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  • 501. Tümmler, Christoph
    et al.
    Mival, Oli
    Lim Jumelle, Ai Keow
    Holanec, Ivo
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Social Technological Aligment Matrix2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper refers to the term “implementation” as the process of integrating a new technology into established workflows. Especially in health care this has proven to be a very critical phase and many large-scale projects have failed on this very last mile. Although strategies such as requirements engineering, co-designing and user interaction design have been proposed to reduce the risk of end-user rejection and subsequently project failur. There is still no tool to analyze, predict and quantify user acceptance and identify critical areas which might be addressed before the start of the implementation phase in order to reduce resistance and increase the effectiveness and efficiency.

  • 502. Ulziit, B.a
    et al.
    Warraich, Z.A.b
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A conceptual framework of challenges and solutions for managing global software maintenance2015In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 763-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Software maintenance process in globally distributed settings brings significant management challenges to software organizations. Objectives Investigate the factors specific to managing software maintenance process in globally distributed settings and best practices in software organizations. Method A systematic literature review and interviews with industry practitioners were conducted. For analysis and synthesis, the grounded theory method was used. Results We identified a number of management challenges and mitigation strategies and then classified them under people, process, product, and technology factors. Overall, a structure of challenges and solutions, the conceptual framework, has been developed that may be used to understand and classify global maintenance challenges. Conclusions Distributed software maintenance process has specific management challenges in relation to process, people, product, and technology. Therefore, companies performing maintenance in distributed settings should consider these factors, which are not present in the general global software development literature, although many lessons apply to both. © 2015 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  • 503.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Coordinating requirements engineering and software testing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large, software-intensive systems is a complex undertaking that is generally tackled by a divide and conquer strategy. Organizations face thereby the challenge of coordinating the resources which enable the individual aspects of software development, commonly solved by adopting a particular process model. The alignment between requirements engineering (RE) and software testing (ST) activities is of particular interest as those two aspects are intrinsically connected: requirements are an expression of user/customer needs while testing increases the likelihood that those needs are actually satisfied.

    The work in this thesis is driven by empirical problem identification, analysis and solution development towards two main objectives. The first is to develop an understanding of RE and ST alignment challenges and characteristics. Building this foundation is a necessary step that facilitates the second objective, the development of solutions relevant and scalable to industry practice that improve REST alignment.

    The research methods employed to work towards these objectives are primarily empirical. Case study research is used to elicit data from practitioners while technical action research and field experiments are conducted to validate the developed  solutions in practice.

    This thesis contains four main contributions: (1) An in-depth study on REST alignment challenges and practices encountered in industry. (2) A conceptual framework in the form of a taxonomy providing constructs that further our understanding of REST alignment. The taxonomy is operationalized in an assessment framework, REST-bench (3), that was designed to be lightweight and can be applied as a postmortem in closing development projects. (4) An extensive investigation into the potential of information retrieval techniques to improve test coverage, a common REST alignment challenge, resulting in a solution prototype, risk-based testing supported by topic models (RiTTM).

    REST-bench has been validated in five cases and has shown to be efficient and effective in identifying improvement opportunities in the coordination of RE and ST. Most of the concepts operationalized from the REST taxonomy were found to be useful, validating the conceptual framework. RiTTM, on the other hand, was validated in a single case experiment where it has shown great potential, in particular by identifying test cases that were originally overlooked by expert test engineers, improving effectively test coverage.

  • 504.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Wang, XiaoFeng
    Nguyen-Duc, Anh
    Shah, Syed
    Bajwa, Sohaib Shahid
    Baltes, Guido H.
    Conboy, Kieran
    Cullina, Eoin
    Dennehy, Denis
    Edison, Henry
    Fernandez-Sanchez, Carlos
    Garbajosa, Juan
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hokkanen, Laura
    Kon, Fabio
    Lunesu, Ilaria
    Marchesi, Michele
    Morgan, Lorraine
    Oivo, Markku
    Selig, Christoph
    Seppänen, Pertti
    Sweetman, Roger
    Tyrväinen, Pasi
    Ungerer, Christina
    Yagüe, Agustin
    Software Startups: A Research Agenda2016In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 89-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software startup companies develop innovative, software-intensive products within limited timeframes and with few resources, searching for sustainable and scalable business models. Software startups are quite distinct from traditional mature software companies, but also from micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises, introducing new challenges relevant for software engineering research. This paper’s research agenda focuses on software engineering in startups, identifying, in particular, 70+ research questions in the areas of supporting startup engineering activities, startup evolution models and patterns, ecosystems and innovation hubs, human aspects in software startups, applying startup concepts in non-startup environments, and methodologies and theories for startup research. We connect and motivate this research agenda with past studies in software startup research, while pointing out possible future directions. While all authors of this research agenda have their main background in Software Engineering or Computer Science, their interest in software startups broadens the perspective to the challenges, but also to the opportunities that emerge from multi-disciplinary research. Our audience is therefore primarily software engineering researchers, even though we aim at stimulating collaborations and research that crosses disciplinary boundaries. We believe that with this research agenda we cover a wide spectrum of the software startup industry current needs.

