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  • 4751.
    Åberg, Christer
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Simuleringsmodell av en vält2011Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report a model of a road roller is created to simulate its velocity for different joystick signals. The model will also simulate the pressure that occurs in the road rollers hydraulic system when it is driven in different velocitys and gears. In this project a program that is called Simulink is used to model the road roller. Diffrent sub-models are derived concerning velocity and the pressure in the hydraulic system which later is used to form the model of the road roller.

  • 4752. Åberg, Hampus
    Subimage matching in historical documents using SIFT keypoints and clustering2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In this thesis subimage matching in historical handwritten documents using SIFT (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform) keypoints was tested. SIFT features are invariant to scale and rotation and have gained a lot of interest in the research community. The historical documents used in this thesis orignates from 16th century and forward. The following steps have been executed; binarization, word segmentation, feature identification and clustering. The binarization step converts the images into binary images. The word segmentation separates the different words into individual subimages. In the feature identification SIFT keypoints was found and descriptors was computed. The last step was to cluster the images based on the distances between the set of image features identified. Objectives: The main objectives are to find a good configuration for the binarization step, implement a good word segmentation, identify image features and lastly to cluster the images based on their similarity. The context from subimages are matched to each other rather than trying to predict what the context of a subimage is, simply because the data that has been used is unlabeled. Methods: Implementation were the main methodology used combined with experimentation. Measurements were taken throughout the development and accuracy of word segmentation and the clustering is measured. Results: The word segmentation got an average accuracy of 89\% correct segmentation which is comparable to other word segmentating results. The clustering however matched 0% correctly.Conclusions: The conclusions that have been drawn from this study is that SIFT keypoints are not very well suited for this type of problem which includes a lot of handwritten text. The descriptors were not discriminative enough and different keypoints were found in different images with the same handwritten text, which lead to the bad clustering results.

  • 4753.
    Åbom, Karl
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Comparison of effectiveness in using 3D-audio and visual aids in identifying objects in a three-dimensional environment2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Modern commercial computer games use a number of different stimuli to assist players in locating key objects in the presented Virtual Environment (VE). These stimuli range from visual to auditory, and are employed in VEs depending on several factors such as gameplay design and aesthetics. Objectives: This study compares three different localization aids in order to evaluate their effectiveness in VEs. Method: An experiment is carried out in which testplayers are tasked with using audio signals, visual input, as well as a combination of both to correctly identify objects in a virtual scene. Results: Results gained from the experiment show how long testplayers spent on tests which made use of different stimuli. Upon analyzing the data, it was found that that audio stimulus was the slowest localization aid, and that visual stimulus and the combination of visual and auditory stimulus were tied for the fastest localization aid. Conclusions: The study concludes that there is a significant difference in efficiency among different localization aids and VEs of varied visual complexity, under the condition that the testplayer is familiar with each stimuli.

  • 4754. Ådahl, Kerstin
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Rune
    Innovative Health Care Channels: Towards Declarative Electronic Decision Support Systems Focusing on Patient Security.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models supporting empoerment of health care teams and patients are introduced and exemplified

  • 4755.
    Åkerlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Mattsson, Ludvig
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Gestaltning av klasskillnader i spel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker hur gestaltning av klasskillnader kan skildras på olika sätt i en

    spelmiljö. Syftet med undersökningen är att få fram alternativa sätt för att gestalta klasskillnader

    på i spelmiljöer. Detta för att försöka påverka hur spelutvecklare kommer gestalta klasskillnader

    i framtida spelproduktioner. För att undersöka problemområdet har teorier och idéer applicerats i

    3D-modeller som sedan har lagts in i en spelmiljö. Uppsatsen är uppdelad i tre delar. Tidigare

    forskning, produktion och diskussion.

  • 4756.
    Åkerud, Daniel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Rendlo, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Natural Language Processing from a Software Engineering Perspective2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is intended to deal with questions related to the processing of naturally occurring texts, also known as natural language processing (NLP). The subject will be approached from a software engineering perspective, and the problem description will be formulated thereafter. The thesis is roughly divided into two major parts. The first part contains a literature study covering fundamental concepts and algorithms. We discuss both serial and parallel architectures, and conclude that different scenarios call for different architectures. The second part is an empirical evaluation of an NLP framework or toolkit chosen amongst a few, conducted in order to elucidate the theoretical part of the thesis. We argue that component based development in a portable language could increase the reusability in the NLP community, where reuse is currently low. The recent emergence of the discovered initiatives and the great potential of many applications in this area reveal a bright future for NLP.

