validating the effectiveness of the tested and extended conceptual meta model for compliance to ISO 26262.

    Results: The main result was the tested, extended and refined RDF based ISO 26262 conceptual meta model depicting traceable work product types for software testing and verification of a safety critical ECU system. The testing and extending of the conceptual meta model was performed with respect to the Main1 (M1) ECU system at Scania. The RDF was defined for the work products of M1 ECU system. Finally, the conceptual meta model was validated for its effectiveness in realising the criteria of abstraction, confirmability and traceability based on ISO 26262. 

    Conclusions: Thus, the RDF-based conceptual meta-model depicting product based safety evidence provides a structure for realising the traceability required for compiling the software testing and verification part of ISO 26262 safety case. The meta model was tested by defining the RDF for the work products of a truck ECU system that would be exchanged for achieving interoperability. Finally, the conceptual meta-model was validated for representing the knowledge required for showing traceable product based safety evidence for ISO 26262 safety case.

  • 420.
    Pakki, Neetika Roy
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kavuri, Sritheja
    Managing Quality Requirements in Requirements Engineering Process: A survey2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Requirements play vital role in building the software application.These requirements are of two types: Functional requirements andNon-functional requirements (or quality requirements). Many of the organizationsconsider only functional requirements during the early stages ofdevelopment cycle. Poor management of the non-functional requirementsmay affect factors such as success rate, project cost and standards of thebuilding product. So it is important to manage the quality requirements inthe right phase at the right time. Our thesis mainly concentrates on fivequality aspects of Requirements Engineering Process. The quality aspectsElicitation, Quality Requirements Metrics, Dependencies, Cost Estimationand Prioritization.We have concentrated on whether there are any changesin the focus on the quality requirements depending on the quality aspectsof requirement engineering process and in identifying which quality requirementis analysed at each of the five quality aspects depending on the functionalrequirements. And we also tried to identify the challenges faced bythe organizations due to handling of quality requirements at each of the fivequality aspects of the requirement engineering process in order to provideuseful information to the further studies to this problem.

    Objectives. In this thesis, we investigated how the quality requirementsare handled and managed in the 5 quality aspects of requirements engineeringprocess. The main objectives in this thesis are: To identify if the focus on quality requirements change with respect to tothe quality aspects of RE process. To identify a correlation between focusing on certain functional requirementand the resulting type of quality requirement i.e.; impact onquality requirements based on selected functional requirement. To identify the challenges faced by the organizations when focusing onthe quality requirements in each of quality aspects mentioned earlier.

    Methods. In this thesis study we first conducted a Systematic LiteratureReview (SLR) through Snowballing process to identify available literatureabout functional and non-functional requirements. Later Narrative analysiswas used to analyse the SLR results. Further an industrial survey wasconducted. Statistical analysis was performed, chi-square test of significancewas used to analyse the results.

    Results. The results for the research questions of this thesis are observedentirely through survey results. Data that is collected through SLR is usedto validate the obtained results. From the survey responses, it is observedthat among the five quality aspects that are identified through SLR, qualitymetrics is given more importance by large number of organisations and isfollowed by cost estimation. It is observed that elicitation is identified byless number of respondents. It is also observed that more number of respondentssuggested that there will not be any change in the focus of qualityrequirements depending on the quality aspects of RE process. It is identifiedthat there is a high impact of the selection of functional requirementson the quality requirements as per the survey results and majority of therespondents stated that the selection of quality requirements is dependenton the functional requirements. It is interesting that from the survey results,it is identified that almost half of the respondents’ organisations aretreating functional requirements equally and half of them are treating separately.Several challenges that may arise while implementing the qualityrequirements are also identified through both SLR and survey.

    Conclusions. This thesis help the further researches to get a detailed ideaon quality requirements, their usage in the organisations and the challengesfaced by them while implementing quality requirements. As this study involvedseveral observations that are related to the influence of functionalrequirements on quality requirements and the relation between the managementof quality requirements and RE process, it serves as a reference forfurther studies on quality requirements and gives scope to derive many newideas related to the maintenance of quality requirements. This work can befurther improved by considering large population of survey.

  • 421.
    Palma, Francis
    et al.
    Concordia Univ, CAN.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Founi, Mohamed
    Univ Quebec Montreal, CAN.
    Moha, Naouel
    Univ Quebec Montreal, CAN.
    Tremblay, Guy
    Univ Quebec Montreal, CAN.
    Gueheneuc, Yann-Gael
    Ecole Polytech Montreal, CAN.
    Semantic Analysis of RESTful APIs for the Detection of Linguistic Patterns and Antipatterns2017Inngår i: International journal of intelligent and cooperative information systems, ISSN 0218-2157, E-ISSN 0218-8430, Vol. 26, nr 2, artikkel-id 1742001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifier lexicon may have a direct impact on software understandability and reusability and, thus, on the quality of the final software product. Understandability and reusability are two important characteristics of software quality. REpresentational State Transfer (REST) style is becoming a de facto standard adopted by software organizations to build their Web applications. Understandable and reusable Uniform Resource Identifers (URIs) are important to attract client developers of RESTful APIs because good URIs support the client developers to understand and reuse the APIs. Consequently, the use of proper lexicon in RESTful APIs has also a direct impact on the quality of Web applications that integrate these APIs. Linguistic antipatterns represent poor practices in the naming, documentation, and choice of identifiers in the APIs as opposed to linguistic patterns that represent the corresponding best practices. In this paper, we present the Semantic Analysis of RESTful APIs (SARA) approach that employs both syntactic and semantic analyses for the detection of linguistic patterns and antipatterns in RESTful APIs. We provide detailed definitions of 12 linguistic patterns and antipatterns and define and apply their detection algorithms on 18 widely-used RESTful APIs, including Facebook, Twitter, and Dropbox. Our detection results show that linguistic patterns and antipatterns do occur in major RESTful APIs in particular in the form of poor documentation practices. Those results also show that SARA can detect linguistic patterns and antipatterns with higher accuracy compared to its state-of-the-art approach - DOLAR.