  • 505.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Large-scale Information Retrieval in Software Engineering - An Experience Report from Industrial Application2016In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 2324-2365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software Engineering activities are information intensive. Research proposes Information Retrieval (IR) techniques to support engineers in their daily tasks, such as establishing and maintaining traceability links, fault identification, and software maintenance. Objective: We describe an engineering task, test case selection, and illustrate our problem analysis and solution discovery process. The objective of the study is to gain an understanding of to what extent IR techniques (one potential solution) can be applied to test case selection and provide decision support in a large-scale, industrial setting. Method: We analyze, in the context of the studied company, how test case selection is performed and design a series of experiments evaluating the performance of different IR techniques. Each experiment provides lessons learned from implementation, execution, and results, feeding to its successor. Results: The three experiments led to the following observations: 1) there is a lack of research on scalable parameter optimization of IR techniques for software engineering problems; 2) scaling IR techniques to industry data is challenging, in particular for latent semantic analysis; 3) the IR context poses constraints on the empirical evaluation of IR techniques, requiring more research on developing valid statistical approaches. Conclusions: We believe that our experiences in conducting a series of IR experiments with industry grade data are valuable for peer researchers so that they can avoid the pitfalls that we have encountered. Furthermore, we identified challenges that need to be addressed in order to bridge the gap between laboratory IR experiments and real applications of IR in the industry.

  • 506.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Process Improvement Archaeology: What led us here and what’s next?2018In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While in every organization corporate culture and history change over time, intentional efforts to identifyperformance problems are of particular interest when trying to understand the current state of an organization.The results of past improvement initiatives can shed light on the evolution of an organization, and represent,with the advantage of perfect hindsight, a learning opportunity for future process improvements. Weencountered the opportunity to test this premise in an applied research collaboration with the SwedishTransport Administration (STA), the government agency responsible for the planning, implementation andmaintenance of long-term rail, road, shipping and aviation infrastructure in Sweden.

  • 507.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements quality assurance in industry: Why, what and how?2017In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer, 2017, Vol. 10153, p. 77-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context and Motivation: Natural language is the most common form to specify requirements in industry. The quality of the specification depends on the capability of the writer to formulate requirements aimed at different stakeholders: they are an expression of the customer’s needs that are used by analysts, designers and testers. Given this central role of requirements as a mean to communicate intention, assuring their quality is essential to reduce misunderstandings that lead to potential waste. Problem: Quality assurance of requirement specifications is largely a manual effort that requires expertise and domain knowledge. However, this demanding cognitive process is also congested by trivial quality issues that should not occur in the first place. Principal ideas: We propose a taxonomy of requirements quality assurance complexity that characterizes cognitive load of verifying a quality aspect from the human perspective, and automation complexity and accuracy from the machine perspective. Contribution: Once this taxonomy is realized and validated, it can serve as the basis for a decision framework of automated requirements quality assurance support.

  • 508.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Assessing Requirements Engineering and Software Test Alignment - Five Case Studies2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 109, no C, p. 62-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large, software-intensive systems is a complex undertaking that we generally tackle by a divide and conquerstrategy. Companies thereby face the challenge of coordinating individual aspects of software development, in particular betweenrequirements engineering (RE) and software testing (ST). A lack of REST alignment can not only lead to wasted effort but alsoto defective software. However, before a company can improve the mechanisms of coordination they need to be understood first.With REST-bench we aim at providing an assessment tool that illustrates the coordination in software development projects andidentify concrete improvement opportunities. We have developed REST-bench on the sound fundamentals of a taxonomy onREST alignment methods and validated the method in five case studies. Following the principles of technical action research, wecollaborated with five companies, applying REST-bench and iteratively improving the method based on the lessons we learned.We applied REST-bench both in Agile and plan-driven environments, in projects lasting from weeks to years, and staffed as largeas 1000 employees. The improvement opportunities we identified and the feedback we received indicate that the assessmentwas effective and efficient. Furthermore, participants confirmed that their understanding on the coordination between RE and STimproved.