  • 4757.
    Åkesson, Gustav
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Rantzow, Pontus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Performance evaluation of multithreading in a Diameter Credit Control Application2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Moore's law states that the amount of computational power available at a given cost doubles every 18 months and indeed, for the past 20 years there has been a tremendous development in microprocessors. However, for the last few years, Moore's law has been subject for debate, since to manage heat issues, processor manufacturers have begun favoring multicore processors, which means parallel computation has become necessary to fully utilize the hardware. This also means that software has to be written with multiprocessing in mind to take full advantage of the hardware, and writing parallel software introduces a whole new set of problems. For the last couple of years, the demands on telecommunication systems have increased and to manage the increasing demands, multiprocessor servers have become a necessity. Applications must fully utilize the hardware and such an application is the Diameter Credit Control Application (DCCA). The DCCA uses the Diameter networking protocol and the DCCA's purpose is to provide a framework for real-time charging. This could, for instance, be to grant or deny a user's request of a specific network activity and to account for the eventual use of that network resource. This thesis investigates whether it is possible to develop a Diameter Credit Control Application that achieves linear scaling and the eventual pitfalls that exist when developing a scalable DCCA server. The assumption is based on the observation that the DCCA server's connections have little to nothing in common (i.e. little or no synchronization), and introducing more processors should therefore give linear scaling. To investigate whether a DCCA server's performance scales linearly, a prototype has been developed. Along with the development of the prototype, constant performance analysis was conducted to see what affected performance and server scalability in a multiprocessor DCCA environment. As the results show, quite a few factors besides synchronization and independent connections affected scalability of the DCCA prototype. The results show that the DCCA prototype did not always achieve linear scaling. However, even if it was not linear, certain design decisions gave considerable performance increase when more processors were introduced.

  • 4758.
    Åleskog, Christoffer
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Ljungberg Fayyazuddin, Salomon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Comparing node-sorting algorithms for multi-goal pathfinding with obstacles2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Pathfinding plays a big role in both digital games and robotics, and is used in many different ways. One of them is multi-goal pathfinding (MGPF) which is used to calculate paths from a start position to a destination with the condition that the resulting path goes though a series of goals on the way to the destination. For the most part research on this topic is sparse, and when the complexity is increased through obstacles that are introduced to the scenario, there are only a few articles in the field that relate to the problem.Objectives. The objective in this thesis is to conduct an experiment to compare four algorithms for solving the MGPF problem on six different maps with obstacles, and then analyze and draw conclusions on which of the algorithms is best suited to use for the MGPF problem. The first is the traditional Nearest Neighbor algorithm, the second is a variation on the Greedy Search algorithm, and the third and fourth are variations on the Nearest Neighbor algorithm. Methods. To reach the Objectives all the four algorithms are tested fifty times on six different maps of varying sizes and obstacle layout. Results. The data from the experiment is compiled in graphs for all the different maps, with the time to calculate a path and the path lengths as the metrics. The averages of all the metrics are put in tables to visualize the difference between the results for the four algorithms.Conclusions. The conclusions were that the dynamic version of the Nearest Neighbor algorithm has the best result if both the metrics are taken into account. Otherwise the common Nearest Neighbor algorithm gives the best results in respect to the time taken to calculate the paths and the Greedy Search algorithm creates the shortest paths of all the tested algorithms.

  • 4759.
    Årsköld, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Processoperatörens mobilitet -teknikstöd för mobil larmhantering2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Processindustrin har möjligheten att ta steget in i en ny utvecklingsfas där teknik kommer att spela stor roll. I och med att teknik allt mer stödjer mobilitet öppnas möjligheten för processoperatörer att på valfri plats kunna övervaka och styra tillverkningsprocessen. Med denna rapport presenterar författaren sin empiriska studie på en högteknologisk fabrik. Studiens fokus ligger i betydelsen av processoperatörernas mobilitet och hur den framträder i deras arbete. Studien visar att mobilitet för operatörerna på fabriken är en del av deras yrkesutövande och väsentlig för att kunna styra tillverkningsprocessen. Utifrån studien ges förslag på teknik som kan stödja denna mobilitet genom att möjliggöra mobil larmhantering.

  • 4760.
    Åsfält, Pär
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Stüeken, Jan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Controlling Changes in Large-Scale Software Development2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Changes to a software system are the result of changing requirements or defects during the development. Each change consumes resources for the analysis, decision making, implementation, and verification. Hence, having control over changes is crucial for software development projects to meet schedules, keep quality standards and budgets. Reuse of functionality helps to create new products based on already existing building blocks. Integrating mature components enables to create reliable systems. Software product lines provide means to develop several similar systems based on reuse. Often new products also need to be released frequently to fulfil the customer needs. Shortened lead time for the development then strengthens the importance of reuse. At the same time, limited budgets and competition on the market requires projects to utilize resources efficiently. Developing several releases in parallel enables an even distribution of tasks among different roles in a development organization. Both developing software based on a product line approach and parallel releases put requirements on how changes need to be controlled. In this thesis, software engineering literature is reviewed regarding the knowledge areas of software release management, software product lines and software configuration management. Beyond the most considerable research results also related case studies are presented to show how industry practices counter existing problems. The major part of the thesis is a case study conducted at Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB. The outcome of the thesis is an identification of challenges of controlling changes regarding parallel development and using software product lines based on available research results and industry case studies. It further provides a case of a software development organization which faces a high market-pace, uses a software product line approach, and develops several software releases in parallel on different sites around the world.

  • 4761.
    Åström, Fredrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Neural Network on Compute Shader: Running and Training a Neural Network using GPGPU2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I look into how one can train and run an artificial neural network using Compute Shader and what kind of performance can be expected. An artificial neural network is a computational model that is inspired by biological neural networks, e.g. a brain. Finding what kind of performance can be expected was done by creating an implementation that uses Compute Shader and then compare it to the FANN library, i.e. a fast artificial neural network library written in C. The conclusion is that you can improve performance by training an artificial neural network on the compute shader as long as you are using non-trivial datasets and neural network configurations.