  • 422.
    Pampana, Lavanya Vinod
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Compliant mHealth app: A case study from app developers' perspective2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. With the pervasive nature of mobile phones, many mobile health (mHealth) apps are released in market. It is of supreme importance to consolidate compliance right in the development of app. There are many policies and regulations formed in various countries that fundamentally protect patient information. Further, there are stringent actions taken for not complying with the regulations. This being the case, how do app developers from start-up to small scale companies find solutions to the problem? It is necessary to study the situation from developer’s perspective to create innovation and sustain.

    Objectives. In this study, we identify tools, techniques, methods or process used by developers to create a compliant app. This study also throws light on challenges being faced by the developers. Finally, a guideline is devised for the app developers to facilitate in development of a compliant app.

    Methods. A case study is performed with two data collection methods namely interviews and survey questionnaire to strengthen the findings. With not much of literature support, interview study helped in gaining perspective of developers instrumental in creation of survey instrument.

    Results. Different tools, techniques, methods, processes used by developers were identified. Alongside, challenges were also listed based on the importance level. Further, a guideline was drafted that serves as recommendation for the app developers in development of complaint mobile health app. The guideline devised is at a higher level that can help developers focus on key aspects with regards to development of a complaint mHealth app.  

    Conclusions. Author concludes that app developers mainly use project management tools available. There is a need for specific tools, techniques to be developed for the developers such that it becomes easy for app developers to develop compliant mHealth app. In fact, there must be effective guidelines drafted in the clearest possible way that can be used by developers without any ambiguity. This research acts as an exploratory study aimed at identifying the current practice of developers. More research is needed in this field to solve the developers’ problem.

  • 423.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Carlson, Jan
    Malardalen Research and Technology Centre, SWE.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Malardalen Research and Technology Centre, SWE.
    Sentilles, Severine
    Malardalens hogskola, SWE.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Malardalens hogskola, SWE.
    The GRADE decision canvas for classification and reflection on architecture decisions2017Inngår i: ENASE 2017 - Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, SciTePress , 2017, s. 187-194Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a decision canvas for capturing architecture decisions in software and systems engineering. The canvas leverages a dedicated taxonomy, denoted GRADE, meant for establishing the basics of the vocabulary for assessing and choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas serves as a template for practitioners to discuss and document architecture decisions, i.e., capture, understand and communicate decisions among decision-makers and to others. It also serves as a way to reflect on past decision-making activities devoted to both tentative and concluding decisions in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas has been assessed by means of preliminary internal and external evaluations with four scenarios. The results are promising as the canvas fulfills its intended objectives while satisfying most of the needs of the subjects participating in the evaluation. © 2017 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All Rights Reserved.

  • 424.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE SICS, SWE.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens University, SWE.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens University, SWE.
    Muhammad Ali Shah, Syed
    RISE SICS, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Decision support for choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems: The GRADE taxonomy2015Inngår i: ECSAW '15 Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops / [ed] Matthias Galster, ACM Digital Library, 2015, artikkel-id 48Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering software-intensive systems is a complex process that typically involves making many critical decisions. A continuous challenge during system design, analysis and development is deciding on the reference architecture that could reduce risks and deliver the expected functionality and quality of a product or a service to its users. The lack of evidence in documenting strategies supporting decision-making in the selection of architectural assets in systems and software engineering creates an impediment in learning, improving and also reducing the risks involved. In order to fill this gap, ten experienced researchers in the field of decision support for the selection of architectural assets in engineering software-intensive systems conducted a workshop to reduce traceability of strategies and define a dedicated taxonomy. The result was the GRADE taxonomy, whose key elements can be used to support decision-making as exemplified through a real case instantiation for validation purposes. The overall aim is to support future work of researchers and practitioners in decision-making in the context of architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The taxonomy may be used in three ways: (i) identify new opportunities in structuring decisions; (ii) support the review of alternatives and enable informed decisions; and (iii) evaluate decisions by describing in a retrospective fashion decisions, factors impacting the decision and the outcome.