  • 509.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Improving Expert Estimation of Software Development Effort in Agile Contexts2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 510.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Effort Estimation in Co-located and Globally Distributed Agile Software Development: A Comparative Study2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF 2016 JOINT CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SOFTWARE MEASUREMENT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE PROCESS AND PRODUCT MEASUREMENT (IWSM-MENSURA) / [ed] Heidrich, J Vogelezang, F, IEEE , 2016, p. 219-224Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile methods are used both by both colocated and globally distributed teams. Recently separate studies have been conducted to understand how effort estimation is practiced in Agile Software Development (ASD) in co-located and distributed contexts. There is need to compare the findings of these studies. Objectives: The objective of this comparative study is to identify the similarities and differences in how effort estimation is practiced in co-located and globally distributed ASD. Method: We combined the data of the two surveys to conduct this comparative study. First survey was conducted to identify the state of the practice on effort estimation in co-located ASD, while the second one identified the same in globally distributed ASD context. Results: The main findings of this comparative study are: 1) Agile practitioners, both in co-located and distributed contexts, apply techniques that use experts' subjective assessment to estimate effort. 2) Story points are the most frequently used size metrics in both co-located and distributed agile contexts 3) Team's prior experience and skill level are leading cost drivers in both contexts. Distributed agile practitioners cited additional cost drivers related to the geographical distance between distributed teams. 4) In both co-located and distributed agile context, effort is estimated mainly at iteration and release planning levels 5) With regard to the accuracy of effort estimates, underestimation is the dominant for both co-located and distributed agile software development. Conclusions: Similar techniques and size metrics have been used to estimate effort by both co-located and distributed agile teams. The main difference is with regard to the factors that are considered as important cost drivers. Global barriers due to cultural, geographical and temporal differences are important cost and effort drivers for distributed ASD. These additional cost drivers should be considered when estimating effort of a distributed agile project to avoid gross underestimation.

  • 511.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Taxonomies in software engineering: A Systematic mapping study and a revised taxonomy development method2017In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 85, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software Engineering (SE) is an evolving discipline with new subareas being continuously developed and added. To structure and better understand the SE body of knowledge, taxonomies have been proposed in all SE knowledge areas. Objective: The objective of this paper is to characterize the state-of-the-art research on SE taxonomies. Method: A systematic mapping study was conducted, based on 270 primary studies. Results: An increasing number of SE taxonomies have been published since 2000 in a broad range of venues, including the top SE journals and conferences. The majority of taxonomies can be grouped into the following SWEBOI(knowledge areas: construction (19.55%), design (19.55%), requirements (15.50%) and maintenance (11.81%). Illustration (45.76%) is the most frequently used approach for taxonomy validation. Hierarchy (53.14%) and faceted analysis (39.48%) are the most frequently used classification structures. Most taxonomies rely on qualitative procedures to classify subject matter instances, but in most cases (86.53%) these procedures are not described in sufficient detail. The majority of the taxonomies (97%) target unique subject matters and many taxonomy-papers are cited frequently. Most SE taxonomies are designed in an ad-hoc way. To address this issue, we have revised an existing method for developing taxonomies in a more systematic way. Conclusion: There is a strong interest in taxonomies in SE, but few taxonomies are extended or revised. Taxonomy design decisions regarding the used classification structures, procedures and descriptive bases are usually not well described and motivated. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 512.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Effort Estimation in Large-Scale Software Development: An Industrial Case Study2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 99, p. 21-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software projects frequently incur schedule and budget overruns. Planning and estimation are particularlychallenging in large and globally distributed projects. While software engineering researchers have beeninvestigating effort estimation for many years to help practitioners to improve their estimation processes, there is littleresearch about effort estimation in large-scale distributed agile projects.Objective: The main objective of this paper is three-fold: i) to identify how effort estimation is carried out in largescaledistributed agile projects; ii) to analyze the accuracy of the effort estimation processes in large-scale distributedagile projects; and iii) to identify the factors that impact the accuracy of effort estimates in large-scale distributed agileprojects.Method: We performed an exploratory longitudinal case study. The data collection was operationalized througharchival research and semi-structured interviews.Results: The main findings of this study are: 1) underestimation is the dominant trend in the studied case, 2) reestimationat the analysis stage improves the accuracy of the effort estimates, 3) requirements with large size/scopeincur larger effort overruns, 4) immature teams incur larger effort overruns, 5) requirements developed in multi-sitesettings incur larger effort overruns as compared to requirements developed in a collocated setting, and 6) requirementspriorities impact the accuracy of the effort estimates.Conclusion: Effort estimation is carried out at quotation and analysis stages in the studied case. It is a challengingtask involving coordination amongst many different stakeholders. Furthermore, lack of details and changes in requirements,immaturity of the newly on-boarded teams and the challenges associated with the large-scale add complexitiesin the effort estimation process.