  • 4762.
    Öhgren, Jonny Karlsson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Sjukvårdsrådgivningen i Karlshamn, Blekinge Län,: Från utredning till verklighet, om processen att införskaffa ett system2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This Batchelor?s Thesis concerns 20 points at the MDA-program (People, Computers and Work) at Blekinge Institute of Technology in Ronneby, Sweden. 10 points concerns Computer Science and 10 points Human Work Science. The thesis is about the process of starting a new department of Blekingesjukhuset [Blekinge Hospital] in Karlshamn, Blekinge called Sjukvårdsrådgivningen [Health Care Advice Bureau]. The thesis starts with a description of the ethnographical methods used, followed by the process of establishing the department. In this new department, the nurses are using a computer based system called Teleråd, developed by TietoEnator. The thesis takes up the issues of how the department uses this system today and concerns what ?user-friendliness? is. The end of the thesis contains an evaluation of the visions of the founders of the new service and how/if the visions have become reality.

  • 4763.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Math & Nat Sci, S-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Bimodules in Group Graded Rings2017In: Algebras and Representation Theory, ISSN 1386-923X, E-ISSN 1572-9079, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1483-1494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we introduce the notion of a controlled group graded ring. Let G be a group, with identity element e, and let R = aS center dot (gaG) R (g) be a unital G-graded ring. We say that R is G-controlled if there is a one-to-one correspondence between subsets of the group G and (mutually non-isomorphic) R (e) -sub-bimodules of R, given by G aSc Ha dagger broken vertical bar aS center dot (haH) R (h) . For strongly G-graded rings, the property of being G-controlled is stronger than that of being simple. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a general G-graded ring to be G-controlled. We also give a characterization of strongly G-graded rings which are G-controlled. As an application of our main results we give a description of all intermediate subrings T with R (e) aS dagger T aS dagger R of a G-controlled strongly G-graded ring R. Our results generalize results for artinian skew group rings which were shown by Azumaya 70 years ago. In the special case of skew group rings we obtain an algebraic analogue of a recent result by Cameron and Smith on bimodules in crossed products of von Neumann algebras.

  • 4764.
    Örtegren, Kevin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Clustered Shading: Assigning arbitrarily shaped convex light volumes using conservative rasterization2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In this thesis, a GPU-based light culling technique performed with conservative rasterization is presented. Accurate lighting calculations are expensive in real-time applications and the number of lights used in a typical virtual scene increases as real-time applications become more advanced. Performing light culling prior to shading a scene has in recent years become a vital part of any high-end rendering pipeline. Existing light culling techniques suffer from a variety of problems which clustered shading tries to address.

    Objectives. The main goal of this thesis is to explore the use of the rasterizer to efficiently assign convex light shapes to clusters. Being able to accurately represent and assign light volumes to clusters is a key objective in this thesis.

    Methods. This method is designed for real-time applications that use large amounts of dynamic and arbitrarily shaped convex lights. By using using conservative rasterization to assign convex light volumes to a 3D cluster structure, a more suitable light volume approximation can be used. This thesis implements a novel light culling technique in DirectX 12 by taking advantage of the hardware conservative rasterization provided by the latest consumer grade Nvidia GPUs. Experiments are conducted to prove the efficiency of the implementation and comparisons with AMD´s Forward+ tiled light culling are provided to relate the implementation to existing techniques.

    Results. The results from analyzing the algorithm shows that most problems with existing light culling techniques are addressed and the light assignment is of high quality and allows for easy integration of new convex light types. Assigning the lights and shading the CryTek Sponza scene with 2000 point lights and 2000 spot lights takes 2.92ms on a GTX970.

    Conclusions. The conclusion shows that the main goal of the thesis has been reached to the extent that all existing problems with current light culling techniques have been solved, at the cost of using more memory. The technique is novel and a lot of future work is outlined and would benefit the validity of the implementation if further researched.

  • 4765.
    Österlund, Mattias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Att konstruera en gemenskap -teori och konstruktion av virtuella samhällen2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Virtual communities are a phenomenon that is becoming more common as the information technology comes with in reach for the general public. This report will bring the theories and construction of a virtual community together. The purpose of this report is to describe the different theories that have emerged from the research within this field and to examine the work procedures that have been used during the development of a site for a MDA-community. The MDA-website is a homepage on the Internet that was developed to bring the students closer together. The report describes the work of the project group, why the website was not completed and at the end the theories are looked at on the basis of the construction of the website.