  • 425.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Sentilles, Severine
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    The GRADE taxonomy for supporting decision making asset selection in software-intensive system development2018Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 100, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The development of software-intensive systems includes many decisions involving various stakeholders with often conflicting interests and viewpoints. Objective: Decisions are rarely systematically documented and sporadically explored. This limits the opportunity for learning and improving on important decisions made in the development of software-intensive systems. Method: In this work, we enable support for the systematic documentation of decisions, improve their traceability and contribute to potentially improved decision-making in strategic, tactical and operational contexts. Results: We constructed a taxonomy for documentation supporting decision-making, called GRADE. GRADE was developed in a research project that required composition of a common dedicated language to make feasible the identification of new opportunities for better decision support and evaluation of multiple decision alternatives. The use of the taxonomy has been validated through thirty three decision cases from industry. Conclusion: This paper occupies this important yet greatly unexplored research gap by developing the GRADE taxonomy that serves as a common vocabulary to describe and classify decision-making with respect to architectural assets. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 426.
    Parasa, Nitin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Application of Search-based Software Testing toNon-functional system properties: A Validated Framework2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The importance of testing non-functional properties of the system is growing steadily. Complexity factor of the software is growing proportionally with the growing demands and hence attributes like performance, energy consumption and reliability are proving to be very crucial. Optimizing the software with respect to these properties simultaneously with the functional properties has been found to be a challenge. Search-based Software testing automates this process by using different meta-heuristic techniques. It assures the generation of large number of test cases at a minimal cost. Carrying out testing in this context requires lot of expertise and the aid of a highly flexible approach. There is a strong need of a guide that helps the practitioners(testers) and researchers optimize the non-functional properties using Search-based software testing.

    Objectives: The objective of the work presented in this thesis is to, first, investigate the non-functional properties, challenges encountered and approaches/suggestions by the practitioners on the application of Search-based software testing in academia and industry. Second objective is to map all the information into a conceptual/ theoretical framework that could be used by Search-based software testing practitioners for optimizing the non-functional system properties.

    Methods: A qualitative approach has been employed for this thesis work. A literature review with snowball sampling as the search approach was conducted to collect the information regarding the different kinds of systems being tested, the non-functional system properties being optimized, challenges encountered and the tools used for this purpose. Semi-structured interviews are conducted as a part of the validation process and generalizing the results obtained. A total of 9 interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis technique has been used to analyze the collected data.

    Results: As a result of conducting this research, different dimensions forming the framework have been investigated. The overall result of this study is the formulation fo a framework and that has been validated by conducting interviews. The framework consists of 16 challenges related to the field of Non-functional Search-based software testing.

    Conclusions: It is found out that Search-based testing for non-functional properties has not been extensively applied in the industry. It has been suggested, used and applied in academia for the most part. Several factors influence the selection of non-functional properties for optimization. Most of the challenges being faced in this subject are inclined towards three areas in Search-based testing. Performance, execution time and energy consumption are three most popularly tested attributes. Further research could be done wherein the framework generated could be put to use by different practitioners and researchers to find out interesting things.

  • 427. Paternoster, Nicolò
    et al.
    Giardino, Carmine
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Software Development in Startup Companies: A Systematic Mapping Study2014Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, nr 10, s. 1200-1218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software startups are newly created companies with no operating history and fast in producing cutting-edge technologies. These companies develop software under highly uncertain conditions, tackling fast-growing markets under severe lack of resources. Therefore, software startups present an unique combination of characteristics which pose several challenges to software development activities. Objective: This study aims to structure and analyze the literature on software development in startup companies, determining thereby the potential for technology transfer and identifying software development work practices reported by practitioners and researchers. Method: We conducted a systematic mapping study, developing a classification schema, ranking the selected primary studies according their rigor and relevance, and analyzing reported software development work practices in startups. Results: A total of 43 primary studies were identified and mapped, synthesizing the available evidence on software development in startups. Only 16 studies are entirely dedicated to software development in startups, of which 10 result in a weak contribution (advice and implications (6); lesson learned (3); tool (1)). Nineteen studies focus on managerial and organizational factors. Moreover, only 9 studies exhibit high scientific rigor and relevance. From the reviewed primary studies, 213 software engineering work practices were extracted, categorized and analyzed. Conclusion: This mapping study provides the first systematic exploration of the state-of-art on software startup research. The existing body of knowledge is limited to a few high quality studies. Furthermore, the results indicate that software engineering work practices are chosen opportunistically, adapted and configured to provide value under the constrains imposed by the startup context.

  • 428.
    Penmetsa, Sneha
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lingampalli, Navya
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An Empirical Analysis of the Usageand Impact of RequirementsAttributes on RequirementsEngineering Research and Practice: A mixed method approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirement Engineering (RE) is one of the important phases inthe development of any software. Hence, there is a need to take much careon the elicitation and management of these requirements. Attributes playan important role in order to store and manage the important informationabout the requirements. There has been a lot of research performed inthe literature regarding the attributes of requirements engineering, but stillthere is a gap in the research that is concerned to requirement attributesin particular. Hence we focused more on identification and management ofthese requirement attributes.

    Objectives: In the current thesis, we focused mainly on the requirementattributes used in the companies and how they are managed. The majorobjectives we have framed in order to achieve our aim are:

    1. To identify the publication trends in the literature of requirementsengineering that mainly focus on requirement attributes.

    2. To identify the requirement attributes that are used by the softwarecompanies which includes both global attributes and project specificattributes.

    3. To investigate how the requirement engineering models impact theselection of requirement attributes in companies.

    4. To identify the phase and sequence of the requirement attributesbased on the four phases (elicitation, analysis, documentation and validation)of requirements engineering.

    5. To investigate how the requirement attributes help in documentingand managing the continuous changes to requirements.

    Methods: In this thesis, we have performed Systematic Mapping Study(SMS),Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and Survey methods in order to achieveour aim and objectives. SLR is performed through the snowballing procedurebased on the guidelines of Wohlin[1].SMS is performed based on theguidelines of petersen et al.[2]. The main aim of the SMS is to identifythe publication trends in the literature on requirements engineering. Themain aim of SLR is to extract important information about the RE modelsand changes in requirements engineering. The main aim of the Survey is tovalidate the information retrieved from the SLR.