  • 513.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Effort estimation in agile software development: a survey on the state of the practice2015In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE 2015), ACM Digital Library, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 514.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    An Effort Estimation Taxonomy for Agile Software Development2017In: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 641-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Agile Software Development (ASD) effort estimation plays an important role during release and iteration planning. The state of the art and practice on effort estimation in ASD have been recently identified. However, this knowledge has not yet been organized. The aim of this study is twofold: (1) To organize the knowledge on effort estimation in ASD and (2) to use this organized knowledge to support practice and the future research on effort estimation in ASD. We applied a taxonomy design method to organize the identified knowledge as a taxonomy of effort estimation in ASD. The proposed taxonomy offers a faceted classification scheme to characterize estimation activities of agile projects. Our agile estimation taxonomy consists of four dimensions: estimation context, estimation technique, effort predictors and effort estimate. Each dimension in turn has several facets. We applied the taxonomy to characterize estimation activities of 10 agile projects identified from the literature to assess whether all important estimation-related aspects are reported. The results showed that studies do not report complete information related to estimation. The taxonomy was also used to characterize the estimation activities of four agile teams from three different software companies. The practitioners involved in the investigation found the taxonomy useful in characterizing and documenting the estimation sessions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • 515.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Weidt, F.
    Britto, R.
    Effort estimation in Agile Software Development: A systematic literature review2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the emergence of agile methodologies in 2001, many software companies have shifted to Agile Software Development (ASD), and since then many studies have been conducted to investigate effort estimation within such context; however to date there is no single study that presents a detailed overview of the state of the art in effort estimation for ASD. Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the art in the area of effort estimation in ASD. Method: To report the state of the art, we conducted a systematic literature review in accordance with the guidelines proposed in the evidence-based software engineering literature. Results: A total of 25 primary studies were selected; the main findings are: i) Subjective estimation techniques (e.g. expert judgment, planning poker, use case points estimation method) are the most frequently applied in an agile context; ii) Use case points and story points are the most frequently used size metrics respectively; iii) MMRE (Mean Magnitude of Relative Error) and MRE (Magnitude of Relative Error) are the most frequently used accuracy metrics; iv) team skills, prior experience and task size are cited as the three important cost drivers for effort estimation in ASD; and v) Extreme Programming (XP) and SCRUM are the only two agile methods that are identified in the primary studies. Conclusion: Subjective estimation techniques, e.g. expert judgment-based techniques, planning poker or the use case points method, are the one used the most in agile effort estimation studies. As for the size metrics, the ones that were used the most in the primary studies were story points and use case points. Several research gaps were identified, relating to the agile methods, size metrics and cost drivers, thus suggesting numerous possible avenues for future work

  • 516.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Weidt, Francila
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Effort estimation in agile software development: a systematic literature review2014In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Predictive Models in Software Engineering, 2014, p. 82-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Ever since the emergence of agile methodologies in 2001, many software companies have shifted to Agile Software Development (ASD), and since then many studies have been conducted to investigate effort estimation within such context; however to date there is no single study that presents a detailed overview of the state of the art in effort estimation for ASD. Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the art in the area of effort estimation in ASD. Method: To report the state of the art, we conducted a systematic literature review in accordance with the guidelines proposed in the evidence-based software engineering literature.Results: A total of 25 primary studies were selected; the main findings are: i) Subjective estimation techniques (e.g. expert judgment, planning poker, use case points estimation method) are the most frequently applied in an agile context; ii) Use case points and story points are the most frequently used size metrics respectively; iii) MMRE (Mean Magnitude of Relative Error) and MRE (Magnitude of Relative Error) are the most frequently used accuracy metrics; iv) team skills, prior experience and task size are cited as the three important cost drivers for effort estimation in ASD; and v) Extreme Programming (XP) and SCRUM are the only two agile methods that are identified in the primary studies. Conclusion: Subjective estimation techniques, e.g. expert judgment-based techniques, planning poker or the use case points method, are the one used the most in agile effort estimation studies. As for the size metrics, the ones that were used the most in the primary studies were story points and use case points. Several research gaps were identified, relating to the agile methods, size metrics and cost drivers, thus suggesting numerous possible avenues for future work.

  • 517.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Use of personality tests in empirical software engineering studies: A review of ethical issues2019In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 237-242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a lot of research on personality and its impact on software engineering practice. These studies use different psychological tests to identify personality types of software practitioners. The administration of these tests requires expertise. As the humans are involved, other ethical issues, such as consent, also become important. In this study, we evaluated a small sample of 15 studies that used a psychological test Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in a software engineering context with respect to different ethical issues related to informed consent, qualification of the test administrators and the use of appropriate tests. The results show that most of the studies in our sample seriously lack with respect to various ethical issues. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 518.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Neto, Pedro
    bFederal University of Piaui , BRA.
    Developing and Using Checklists to Improve Software Effort Estimation: a Multi-Case Study2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, p. 286-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expert judgment based effort estimation techniques are widely used for estimating software effort. In the absence of process support, experts may overlook important factors during estimation, leading to inconsistent estimates. This might cause underestimation, which is a common problem in software projects. This multi-case study aims to improve expert estimation of software development effort. Our goal is two-fold: 1) to propose a process to develop and evolve estimation checklists for agile teams, and 2) to evaluate the usefulness of the checklists in improving expert estimation processes. The use of checklists improved the accuracy of the estimates in two case companies. In particular, the underestimation bias was reduced to a large extent. For the third case, we could not perform a similar analysis, due to the unavailability of historical data. However, when checklist was used in two sprints, the estimates were quite accurate (median Balanced Relative Error (BRE) bias of -0.05 ). The study participants from the case companies observed several benefits of using the checklists during estimation, such as increased confidence in estimates, improved consistency due to help in recalling relevant factors, more objectivity in the process, improved understanding of the tasks being estimated, and reduced chances of missing tasks.