  • 4766. Östlund, Louise
    Information in use: In- and outsourcing aspects of digital services2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is founded on the global growth of the service sector and its significance for society as a whole and for the individual human being. In the last decade, technology has changed the way services are created, developed and delivered in remarkable ways. The focus of the thesis is technology in interplay with humans and organisations and the socio-economic-technical systems in which digital services play a central role. Challenges addressed by the thesis include requirement analysis, trustworthy systems, in- and outsourcing aspects, the proper understanding of information and its use in real world applications. With this in mind, the thesis presents a configurable methodology with the purpose to quality assure service oriented workflows found in socio-economic-technical systems. Important building blocks for this are information types and service supported workflows. Our case study is of a call centre-based business called AKC (Apotekets kundcentrum). AKC constitutes a part of the Cooperation of Swedish Pharmacies (Apoteket AB). One of their main services offered to Swedish citizens is the handling of incoming questions concerning pharmaceutical issues. We analysed the interactive voice response system at AKC as a starting point for our investigations and we suggest a more flexible solution. We regard a socio-economic-technical system as an information ecology, which puts the focus on human activities supported by technology. Within these information ecologies, we have found that a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can provide the flexible support needed in an environment with a focal point on services. Input from information ecologies and SOA also enables a structured way of managing in- and outsourcing issues. We have also found that if we apply SOA together with our way of modelling a Service Level Agreement (SLA), we can coordinate high-level requirements and support-system requirements. A central insight in this work is the importance of regarding a socio-economic-technical system as an information ecology in combination with in- and outsourcing issues. This view will prevent a company from being drained of its core competences and core services in an outsourcing situation, which is further discussed in the thesis. By using our combination of SOA and SLA we can also divide service bundles into separate services and apply economic aspects to them. This enables us to analyse which services that are profitable while at the same time meet important requirements in information quality. As a result, we propose a set of guidelines which represent our approach towards developing quality assured systems. We also present two main types of validation for service oriented workflows: validation of requirement engineering and validation of business processes.

  • 4767.
    Özcan, Mehmet Batuhan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Iro, Gabriel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    PARAVIRTUALIZATION IMPLEMENTATION IN UBUNTU WITH XEN HYPERVISOR2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing need for efficiency, cost reduction, reduced disposition of outdated electronics components as well as scalable electronics components, and also reduced health effects of our daily usage of electronics components. Recent trend in technology has seen companies manufacturing these products thinking in the mentioned needs when manufacturing and virtualizations is one important aspect of it. The need to share resources, the need to use lesser workspace, the need to reduce cost of purchase and manufacturing are all part of achievements of virtualization techniques. For some people, setting up a computer to run different virtual machines at the same time can be difficult especially if they have no prior basic knowledge of working in terminal environment and hiring a skilled personnel to do the job can be expensive. The motivation for this thesis is to help people with little or no basic knowledge on how to set up virtual machine with Ubuntu operating system on XEN hypervisor.

  • 4768.
    Özgür, Turhan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Comparison of Microsoft DSL Tools and Eclipse Modeling Frameworks for Domain-Specific Modeling in the context of Model-Driven Development2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today it is realized by industry that automation of software development leads to increased productivity, maintainability and higher quality. Model-Driven Development (MDD) aims to replace manual software development methods by automated methods using Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to express domain concepts effectively. Main actors in software industry, Microsoft and IBM have recognized the need to provide technologies and tools to allow building DSLs to support MDD. On the one hand, Microsoft is building DSL Tools integrated in Visual Studio 2005; on the other hand IBM is contributing to the development of Eclipse Modeling Frameworks (EMF/GEF/GMF), both tools aim to make development and deployment of DSLs easier. Software practitioners seek for guidelines regarding how to adopt these tools. In this thesis, the author presents the current state-of-the-art in MDD standards and Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM). Furthermore, the author presents current state-of-the-tools for DSM and performs a comparison of Microsoft DSL Tools and Eclipse EMF/GEF/GMF Frameworks based on a set of evaluation criteria. For the purpose of comparison the author developed two DSL designers (one by using each DSM tool). Based on the experiences gained in development of these DSL designers, the author prepared guidelines regarding how to adopt these tools to existing development environments as well as their advantages and drawbacks.

  • 4769.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Distributed Project Management2014In: Software Project Management in a Changing World / [ed] Ruhe, Guenther; Wohlin, Claes, Springer , 2014, p. 301-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4770. Šmite, Darja
    What happens, when software product development companies go global?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has significantly changed the way the market operates today. In particular, it motivated many software companies expand through acquisitions and utilize skillful resources regardless of their location around the globe. Global software engineering endeavors have been widely explored in the research literature for the past decade and associated with many challenges caused by geographic, temporal and cultural distances. While software development as such is quite a challenging task, involvement of dispersed and diverse software teams created a perceived crisis with respect to, so called, soft issues that have not been targeted in the past. The effect of distribution versus co-location is still under investigation, and the most commonly referred challenges are related to communication, coordination and control. Thus the focus of research to a large extent has shifted from software product as the center, to people developing software.

  • 4771. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Borzovs, Juris
    New Forms of Work in the Light of Globalization in Software Development2009In: Infonomics for Distributed Business and Decision-Making Environments: Creating Information System Ecology / [ed] Pankowska, Malgorzata; Adamiecki, Karol, Business Science Reference , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization in software development introduced significant changes in the way organizations operate today. Software is nowadays produced by team members from geographically, temporally and culturally remote sites. Organizations seek for benefits that global market offers and face new challenges. Naturally resistant to change, these organizations often do not realize necessity for tailoring existing methods for distributed collaboration. Our empirical investigation shows a great variety in the ways organizations distribute responsibilities across remote sites and conclude that these can be divided into two main categories: joint collaboration that requires investments in team building and independent collaboration that requires investments in knowledge management and transfer. Finally we discuss practices that are applied in industry to overcome these challenges and emphasize necessity to fully understand the pros and cons of different ways to organize distributed software projects before starting a project in this new environment.