    Results: 83 requirement attributes were identified through the SLR outof which 15 attributes are in common. These 15 attributes are includedin the survey questionnaire. From these attributes, ID and description areidentified as most commonly used attributes from the survey. Publication trends related to requirement attributes are observed from the past 25 yearsrequirement attributes. From the survey, it is observed that there is a highimpact of RE models on requirement attributes. It is also observed thatmaximum number of attributes is stored in the form of documents and indatabases by the companies and the attributes are generally documented inanalysis phase and in specification phase. Results from the survey indicatedthat there is no particular sequence to document the attributes and theyare identified and documented based on the needs.

    Conclusions: This thesis lists different attributes that are used by thecompanies and also gives important information about the requirement attributesin detail that is close to the practical scenarios. It also gives scopefor further researches related to requirement attributes. This thesis helpthe practitioners to know the importance of consideration of requirementattributes in developing a project and its advantages. This work can beextended further by considering large number of attributes and retrievingresponses and opinions by large population.

  • 429.
    Penzenstadler, Birgit
    et al.
    Calif State Univ Long Beach, USA.
    Duboc, Leticia
    La Salle Univ Ramon Llull, ESP.
    Venters, Colin C.
    Univ Huddersfield, GBR.
    Betz, Stefanie
    Furtwangen Univ, DEU.
    Seyff, Norbert
    Univ Appl Sci & Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Blekinge Inst Technol, Software Engn Res Grp, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Chitchyan, Ruzanna
    Univ Bristol, GBR.
    Easterbrook, Steve M.
    Univ Toronto, CAN.
    Becker, Christoph
    Univ Toronto, CAN.
    Software Engineering for Sustainability Find the Leverage Points!2018Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 22-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 430.
    Pernstal, J.
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Chalmers, swe.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Blekinge Inst Technol, Software Engn, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Floren, D.
    Volvo Cars, SWE.
    FLEX-RCA: a lean-based method for root cause analysis in software process improvement2019Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 389-428Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software process improvement (SPI) is an instrument to increase the productivity of, and the quality of work, in software organizations. However, a majority of SPI frameworks are too extensive or provide guidance and potential improvement areas at a high level, indicating only the symptoms, not the causes. Motivated by the industrial need of two Swedish automotive companies to systematically uncover the underlying root causes of high-level improvement issues identified in an SPI project-assessing inter-departmental interactions in large-scale software systems development-this paper advances a root cause analysis (RCA) method building on Lean Six Sigma, called Flex-RCA. Flex-RCA is used to delve deeper into challenges identified to find root causes as a part of the evaluation and subsequent improvement activities. We also demonstrate and evaluate Flex-RCA's industrial applicability in a case study. An overall conclusion is that the use of Flex-RCA was successful, showing that it had the desired effect of both producing a broad base of causes on a high level and, more importantly, enabling an exploration of the underlying root causes.

  • 431.
    Pernstål, Joakim
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corp, SE-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Florén, Dan
    Volvo Car Corp, SE-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Requirements communication and balancing in large-scale software-intensive product development2015Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 67, s. 44-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Several industries developing products on a large-scale are facing major challenges as their products are becoming more and more software-intensive. Whereas software was once considered a detail to be bundled, it has since become an intricate and interdependent part of most products. The advancement of software increases the uncertainty and the interdependencies between development tasks and artifacts. A key success factor is good requirements engineering (RE), and in particular, the challenges of effectively and efficiently coordinating and communicating requirements. Objective: In this work we present a lightweight RE framework and demonstrate and evaluate its industrial applicability in response to the needs of a Swedish automotive company for improving specific problems in inter-departmental requirements coordination and communication in large-scale development of software-intensive systems. Method: A case study approach and a dynamic validation were used to develop and evaluate the framework in close collaboration with our industrial partner, involving three real-life cases in an ongoing car project. Experience and feedback were collected through observations when applying the framework and from 10 senior industry professionals in a questionnaire and in-depth follow-up interviews. Results: The experience and feedback about using the framework revealed that it is relevant and applicable for the industry as well as a useful and efficient way to resolve real problems in coordinating and communicating requirements identified at the case company. However, other concerns, such as accessibility to necessary resources and competences in the early development phases, were identified when using the method, which allowed for earlier pre-emptive action to be taken. Conclusion: Overall, the experience from using the framework and the positive feedback from industry professionals indicated a feasible framework that is applicable in the industry for improving problems related to coordination and communication of requirements. Based on the promising results, our industrial partner has decided upon further validations of the framework in a large-scale pilot program. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 432.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Ali Shah, Syed Muhammad
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers, Göteborg, SWE.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing?: A Case Survey2018Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 39, nr 12, s. 237-261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

  • 433.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Engström, Emelie
    Finding relevant research solutions for practical problems: the serp taxonomy architecture2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Experience and research indicates that there exist a communication gap between research and industry in software engineering. Objective: We propose the Software Engineering Research and Practice (SERP) taxonomy architecture to support communication between practitioners and researchers. The taxonomy architecture provides a basis for classifying research from a problem perspective which in turn supports the breaking down of complex practical challenges to researchable units. Thus such taxonomy may support the mapping of challenges in industry to research solutions in the software engineering context. Method: In this paper we present SERP and exemplifies its usage based on two literature studies in the field of software engineering. Further, we discuss how a taxonomy based on this architecture could have helped us in two past research projects that were conducted in close collaboration with industry. Finally we validate SERP by applying it to the area of software testing, developing SERP-test, and interviewing two industry practitioners and two researchers. Results: The taxonomy architecture has been applied to two problems in software testing, and has been assessed through interviews with practitioners and researchers. The interviews provided suggestions of how to improve the taxonomy architecture, which have been incorporated. With two examples, we demonstrated how the taxonomy architecture could be used to find solutions for industrial problems, and to find the problems addressed by a particular solution. Conclusion: SERP may be useful in multiple ways: (1) Given that SERP taxonomies are populated with industrial problems and scientific solutions, we could rapidly identify candidate research solutions for industrial practice. (2) Researchers could benefit from the taxonomy in the reporting of their research to ease the mapping to industrial challenges.