  • 519.
    V N ANJANAYA UDAY, MAJETI
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Effects of Development Platform Heterogeneity in Testing of Heterogeneous systems: An Industrial Survey2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Over the years, software has evolved to a large and complex system of systems. According to the literature, a heterogeneous system is defined as “a system comprised of n number of subsystems where at least one subsystem exhibits heterogeneity with respect to other subsystem”. The area of research in heterogeneous system has also received large attention in recent years, as a result of shift in technology and customer needs. In heterogeneous systems, heterogeneity may occur in different dimensions for different systems.

    Objectives. The main aim of this thesis is, “to investigate the effects of development platform heterogeneity in heterogeneous system on the test process”. The objectives to achieve our aim is to determine the influence of platform heterogeneity on software testing and also to investigate best practices for testing heterogeneous systems with different types of heterogeneity.

    Methods. An industrial survey and interviews with practitioners are considered as a research method in this thesis. The purpose of this survey is to help the testers to understand how the platform heterogeneity affects the test process.

    Results. In this research, the researcher had gathered data related to effects and best practices in heterogeneous systems from both survey and interviews.

    Conclusions. In this thesis, the researcher had investigated the effects of development platform heterogeneity in heterogeneous system on the test process and also identified the best practices for testing heterogeneous systems that exhibit different types of heterogeneity. Apart from these, the researcher also identified different types of development platforms used for development of a heterogeneous type of systems in the industry.

  • 520.
    Vajrapu, Rakesh Guptha
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kothwar, Sravika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Requirements Prioritization Practices in Software Start-ups: A Qualitative research based on Start-ups in India2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirements prioritization is used in software product management and is concerned with identifying the most valuable requirements from a given set. This is necessary to satisfy the needs of customers, to provide support for stakeholders and more importantly for release planning. Irrespective of the size of the organization (small, medium and large), requirements prioritization is important to minimize the risk during development. However, few studies explore how requirements prioritization is practiced in start-ups. Software start-ups are becoming important suppliers of innovative and software-intensive products.Earlier studies suggest that requirements discovery and validation is the core activity in start-ups. However, due to limited resources, start-ups need to prioritize on what requirements to focus. If they do it wrong it leads to wasted resources.While larger organizations may afford such waste, start-ups cannot.Moreover, researchers have identified that start-ups are not small versions of large companies and the existing software development practices cannot be transferred directly due to low rigor in current studies.Thus, we planned to conduct an exploratory study on requirements prioritization practices in the context of software start-ups.

    Objectives: The main aim of our study is to explore the state-of-art of requirements prioritization practices used in start-ups.We also identify the challenges associated with the corresponding practices and few possible solutions.

    Methods: In this qualitative research, we conduct a literature review by referring to many article sources like IEEE Xplore, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify the prioritization practices and challenges in general. An interview study is conducted by using semi-structured interviews to collect data from practitioners.Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview data.

    Results: We have identified 15 practices from 8 different start-ups companies with corresponding challenges and possible solutions. Our results show mixed reviews in terms of the prioritization practices at start-ups. From the total of 8 companies about 6 companies followed formal methods while in the remaining 2 companies, prioritization was informal and not clear. The results show that value-based method is the dominant prioritization technique in start-ups. The results also show that customer input and return on investment aspects of prioritization play a key role when compared to other aspects.

    Conclusions: The results of this study provide an understanding of the various requirements prioritization practices in start-ups and challenges faced in implementing them.These results are validated from the answers found in the literature. The solutions identified for the corresponding challenges allow the practitioners to approach them in a better way. As this study focused only on Indian software start-up companies, it is recommended to extend to Swedish software start-up companies as well to get a broader perspective. Scaling of sample size is also recommended. This study may help future research on requirements engineering in start-ups. It may also help practitioners who have an intention to begin a software start-up company to get an idea of what challenges they may face while prioritizing requirements and can use these solutions to mitigate them.

  • 521.
    Vaka, Kranthi
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Narla, Karthik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The impact of maturity, scale and distribution on software quality: An industrial case study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In this ever-changing world of software development, the process of organizations adopting distributed development is gaining prominence. Implementing various development processes in such distributed environment is giving rise to numerous issues which affects the quality of the product. These issues could be due to the involvement of architects across national borders during the process of development. In this research, the focus is to improve software quality by addressing the impact of maturity and scale between teams and its affect on code review process. Further to identify the issues behind the distribution between teams separated by geographical, temporal and cultural distances.