  • 4772.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Van Solingen, Rini
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Calculating the extra costs and the bottom-line hourly cost of offshoring2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 96-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring software development activities to a remote site in another country continues to be one of the key strategies to save development cost. However, the assumed economic benefits of offshoring are often questionable, due to a large number of hidden costs and too simple cost calculations. This study is a continuation of our work on calculating the true hourly cost that includes the extra direct and indirect costs on top of the salary-based hourly rates. We collected data from an empirical case study conducted in a large international corporation. This corporation develops software-intensive systems and has offshored its ongoing product development from Sweden to a recently on-boarded captive company site in India. In this paper, we report a number of extra costs and their impact on the resulting hourly cost as well as the bottom-line cost per work unit. Our analysis includes quantitative data from corporate archives, and expert-based estimates gathered through focus groups and workshops with company representatives from both the onshore and the offshore sites. Our findings show that there is additional cost that can be directly or at least strongly attributed to the transfer of work, working on a distance, and immaturity of the offshore site. Consideration of extra costs increases the hourly cost several times, while the performance gaps between the mature sites and the immature site leads to an even higher difference. As a result, two years after on-boarding of the offshore teams, the mature teams in high-cost locations continue to be 'cheaper' despite the big salary differences, and the most positive hypothetical scenario, in which the company could break even, is unrealistic. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, offshoring of complex ongoing products does not seem to lead to short-term bottom-line economic gains, and may not even reach breakeven within five years. Second, offshoring in the studied case can be justified but merely when initiated for other reasons than cost. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 4773.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Calefato, Fabio
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cost Savings in Global Software Engineering Where's the Evidence?2015In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 26-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4774.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Cruzes, Daniela S.
    Expectations and Achievements: A Longitudinal Study on an Offshoring Strategy2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore software development has gained momentum and most of software companies today have implemented offshore strategies of some sort. Many of these strategies are enforced by corporate top management and driven by assumptions that lower development wages guarantee cheaper and better software development. In practice, offshore software development is associated with many risks, and achievement of the expected benefits is not as straightforward as the rumor has it. In this paper we explore an implementation of an offshore strategy in a Swedish software company that opened its offshore branch in Russia. Based on extensive documentation analysis we create an overview of the initially expected benefits and obstacles that prevailed among onshore product and development unit managers. Years after implementation of the offshore insourcing strategy we asked these managers about the achievement of their expectations. We observed that the company documented various expected benefits when implementing an offshoring strategy and also concerns that some of these benefits might not be achieved. Seven years after its implementation, the offshoring strategy was overall considered working, however the expected benefits were not fully achieved. More importantly, several gaps were identified, that suggest that the enforced strategy has resulted in a stable but not beneficial collaboration from the onshore perspective.

  • 4775.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Dingsoyr, Torgeir
    Fostering Cross-site Coordination through Awareness: An investigation of state-of-the-practice through a focus group study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness and shared knowledge are important ingredients of successful coordination in software engineering projects, and especially when team members are distributed. Although various coordination mechanisms and knowledge sharing recommendations for cross-site collaboration have been proposed, spreading awareness among distributed team members in a global software project has proven to be challenging in practice. In this paper we discuss our findings from conducting three focus groups on knowledge management in global software collaborations in two international organizations. We discuss various awareness needs in globally distributed collaborations that were not addressed by the organizations, and conclude that best practices and tools proposed in related research are not widely used. On the basis of our empirical findings we suggest future research directions and share recommendations for practical improvements.

  • 4776.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Socio-technical congruence sabotaged by a hidden onshore outsourcing relationship: Lessons learned from an empirical study2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2012, Vol. 7343, p. 190-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the popularity of outsourcing arrangements, distributed software development is still regarded as a complex endeavor. Complexity primarily comes from the challenges in communication and coordination among participating organizations. In this paper we discuss lessons learned from participatory research carried out in a highly distributed onshore outsourcing project. Previous research established that socio-technical congruence principles alleviate distributed work. In practice we have found that alignment between the systems structure and organizational structure can be studied from different abstraction levels and also during different phases of project lifecycle. We have found that official organizational structure differed from the applied one, which meant that the planned alignment in task allocation strategies was broken. Our findings indicate that the lack of socio-technical congruence caused several implications, including unclear responsibilities, delays in problem turnaround, conflicting changes, and non-delivered parts.

  • 4777. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Why a CMMI Level 5 Company Fails to Meet the Deadlines?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable effort and cost estimation remains to be a challenging issue even for mature software organizations. Although, these organizations collect historical data to base their future estimates, changes in circumstances (such as application type, development platform, etc.) prevent their successful utilization. As a result, companies often suffer from underestimated and unrealistic schedules. Managing software projects that involve a large number of globally distributed stakeholders makes estimation and planning even more challenging. Related studies show that even knowledgeable project managers often underestimate hidden costs and sources of delay associated with distributed development. Therefore, management activities such as estimation of development effort, planning and control require special attention. In this paper we discuss experiences gained from a highly distributed software project, which aimed at development of a product based on a new platform and architectural solution. The project was conducted in a CMMI Level 5 company and still failed to meet initial plan constraints. We thus provide an overview of management decisions in the light of their consequences, and discuss potential areas of improvement.