  • 434.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Asghari, Negin
    Baca, Dejan
    Betz, Stefanie
    Action research as a model for industry-academia collaboration in the software engineering context2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Action research is a well-established research methodology. It is following a post-positivist research philosophy grounded in critical thinking. The methodology is driven by practical problems, emphasis participatory research, and develops practically useful solutions in an iterative manner. Objective: Two objectives are to be achieved: (1) Understanding the state of the art with respect to action research usage in the software engineering literature, and (2) reflecting and providing recommendations of how to foster industry-academia collaboration through action research. Method:} Based on our experience with two action research studies in close collaboration with Ericsson lessons learned and guidelines are presented. Results: In both cases presented action research led to multiple refinements in the interventions implemented. Furthermore, the close collaboration and co-production with the industry was essential to identify and describe the required refinements to provide an in-depth understanding. In comparison with previous studies, we required multiple iterations while previous software engineering studies reported mostly one iteration, or were not explicit regarding the number of iterations studied. Conclusion: We conclude that action research is a powerful tool for industry-academia collaboration. The success of the method highly depends on the researchers and practitioners working in a team. Future studies need to improve the reporting with respect to describing the type of action research used, the iterations, the model of collaboration, and the rationales for changes in each iteration.

  • 435.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Asghari, Negin
    Betz, Stefanie
    An Elicitation Instrument for Operationalising GQM+Strategies (GQM+S-EI)2015Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 968-1005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A recent approach for measurement program planning, GQM+Strategies, provides an important extension to existing approaches linking measurements and improvement activities to strategic goals and ways to achieve these goals. There is a need for instruments aiding in eliciting information from stakeholders to use GQM+Strategies. The success of GQM+Strategies highly depends on accurately identifying goals, strategies and information needs from stakeholders. Objective: The research aims at providing an instrument (called GQM+SEI), aiding practitioners to accurately elicit information needed by GQM+Strategies (capturing goals, strategies and information needs). Method: The research included two phases. In the first phase, using action research method, the GQM+S-EI was designed in three iterations in Ericsson AB. Thereafter, a case study was conducted to evaluate whether the information elicited with the designed instrument following the defined process was accurate and complete. Results: We identified that the industry requires elicitation instruments that are capable to elicit information from stakeholders, not having to know about the concepts (e.g. goals and strategies). The case study results showed that our proposed instrument is capable of accurately and completely capturing the needed information from the stakeholders. Conclusions: We conclude that GQM+S-EI can be used for accurately and completely eliciting the information needed by goal driven measurement frameworks. The instrument has been successfully transferred to Ericsson AB for measurement program planning.

  • 436.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Khurum, Mahvish
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Reasons for bottlenecks in very large-scale system of systems development2014Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, nr 10, s. 1403-1420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: System of systems (SOS) is a set or arrangement of systems that results when independent and useful systems are to be incorporated into a larger system that delivers unique capabilities. Our investigation showed that the development life cycle (i.e. the activities transforming requirements into design, code, test cases, and releases) in SoS is more prone to bottlenecks in comparison to single systems. Objective: The objective of the research is to identify reasons for bottlenecks in SoS, prioritize their significance according to their effect on bottlenecks, and compare them with respect to different roles and different perspectives, i.e. SoS view (concerned with integration of systems), and systems view (concerned with system development and delivery). Method: The research method used is a case study at Ericsson AB. Results: Results show that the most significant reasons for bottlenecks are related to requirements engineering. All the different roles agree on the significance of requirements related factors. However, there are also disagreements between the roles, in particular with respect to quality related reasons. Quality related hinders are primarily observed and highly prioritized by quality assurance responsibles. Furthermore, SoS view and system view perceive different hinders, and prioritize them differently. Conclusion: We conclude that solutions for requirements engineering in SoS context are needed, quality awareness in the organization has to be achieved end to end, and views between SoS and system view need to be aligned to avoid sub optimization in improvements.

  • 437.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Nauman Bin, Ali
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Operationalizing the requirements selection process with study selection procedures from systematic literature reviews2015Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2015, Vol. 1342, s. 102-113Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software organizations working in a market-driven environment have to select requirements from a large pool to be prioritized and put into backlogs for the development organization. Objective: This paper proposes an approach based on study selection in systematic literature reviews and translates the concept to requirements engineering. The rational for doing so is that the selection processes used there have been e?ective (selecting and finding relevant papers) and efficient (possible to use for a high number of studies, in some cases 10,000 research contributions had to be evaluated). Method: This paper can be classified as a solution proposal, and utilizes hypothetical examples to explain and argue for the method design decisions. Results: The process proposed consists of three main phases, namely establish selection criteria, evaluate selection criteria, and apply selection. On a more fine-grained level, nine activities are specified. Conclusion: Given that the process has been e?ective and efficient in a similar context, our proposition to be evaluated in future research contributions is that the process leads to e?ective and efficient decision making in requirements selection. © 2015 by the authors.