    Objectives. The main objective of this research is to identify how different factors such as maturity on quality of deliverables, scale and distribution that impacts the code review process affecting software quality. Based on code review comments in data set, the factors that were examined in this research are evolvability of defects and difference in the quality of software developed by mature and immature teams within code review process. Later on, the issues related to the impact of geographical, temporal and cultural distances on the type of defects revealed during distributed development are identified.

    Methods. To achieve these objectives, a case study was conducted at Ericsson. A mixed approach has been chosen that includes, archival data and semi-structured interviews to gather useful data for this research. Archival data is one of the data collection method used for reviewing comments in data set and gather quantitative results for the study. We employed approaches such as descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, and graphical representation to analyze data. Moreover, to strengthen these results, semi-structured group interview is conducted to triangulate the data and collect additional insights about code review process in large scale organizations.

    Results. By conducting this research, it is inferred that teams with a lower level of maturity produce more number of defects. It was observed that 35.11% functional, 59.03% maintainability, 0.11% compatibility, 0.028% security, 0.73% reliability, 4.96% performance efficiency, 0.014% portability of defects were found from archival data. Majority of defects were of functional and maintainability type, which impacts software quality in distributed environment. In addition to the above-mentioned results, other findings are related to evolvability of defects within immature teams which shows that there is no particular trend in increase or decrease in number of defects. Issues that occur due to distribution between teams are found out in this research. The overall results of this study are to suggest the impact of maturity and scale on software quality by making numerical assumptions and validating these finding with interviews. Interviews are also used to inquire information about the issues from dataset related to the impact of global software engineering (GSE) distances on code review process.

    Conclusions. At the end of this research it is concluded that in these type of projects, immature teams produce more number of defects than mature teams. This is because when large-scale projects are distributed globally, it is always harder to share and acquire knowledge between teams, increase group learning and mentor teams located in immature sites. Immature developers have problems of understanding the structure of code, new architects need to acquire knowledge on the scope and real time issues for improving quality of software. Using results presented in this thesis, researchers can find new gaps easily to extend the research on various influences on code review process in distributed environment. 

  • 522.
    Vakkalanka, Sairam
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Narayanasetty, SR Phanindra Kumar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Investigating Research on Teaching Modeling in Software Engineering -A Systematic Mapping Study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Modeling is an important activity, which is used, in different phases of software engineering. Without models and modeling, it is nearly impossible to design and develop software systems, which demands the need for modeling to be taught in software engineering. There exist a number of reported models, methods, tools and languages to teach modeling in software engineering, which suggests the need for a classification and an overview of the area. This research investigates the state of published research on teaching modeling in software engineering in order to provide a systematic overview and classification of these different ways of teaching modeling with an insight on their importance and relevance to this research area. Objectives: The overall goal of the research was achieved with fulfilling the following objectives: understanding how systematic mapping is conducted, developing a systematic mapping process that will properly provide data for investigating the published research, applying the process, and finally reflecting on the results of the mappings, analyzing the importance and evaluating relevance of the published research. Methods: Systematic literature review was used as a tool to understand and inspect how systematic mapping was carried out in the area of software engineering. Based on the results of systematic literature review, new guidelines were formulated to conduct systematic mapping. These guidelines were used to investigate the published research on teaching modeling in software engineering. The results obtained through the systematic mapping were evaluated based on Industrial relevance, Rigor and citation count to examine their importance and identify research gaps. Results: 131 articles were classified into five classes such as Languages, Course Design, Curriculum design, Diagrams, others using semi-manual classification scheme and classification facets such as the type of audience, type of contribution, type of research, type of publication, type of publication year, type of research method and type of study setting. After the evaluation of Industrial relevance, rigor & citation ranking on the obtained results of the classification, 8 processes, 4 tools, 3 methods, 2 measurement-metrics and 1 model were extracted to teach modeling in software engineering. Also, this classification when compared with an existing classification, which is based on interviews and discussions, showed that our classification provides a wider overview with a deeper insight of the different ways to teach modeling in software engineering. Conclusions: Results of this systematic mapping study indicate that there is an increase in the research activity on teaching modeling in software engineering, with Unified Modeling Language (UML) being the widely research area. Much research is emphasized on teaching modeling to students from academia which indicates a research gap in developing methods, models, tools and processes to teach modeling to students/practitioners from the industry. Also, considering the citation ranking, industrial relevance and rigor of the articles, areas such as course design and curriculum development are highly neglected, suggesting the need for more research focus.