  • 4778.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kuhrmann, Marco
    Keil, Patrick
    Virtual Teams: Guest Editor’s Introduction2014In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 41-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4779.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moe, Nills Brede
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šablis, Aivars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development2017In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, no JUN, p. 71-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large software development projects involve multiple interconnected teams, often spread around the world, developing complex products for a growing number of customers and users. Succeeding with large-scale software development requires access to an enormous amount of knowledge and skills. Since neither individuals nor teams can possibly possess all the needed expertise, the resource availability in a team's knowledge network, also known as social capital, and effective knowledge coordination become paramount. Objective: In this paper, we explore the role of social capital in terms of knowledge networks and networking behavior in large-scale software development projects. Method: We conducted a multi-case study in two organizations, Ericsson and ABB, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized focus groups with ten software teams and surveyed 61 members from these teams to characterize and visualize the teams' knowledge networks. To complement the team perspective, we conducted individual interviews with representatives of supporting and coordination roles. Based on survey data, data obtained from focus groups, and individual interviews, we compared the different network characteristics and mechanisms that support knowledge networks. We used social network analysis to construct the team networks, thematic coding to identify network characteristics and context factors, and tabular summaries to identify the trends. Results: Our findings indicate that social capital and networking are essential for both novice and mature teams when solving complex, unfamiliar, or interdependent tasks. Network size and networking behavior depend on company experience, employee turnover, team culture, need for networking, and organizational support. A number of mechanisms can support the development of knowledge networks and social capital, for example, introduction of formal technical experts, facilitation of communities of practice and adequate communication infrastructure. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of social capital and knowledge networks. Therefore, we suggest that, along with investments into training programs, software companies should also cultivate a networking culture to strengthen their social capital, a known driver of better performance.

  • 4780.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    SINTEF, Trondheim, NOR.
    Levinta, Georgiana
    Spotify, SWE.
    Floryan, Marcin
    Spotify, SWE.
    Spotify Guilds: How to Succeed With Knowledge Sharing in Large-Scale Agile Organizations2019In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 51-57, article id 8648260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new generation of software companies has revolutionized the way companies are designed. While bottom-up governance and team autonomy improve motivation, performance, and innovation, managing agile development at scale is a challenge. We describe how Spotify cultivates guilds to help the company share knowledge, align, and make collective decisions.

  • 4781. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Torkar, Richard
    Pitfalls in Remote Team Coordination: Lessons Learned From a Case Study2008In: LNCS 5089 / [ed] Salo, A. Jedlitschka and O., Springer Verlag , 2008, p. 345-359Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4782.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wigander, Jonas
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Esser, Hendrik
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Corporate-level communities at ericsson: Parallel organizational structure for fostering alignment for autonomy2019In: Lect. Notes Bus. Inf. Process., Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 355, p. 173-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational management traditionally has taken care of all the important strategy, structure, and work-design decisions, as well as most of the ongoing decisions about work procedures. In large-scale corporations with many geographically distributed sites and high divisional detachment, such strategies are yet doomed to result in implementing irrelevant work methods and procedures that conflict with the local interests. As Tayloristic habits are disappearing, organizations willingly or unwillingly change their decision-making approaches to enable more participation and influence from the performers. These trends are associated with the rise of participation-based parallel structures, such as quality circles, task forces or communities of practice. In this paper, we present our findings from studying corporate-level communities by the means of a multi-case study at Ericsson. We found that the main hindrances are related to the limited decision-making authority of parallel structure, member selection and achieving representation across the organizational units. Our results suggest that parallel structures highly depend on the authority of the members within their local communities, and their ability to not only channel the dialog between the units they represent and the community, but also enable the active engagement of the unit in the community studies. As such, we believe that special attention shall be put on the ambassador role of the community members. © The Author(s) 2019.

  • 4783. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils BredeÅgerfalk, Pär J.
    Agility Across Time and Space: Making Agile Distributed Development a Success2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rather than deciding whether or not to get involved in global sourcing, many companies are facing decisions about whether or not to apply agile methods in their distributed projects. These companies are often motivated by the opportunities to solve the coordination and communication difficulties associated with global software development. Yet while agile principles prescribe close interaction and co-location, the very nature of distributed software development does not support these prerequisites. Šmite, Moe, and Ågerfalk structured the book into five parts. In “Motivation” the editors introduce the fundamentals of agile distributed software development and explain the rationale behind the application of agile practices in globally distributed software projects. “ Transition” describes implementation strategies, adoption of particular agile practices for distributed projects, and general concepts of agility. “Management” details practical implications for project planning, time management, and customer and subcontractor interaction. “Teams” discusses agile distributed team configuration, effective communication and knowledge transfer, and allocation of roles and responsibilities. Finally, in the “Epilogue” the editors summarize all contributions and present future trends for research and practice in agile distributed development. This book is primarily targeted at researchers, lecturers, and students in empirical software engineering, and at practitioners involved in globally distributed software projects. The contributions are based on sound empirical research and identify gaps and commonalities in both the existing state of the art and state of the practice. In addition, they also offer practical advice through many hints, checklists, and experience reports. Questions answered in this book include: What should companies expect from merging agile and distributed strategies? What are the stumbling blocks that prevent companies from realizing the benefits of the agile approach in distributed environments, and how can we recognize infeasible strategies and unfavorable circumstances? What helps managers cope with the challenges of implementing agile approaches in distributed software development projects? How can distributed teams survive the decisions taken by management and become efficient through the application of agile approaches?