  • 438.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Roos, Peter
    Nyström, Staffan
    Runeson, Per
    Early identification of bottlenecks in very large scale system of systems software development2014Inngår i: Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, ISSN 1532-060X, E-ISSN 1532-0618, Vol. 26, nr 12, s. 1150-1171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    System of systems are of high complexity, and for each system, many different requirements are implemented in parallel. Systems are developed with some degree of managerial independence but later on have to work together. In this situation, many requirements are written, implemented, and tested in parallel for different systems that are to be integrated. This makes identifying bottlenecks challenging, and visualizations often used on project level (such as Kanban boards or burndown charts) have to be extended/complemented to cope with the increased complexity. In response to these challenges, the contributions of this study are to propose the following: (i) a visualization for early identification and proactive removal of bottlenecks; (ii) a visualization to check on the success of bottleneck resolution; and (iii) to provide an industry evaluation of the visualizations in a case study of a system of systems developed at Ericsson AB in Sweden. The feedback by the practitioners showed that the visualizations were perceived as useful in improving throughput and lead time. The quantitative analysis showed that the visualizations were able in identifying bottlenecks and showing improvements or the lack thereof. On the basis of the qualitative and quantitative data collected, we conclude that the visualizations are useful in bottleneck identification and resolution.

  • 439.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Vakkalanka, Sairam
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kuzniarz, Ludwik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Guidelines for conducting systematic mapping studies in software engineering: An update2015Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 64, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Systematic mapping studies are used to structure a research area, while systematic reviews are focused on gathering and synthesizing evidence. The most recent guidelines for systematic mapping are from 2008. Since that time, many suggestions have been made of how to improve systematic literature reviews (SLRs). There is a need to evaluate how researchers conduct the process of systematic mapping and identify how the guidelines should be updated based on the lessons learned from the existing systematic maps and SLR guidelines. Objective To identify how the systematic mapping process is conducted (including search, study selection, analysis and presentation of data, etc.); to identify improvement potentials in conducting the systematic mapping process and updating the guidelines accordingly. Method We conducted a systematic mapping study of systematic maps, considering some practices of systematic review guidelines as well (in particular in relation to defining the search and to conduct a quality assessment). Results In a large number of studies multiple guidelines are used and combined, which leads to different ways in conducting mapping studies. The reason for combining guidelines was that they differed in the recommendations given. Conclusion The most frequently followed guidelines are not sufficient alone. Hence, there was a need to provide an update of how to conduct systematic mapping studies. New guidelines have been proposed consolidating existing findings. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  • 440.
    Pettersson, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Efficiency of Different Encoding Schemes in Swarm Intelligence for Solving Discrete Assignment Problems: A Comparative Study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Solving problems classified as either NP-complete or NP-hard has long been an active topic in the research community, and has brought about many new algorithms for approximating an optimal solution (basically the best possible solution). A fundamental aspect to consider when developing such an algorithm is how to represent the given solution. Finding the right encoding scheme is key for any algorithm to function as efficiently as possible. That being said, there appears to be a lack of research studies that offer a comprehensive comparison of these encoding schemes.

    Objectives

    This study sets out to provide an extensive comparative analysis of five already existing encoding schemes for a population-based meta-heuristic algorithm, with focus on two discrete combinatorial problems: the 1/0 knapsack problem and task scheduling problem. The most popular scheme of these will also be defined and determined by reviewing the literature.

    Methods

    The encoding schemes were implemented and incorporated into a recently proposed algorithm, known as the Coyote Optimization Algorithm. Their difference in performance were then compared through several experiments.On top of that, the popularity of said schemes were measured by their number of occurrences among a set of surveyed research studies (on the topic knapsack-problem).

    Conclusions

    When compared to the real-valued encoding scheme, we found that both qubits (smallest unit in quantum computing) and complex numbers were more efficient for solving the 1/0 knapsack problem, due to their broader search-space.Our chosen variant of the quantum-inspired encoding scheme contributed to a slightly better result than its complex-valued counterpart. The binary- and boolean encoding schemes worked great in conjunction with a repair function for the knapsack problem, to the extent that their produced solutions converged at a faster rate than the rest.Interestingly enough, the real-valued encoding scheme was by far the more popular choice of them all (as far as the knapsack problem is concerned), which we attribute to its generally simple and convenient implementation; and the fact that it has been around for longer. Finally, we saw that the matrix-based encoding scheme contributed to a faster convergence rate for approximate solutions to the task scheduling problem when the hardware for each resource differed greatly in computing capacity. On the other hand, the SPV (small position value) decoder for both the real-valued and complex-valued encoding schemes were more advantageous when the resources had near to identical computing power, as it is more suitable for distributing tasks equally.

  • 441.
    Polavarapu, Sharen
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Jami, Amulya Sagarwal
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Framework to Integrate Software Process Improvements in Agile Software Development2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: There has been a substantial growth of organizations adoptingAgile software development methodologies for various reasons. The requirementof improving the software processes with respect to traditional softwaredevelopment was clear and evident for different reasons. But the need forSoftware Process Improvements (SPI) in Agile context is unclear and thechallenges faced during the implementation of SPI in Agile software developmentare quite ambiguous. These two issues lie as a motivation for theobjectives of our study. Agile being a flexible way of software development,having a non-flexible framework is almost incompatible for implementingSPI in Agile software development. This acts as an inducement for buildingup our final objective.