  • 523.
    Vamsi Appana, Vamsi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Evaluating Industrial Relevance in Search Based Software Engineering Research: A Systematic Mapping Study and Survey2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Search Based Software Engineering is one of the important field of software engineering. Over the past few years even though there is a lot of study performed on SBSE and its search techniques in software development areas, it appears SBSE is not very industry relevant at the moment because most of the academic work was limited towards the application of search techniques. Hence, author proposes a study to know the trend of SBSE literature over the past few years and also analyze to what degree current SBSE research is industry relevant

  • 524.
    Varanasi, Panchajanya
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Perspective of Leadership Requirement in Scrum Based Software Development - A Case Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Software Development has been witnessing great innovations over past few years with good number of technologies, tools and practices invading the industry. Client demands and collaboration in the development process are also seen increasing. So many new practices and methodologies are coming up and Agile is one of prominent practices adopted by many. Even in Agile, Scrum methodology is picking up more demand presently. As Software Development process and practices are changing so are the leadership styles in the same. Leadership is critical for success of any team. This study intended to explore this model and requirement of leadership in Scrum based Software Development in a practical scenario.

    Objectives. Leadership, which is essential in any Software project, differs from Traditional Methodology to Scrum Methodology of Agile practices in Software Development. Through a case study, the author attempted to investigate and explore the perspective of Leadership requirement in Scrum based Software Development in a practical scenario. The study aimed to gather and analyze the Leadership model implemented in two domestic projects in an Indian company, involved in two distinctive domains, and sum up the impressions gained in the same. The study aimed to assess whether the gathered knowledge adds up to the existing body of knowledge on the phenomenon or on the contrary whether any suggestions for improvement can be given to the case units.

    Methods. Case Study method was chosen for undertaking this explorative study. A literature review was conducted prior to the case study to gain knowledge on the phenomenon, which also answered one of the Research Questions and helped partially the other. A multiple case study was conducted through semi structured personal interviews, tools analysis and direct observation in the case units. Qualitative data analysis was made using Grounded Theory on this three orders of collected data. The results were compared with the Literature and conformity or variance analyzed. This comparative analysis is used for making recommendations to the case units for improvement or for additions to the existing body of knowledge.

    Results. Through the results of Literature Review, Leadership models in Software Development including Agile Scrum were summed up. And through the results of the case study, the leadership models and features implemented in the case units have been identified. These results are further validated and contrasted with the results of the literature review. How the literature models and the case unit models of leadership differed is studied. The justification for the implemented leadership model in the practical situation is also analyzed. Following, a review of the models employed at the case environments, the perspective of leadership in the two Scrum based Software Development projects is summed up. At the end, it is assessed what effect the case study would have on the existing body of knowledge on the phenomenon and modifications that can be proposed to the case units based on the results and analysis.

    Conclusion. It is concluded that the Case Units are implementing Situational Leadership and Transformational Leadership in a mixed way. Telling and Selling models in Situational Leadership are prominent while Participating and Delegating are ranking less. Some of the important features of Transformational Leadership like Self Management, Organizational Consciousness, Adaptability and Proactive are in implementation but not all features of the model are assumed. Even Scrum is implemented in a modified way, extending only controlled autonomy with higher monitoring and it had a direct effect on the leadership. On the whole it is directive leadership that is in play with co-existence of collaborative one situationally.

  • 525.
    Velpula, Chaitanyakumar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements Negotiation and Conflict Resolution in Distributed Software Development: A Systematic Mapping Study and Survey2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore the industrial practices of requirements negotiation and conflict resolution within distributed software development. The motivation for this study is to get insight of the industrial practices in particular interventions (Communication tools, Models, Communication media) that used by practitioners to resolve requirements negotiation and conflicts resolution between clients and suppliers, since many researchers purposed interventions in the literature for requirements negotiation and conflicts resolution in distributed software development. Context: In Requirements Engineering, requirements negotiation and conflict resolution are crucial activities to achieve a common ground between clients and suppliers, it is considered as one of the crucial factors for delivering successful software. However, the shift from traditional collocated practices to a distributed environment offers both benefits and drawbacks which were studied earlier by researcher, but surprisingly there are few studies with insight of exploring the distributed requirements negotiations and conflict resolution practices. This research investigates the state of requirements negotiation and conflict resolution activities in distributed software development with an insight on their importance and relevance to this research area.

    Objectives: Overall goal of this thesis is to understand how requirements negotiations and conflict resolution are performed in distributed software development, knowing what are the available tools to perform requirements negotiation and conflict resolution, whether these existing tools are good enough to cope up with the industrial practices, knowing most widely used tools, methods and approaches, most importantly does the present research able to bridge the gap with in distributed software development?