  • 4784. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Numminen, Emil
    Transaction Cost Economics in Offshoring: From Naïve To Realistic View on Associated Costs2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4785.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Solingen, Rini Van
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The Offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover Strategies for Addressing Turnover When Offshoring to India2019In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staffing software projects with engineers from best-cost locations has become a commonality. However, distributed development remains practically challenging with many recurring problems, such as decreased productivity, low quality, and high unforeseen extra costs. One main underlying reason for these challenges is high employee turnover, although often overlooked. In developing locations such as India turnover is significantly large due to personal benefits from ‘job-hopping’. Why is turnover such a problem? Should companies stop sourcing to countries with high turnover or are there known remedies? This research puts turnover of software engineers in India in the spotlight and derives strategies to address it. We share experiences from two industrial cases, discuss important variables for portraying the actual turnover state and its negative impacts. Furthermore, we put forward ten recommendations for actively reducing turnover itself and lowering its negative consequences. IEEE

  • 4786.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    van Solingen, Rini
    What's the True Hourly Cost of Offshoring?2016In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An offshore team's hourly costs took three years to become comparable with the in-house team's costs. Getting close to breaking even took five years. Learning costs due to offshore employee turnover were the primary cost factor to get under control.

  • 4787. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Whisper of Evidence in Global Software Engineering2011In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 15-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4788.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lessons learned from transferring software products to India2012In: Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, ISSN 1532-060X, E-ISSN 1532-0618, Vol. 24, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has influenced the way software is developed today, and many software organizations have started to actively utilize resources from around the world. However, these endeavors are recognized as very challenging, and they have attracted a lot of attention in software research in the past decade. Unlike many other research initiatives, which explore the complexities of distributed software development activities, the focus of this paper is on software transfers. Software transfers refer to activities that are moved from one location to another. The authors draw attention to the lessons learned from an empirical investigation of two transfer projects conducted at Ericsson. Both transfers were performed between a site in Sweden and a site in India. The observations outline a set of generic practices that have been found useful for transferring software development within a company. It also highlights a number of challenges to be addressed and a set of corresponding recommendations. Finally, the paper emphasizes the need to identify software products that are suitable for transfers and the need to monitor the long-term effects of transfer.

  • 4789. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Risk Identification in Software Product Transfers2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software companies today often face the necessity to decide where to develop their products. Inability to employ people or continue ongoing development with the same capacity in a given site of a company often leads to relocation of software work from one site to another. Software product transfers, however, are associated with numerous challenges that require investments, and may also have a secondary harder to capture effect on development productivity, quality and scope. In this paper, we share the results from previous empirical studies of software product transfers and offer a checklist for risk identification. The checklist shall be useful for software companies that consider, plan or execute software transfers. Although many risk factors included in the checklist may seem obvious, our empirical observations indicate that prior to obtaining the necessary experience these factors have been initially overlooked. Thus we believe that the checklist will be especially useful for managers with no or little experiences in relocating software work between the two sites of the same company.

  • 4790. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software Product Transfers: Lessons Learned from a Case Study2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although global software work nowadays is not a phenomenon, research and practice is still addressing the complexities associated with the new forms of work enabled through globalization. ‘Go global’ strategies usually prescribe two alternative approaches: distribution of software development activities across several locations, or re-location of work to another site. This research paper focuses on the latter approach that is called software product transfers and discusses findings from an empirical case study conducted in Ericsson. The observations indicate that transferring software work from one site to another site of the same company is a challenging endeavor. Furthermore, practices used in co-located projects do not necessarily lead to a desired outcome. The paper provides an overview of the challenges and highlights practical advice for handling software product transfers.

  • 4791. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Strategies Facilitating Software Product Transfers2011In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization of software work has become common in today's market. As part of cost-reduction strategies, many product-focused software companies started shipping their product development to insourcing and outsourcing offshore locations. Unfortunately, moving software products from one site to another isn't always a good business strategy for either the organization or the product. In this article, the authors discuss findings from studying software insourcing transfers at Ericsson, a large software product development company headquartered in Sweden. Their findings suggest that certain product, personnel, and process characteristics can facilitate the execution of an offshore insourcing transfer. On the basis of research conducted together with the company, they share a list of critical factors alleviating transfer difficulties and seven strategies facilitating transition of software work across sites.

  • 4792. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybuke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Numminen, Emil
    Towards an Understanding of Sourcing Decisions2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4793.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Numminen, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Offshore Insourcing in Software Development: Structuring the Decision-Making Process2013In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 1054-1067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of new forms of business are enabled through globalization and practiced by software organizations today. While companies go global to reduce their development costs, access a larger pool of resources and explore new markets, it is often assumed that the level of delivered services shall remain the same after implementing the sourcing decisions. In contrast, critical studies identified that global software development is associated with unique challenges, and a lot of global projects fail to mitigate the implications of a particular global setting. In this paper we explore offshore insourcing decisions on the basis of empirical research literature and an empirical field study conducted at Ericsson. By analyzing decisions in two different cases we found that each offshore insourcing decision consisted of deciding what, where, when, how and why to insource. Related empirical research and field observations suggest that not all combinations are successful and alignment between different decision points has thus a prominent role. To address these concerns we built an empirically-based insourcing decision structure, which outlines a logical path through the decision options and helps selecting an offshore insourcing strategy that targets creation of the necessary alignment. The key element of the proposed approach is a structured and well-defined decision-making process, which is intended to support managers in their decision-making. The usefulness of the proposed approach is evaluated in an additional empirical case of a new offshore insourcing decision.