    Objectives: The objectives of this research is to identify the need of Agile-SPI in software industry, challenges faced in implementing Agile-SPI atorganizational level and at team level and finally propose an approach forimplementing Agile-SPI based on improving practices.

    Methods: In order to achieve the objectives of our research, we initiallycarried out a survey, later cross verified and validated the data obtained inthe surveys through interviews. Literature review was performed to gainknowledge over the background and related work.

    Results: A total of 34 responses were obtained through survey. Theseresponses obtained through survey are further cross verified and validatedthrough 9 interviews. The data obtained through survey has been analyzedthrough descriptive statistics and the data obtained through interviews wasanalyzed using thematic coding.

    Conclusions: The need of Agile-SPI and the challenges faced by the organizationsand teams while implementing SPI in Agile software developmentwere identified. A total of 16 needs of Agile-SPI, 30 challenges faced byorganization and 37 challenges faced by team were drawn from survey andinterviews conducted. Finally, a conceptual framework has been proposedto implement SPI in Agile environment based on improving practices.

  • 442.
    Polepalle, Chahna
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kondoju, Ravi Shankar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Evidence and perceptions on GUI test automation: An explorative Multi-Case study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. GUI-based automation testing is a costly and tedious activity in practice. As GUIs are well-known for being modified and redesigned throughout the development process, the corresponding test scripts are not valid anymore thereby being a hindrance to automation. Hence, substantial effort is invested in maintaining GUI test scripts which often leads to rework or waste due to improper decisions. As a result, practitioners have identified the need for decision support regarding when should GUI automation testing begin and how to make it easier and also identify what are the factors leading to waste in GUI-based automation testing. The current literature provides solutions relating to automation in general and few answers for GUI based-automation testing. Such generic answers might not be applicable to GUI test automation and also industries new to GUI development and testing. Thus, it is necessary to validate if the general solutions are applicable to GUI test automation and find additional answers that are not identified previously from practitioners opinions in an industrial context.

    Objectives. Capture relevant information regarding the current approach for GUI test automation within the subsystems from a case company. Next, identify the criteria for when to begin automation, testability requirements and factors associated with waste from literature and practice.

    Methods. We conducted a multiple-case study to explore opinions of practitioners in two subsystems at a Swedish telecommunication industry implementing GUI-automation testing. We conducted a literature review to identify answers from scientific literature prior to performing a case study.A two-phased interview was performed with different employees to collect their subjective opinions and also gather their opinions on the evidence collected from the literature. Later, Bayesian synthesis method was used to combine subjective opinions of practitioners with research-based evidence to produce context-specific results.

    Results. We identified 12 criteria for when to begin automation, 16 testability requirements and 15 factors associated with waste in GUI test automation.Each of them is classified into categories namely SUT-related,test-process related, test-tool related, human and organizational, environment and cross-cutting. New answers which were not present in the existing literature in the domain of the research are found.

    Conclusions. On validating the answers found in literature, it was revealed that the answers applicable for software test automation, in general, are valid for GUI automation testing as well. Since we incorporated subjective opinions to produce context specific results, we gained an understanding that every practitioner has their own way of working. Hence, this study aids in developing a common understanding to support informed subjective decisions based on evidence.

  • 443.
    Poulding, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Alexander, R.
    Clark, J. A.
    Hadley, M. J.
    The optimisation of stochastic grammars to enable cost-effective probabilistic structural testing2015Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 103, s. 296-310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of statistical testing, a probabilistic structural testing strategy, depends on the characteristics of the probability distribution from which test inputs are sampled. Metaheuristic search has been shown to be a practical method of optimising the characteristics of such distributions. However, the applicability of the existing search-based algorithm is limited by the requirement that the software's inputs must be a fixed number of ordinal values. In this paper we propose a new algorithm that relaxes this limitation and so permits the derivation of probability distributions for a much wider range of software. The representation used by the new algorithm is based on a stochastic grammar supplemented with two novel features: conditional production weights and the dynamic partitioning of ordinal ranges. We demonstrate empirically that a search algorithm using this representation can optimise probability distributions over complex input domains and thereby enable costeffective statistical testing, and that the use of both conditional production weights and dynamic partitioning can be beneficial to the search process. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 444.
    Poulding, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Automated Random Testing in Multiple Dispatch Languages2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017, IEEE Computer Society, 2017, s. 333-344Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In programming languages that use multiple dispatch, a single function can have multiple implementations, each of which may specialise the function's operation. Which one of these implementations to execute is determined by the data types of all the arguments to the function. Effective testing of functions that use multiple dispatch therefore requires diverse test inputs in terms of the data types of the input's arguments as well as their values. In this paper we describe an approach for generating test inputs where both the values and types are chosen probabilistically. The approach uses reflection to automatically determine how to create inputs with the desired types, and dynamically updates the probability distribution from which types are sampled in order to improve both the test efficiency and efficacy. We evaluate the technique on 247 methods across 9 built-in functions of Julia, a technical computing language that applies multiple dispatch at runtime. In the process, we identify three real faults in these widely-used functions. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 445.
    Poulding, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Generating Controllably Invalid and Atypical Inputs for Robustness Testing2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 81-84Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One form of robustness in a software system is its ability to handle, in an appropriate manner, inputs that are unexpected compared to those it would experience in normal operation. In this paper we investigate a generic approach to generating such unexpected test inputs by extending a framework that we have previously developed for the automated creation of complex and high-structured test data. The approach is applied to the generation of valid inputs that are atypical as well as inputs that are invalid. We demonstrate that our approach enables control of the 'degree' to which the test data is invalid or atypical, and show empirically that this can alter the extent to which the robustness of a software system is exercised during testing. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 446.
    Poulding, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Generating Structured Test Data with Specific Properties using Nested Monte-Carlo Search2014Inngår i: GECCO'14: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2014 GENETIC AND EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION CONFERENCE, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, s. 1279-1286Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software acting on complex data structures can be challenging to test: it is difficult to generate diverse test data that satisfies structural constraints while simultaneously exhibiting properties, such as a particular size, that the test engineer believes will be effective in detecting faults. In our previous work we introduced GödelTest, a framework for generating such data structures using non-deterministic programs, and combined it with Differential Evolution to optimize the generation process. Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a search technique that has shown great success in playing games that can be represented as sequence of decisions. In this paper we apply Nested Monte-Carlo Search, a single-player variant of MCTS, to the sequence of decisions made by the generating programs used by GödelTest, and show that this combination can efficiently generate random data structures which exhibit the specific properties that the test engineer requires. We compare the results to Boltzmann sampling, an analytical approach to generating random combinatorial data structures.