  • 4794. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Reporting Empirical Research in Global Software Engineering: A Classification Scheme2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased popularity of global software engineering (GSE) has resulted in quite a number of research and industrial studies. As the area matures, an increased focus on empirically supported results leads to a greater potential impact on future research and industrial practice. However, since GSE scenarios are diverse, what works in one context might not directly apply in another. Thus it is necessary to understand, how GSE-related empirical findings should be reported to be useful for practitioners and researchers. Furthermore, it‘s important to summarize progress and get the big picture of published research to identify gaps and commonalities. In this paper we analyze differentiating factors of GSE scenarios and offer a classification scheme for describing the context of a GSE study. In addition, we report initial results of a systematic review on GSE-related empirical literature using papers from ICGSE 2006 and 2007, at the same time illustrating and evaluating the proposed scheme.

  • 4795.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    An empirically based terminology and taxonomy for global software engineering2014In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 191, no 1, p. 105-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations nowadays strive for utilization of benefits offered by global software engineering (GSE) and sourcing strategies are thus discussed more often. Since there are so many variations of the attributes associated with global software projects a large amount of new terms has been introduced. The diversity in sourcing jargon however has caused difficulties in determining which term to use in which situation, and thus causing further obstacles to searching and finding relevant research during e.g. systematic literature reviews. The inability of judging the applicability of the research in an industrial context is another important implication on the transferability of research into practice. Thus the need for accurate terminology and definitions for different global sourcing situations emerges as a way for the community to build upon each other's work and hence making progress more quickly. In this paper we first investigate the state of the use of the GSE jargon concluding that terminology is very diverse (many synonyms used to describe the same phenomena), often confusing (same terms used to describe different phenomena) and occasionally ambiguous (few terms used to describe several phenomena). In order to address the identified problems, we conducted a Delphi-inspired study with ten well-established researchers in GSE and developed an empirically based glossary for the key concepts in global software engineering. We then propose a taxonomy for GSE by categorizing the selected terms based on generalization-specialization relationships and illustrate how the taxonomy can be used to categorize and map existing knowledge. The contribution targets future researchers, who will publish or synthesize further empirical work and practitioners, who are interested in published empirical cases. Therefore this work is expected to make a contribution to the future development of research in the GSE field, and alleviate understandability and transferability of existing and future knowledge into practice.

  • 4796. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Empirical evidence in global software engineering: a systematic review2010In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 91-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognized as one of the trends of the 21st century, globalization of the world economies brought significant changes to nearly all industries, and in particular it includes software development. Many companies started global software engineering (GSE) to benefit from cheaper, faster and better development of software systems, products and services. However, empirical studies indicate that achieving these benefits is not an easy task. Here, we report our findings from investigating empirical evidence in GSE-related research literature. By conducting a systematic review we observe that the GSE field is still immature. The amount of empirical studies is relatively small. The majority of the studies represent problem-oriented reports focusing on different aspects of GSE management rather than in-depth analysis of solutions for example in terms of useful practices or techniques. Companies are still driven by cost reduction strategies, and at the same time, the most frequently discussed recommendations indicate a necessity of investments in travelling and socialization. Thus, at the same time as development goes global there is an ambition to minimize geographical, temporal and cultural separation. These are normally integral parts of cross-border collaboration. In summary, the systematic review results in several descriptive classifications of the papers on empirical studies in GSE and also reports on some best practices identified from literature.

  • 4797. Šteinberga, Liva
    et al.
    Smite, Darja
    Towards understanding of software engineer motivation in globally distributed projects2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation in software engineering is reported to be a source for performance improvement, which leads to project overall success. Since it is a soft factor and difficult to quantify it is usually neglected. Research in this field is rather scarce and outdated. On the basis of a recent systematic review of software engineers' motivation we set an agenda for further investigation of the role of motivation in contemporary projects. As software organizations nowadays seek opportunities inherited in both - global software development (GSD) and agile projects, it is important to understand how different project environments influence motivation.

  • 4798.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Zabardast, Ehsan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Building lego towers: An exercise for teaching the challenges of global work2019In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 19, no 2, article id a15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global software engineering has changed the way software is developed today. To address the new challenges, many universities have launched specially tailored courses to train young professionals to work in globally distributed projects. However, a mere acknowledgment of the geographic, temporal, and cultural differences does not necessarily lead to a deep understanding of the underlying practical implications. Therefore, many universities developed alternative teaching and learning activities, such as multi-university collaborative projects and small-scale simulations or games. In this article, we present a small-scale exercise that uses LEGO bricks to teach skills necessary for global work. We describe the many different interventions that could be implemented in the execution of the exercise. We had seven runs of the exercises and report our findings from executing seven runs of the exercise with the total of 104 students from five different courses in two different universities. Our results suggest that the exercise can be a valuable tool to help students dealing with troublesome knowledge associated with global software engineering and a useful complement to the courses dedicated to this subject. © 2019 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s)

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