  • 447.
    Poulding, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Heuristic Model Checking Using a Monte-Carlo Tree Search Algorithm2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, ACM Digital Library, 2015, s. 1359-1366Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 448.
    Poulding, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Re-using generators of complex test data2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE 8th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST), IEEE Computer Society, 2015, s. Article number 7102605-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of random testing can be improved by sampling test inputs using a generating program that incorporates knowledge about the types of input most likely to detect faults in the software-under-test (SUT). But when the input of the SUT is a complex data type - such as a domain-specific string, array, record, tree, or graph - creating such a generator may be time- consuming and may require the tester to have substantial prior experience of the domain. In this paper we propose the re-use of generators created for one SUT on other SUTs that take the same complex data type as input. The re-use of a generator in this way would have little overhead, and we hypothesise that the re-used generator will typically be as least as efficient as the most straightforward form of random testing: sampling test inputs from the uniform distribution. We investigate this proposal for two data types using five generators. We assess test efficiency against seven real-world SUTs, and in terms of both structural coverage and the detection of seeded faults. The results support the re-use of generators for complex data types, and suggest that if a library of generators is to be maintained for this purpose, it is possible to extend library generators to accommodate the specific testing requirements of newly-encountered SUTs. © 2015 IEEE.

  • 449.
    Poulding, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Garousi, Vahid
    Using Citation Behavior to Rethink Academic Impact in Software Engineering2015Inngår i: ACM-IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, 2015, s. 140-43Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although citation counts are often considered a measure of academic impact, they are criticized for failing to evaluate impact as intended. In this paper we propose that software engineering citations may be classified according to how the citation is used by the author of the citing paper, and that through this classification of citation behaviour it is possible to achieve a more refined understanding of the cited paper’s impact. Our objective in this work is to conduct an initial evaluation using the citation behaviour taxonomy proposed by Bornmann and Daniel. We independently classified citations to ten highly-cited papers published at the International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM). The degree to which classifications were consistent between researchers was analyzed in order to assess the clarity of Bornmann and Daniel’s taxonomy. We found poor to fair agreement between researchers even though the taxonomy was perceived as relatively easy to apply for the majority of citations. We were nevertheless able to identify clear differences in the profile of citation behaviors between the cited papers. We conclude that an improved taxonomy is required if classification is to be reliable, and that a degree of automation would improve reliability as well as reduce the time taken to make a classification.

  • 450.
    , PraveenShivakumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Vijapurapu, Krishna Kanth
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Tacit Knowledge Preservation at Vendor Organizations in Offshore Outsourcing Software Development2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Tacit knowledge preservation (TKP) is a critical activity in outsourcing business since there is a high possibility of losing business if the personnel turnover rate is high. Objective: This study investigates TKP techniques from both knowledge management (KM) and software engineer (SE) perspectives followed by a discussion on the practicability of these techniques in software industries. The main aim of this research study is to provide a set of recommendations that assists preserving tacit knowledge in offshore outsourcing vendor organizations. Methods: This research combines a systematic literature review with an industrial survey. A systematic literature review (SLR) was employed to identify the TKP techniques in both KM and SE literature. Quasi-gold standard approach was employed as search strategy in SLR. Further, a survey was conducted with industrial practitioners working in offshore outsourcing software development (OOSD) to validate the findings from SLR and to know the additional TKP techniques. Results: A total of 51 TKP techniques were extracted from SLR and no additional techniques were identified from the survey. These 51 techniques were grouped and categorized into two subgroups namely Socialization and Externalization. A recommendation system and model was proposed to make the TKP process mandatory for every software project in an organization. Conclusions: The research provided a wide set of techniques for preserving tacit knowledge but the major contribution is from KM field whereas a little from SE field. The results of SLR and industrial survey revealed that though a sufficient amount of TKP techniques are available the practicability of these techniques in SE organizations is limited in nature. Therefore, we recommend a Software Engineers Rating (SER) system and model to make the TKP process mandatory in every software project that benefits the organization and also to an employee.

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