    Methods: This thesis study comprises of two research methodologies. 1. Systematic mapping study (SMS)- To identify the proposed interventions in the literature to perform requirements negotiation and conflict resolution activities in Industrial Software Development within a distributed environment. 2. Industrial Survey- To identify industrial practices to perform rei quirements negotiation and conflict resolution in Industrial Software Development within a distributed environment.

    Results: 20 studies were identified through systematic mapping study (SMS). After analyzing the obtained studies, the list of interventions (Preparatory activities/communication tools/ Models) were gathered and analyzed. Thereupon, an industrial survey is conducted from the obtained literature, which has obtained 41 responses. Effective communication media for preparatory activities in requirements negotiations and conflict resolution are identified, validation of communication tools for effective requirements negotiations and conflict resolution is performed. Apart from the validation, this study provided list of factors that affects the requirement negotiations and conflict resolution activities in distributed software development.

    Conclusions: To conclude, the obtained results from this study will benefit practitioner in capturing more insight towards the requirements negotiations and conflict resolution in distributed software engineering. This study identified the preparatory activities involved for effective communication to perform requirements negotiation activities, effective tools, models and factors affecting of requirements negotiations and conflict resolution. In addition to this, validation of results obtained from the literature is carried through survey. Practitioners can be benefitted from the end results of by knowing the effective requirements negotiation and conflict resolution interventions (Communicational tools/ Models/ Communication media) for early planning in distributed software development. Researchers can extend the study by looking in to the real-time approaches followed by the practitioners to perform the both activities in the direction of future studies.

  • 526.
    Vestman, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cloud application platform - Virtualization vs Containerization: A comparison between application containers and virtual machines2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. As the number of organizations using cloud application platforms to host their applications increases, the priority of distributing physical resources within those platforms is increasing simultaneously. The goal is to host a higher quantity of applications per physical server, while at the same time retain a satisfying rate of performance combined with certain scalability. The modern needs of customers occasionally also imply an assurance of certain privacy for their applications.

    Objectives. In this study two types of instances for hosting applications in cloud application platforms, virtual machines and application containers, are comparatively analyzed. This investigation has the goal to expose advantages and disadvantages between the instances in order to determine which is more appropriate for being used in cloud application platforms, in terms of performance, scalability and user isolation.

    Methods. The comparison is done on a server running Linux Ubuntu 16.04. The virtual machine is created using Devstack, a development environment of Openstack, while the application container is hosted by Docker. Each instance is running an apache web server for handling HTTP requests. The comparison is done by using different benchmark tools for different key usage scenarios and simultaneously observing the resource usage in respective instance.

    Results. The results are produced by investigating the user isolation and resource occupation of respective instance, by examining the file system, active process handling and resource allocation after creation. Benchmark tools are executed locally on respective instance, for a performance comparison of the usage of physical resources. The amount of CPU operations executed within a given time is measured in order determine the processor performance, while the speed of read and write operations to the main memory is measured in order to determine the RAM performance. A file is also transmitted between host server and application in order to compare the network performance between respective instance, by examining the transfer speed of the file. Lastly a set of benchmark tools are executed on the host server to measure the HTTP server request handling performance and scalability of each instance. The amount of requests handled per second is observed, but also the resource usage for the request handling at an increasing rate of served requests and clients.

    Conclusions. The virtual machine is a better choice for applications where privacy is a higher priority, due to the complete isolation and abstraction from the rest of the physical server. Virtual machines perform better in handling a higher quantity of requests per second, while application containers is faster in transferring files through network. The container requires a significantly lower amount of resources than the virtual machine in order to run and execute tasks, such as responding to HTTP requests. When it comes to scalability the prefered type of instance depends on the priority of key usage scenarios. Virtual machines have quicker response time for HTTP requests but application containers occupy less physical resources, which makes it logically possible to run a higher quantity of containers than virtual machines simultaneously on the same physical server.

  • 527.
    Viding, Emmie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Does Your TV Spy on You?: The security, privacy and safety issues with IoT2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of Internet of Things is steadily increasing, both in Sweden and globally. This relative new technology improves the lives of many; but at the price of their security, privacy and safety.

    This thesis consists of a literature study and an online survey. It investigates what security, privacy and safety risks Internet of Things devices may bring, how aware people are about these risks, how the user can minimize the risk of being hacked or attacked and what manufacturers can do to make safer Internet of Thing devices.

    The survey was created based on the risks related to Internet of Things devices which was found during the literature study.

    It was possible to identify security, privacy and safety risks related to Internet of Things. It was also possible to find answers of how both users and manufacturers can protect their devices from being hacked. The survey showed that there was a correlation between how interested people are in technology and how aware they are of the risks with Internet of Things.

    Internet of Things can be used to do DDoS attacks, espionage and eavesdropping. People who are interested in technology tends to protect themselves more actively (by changing default password and updating the software) compared to those who are not interested.

  • 528.
    Vilela, Jessyka
    et al.
    Univ Fed Ceara, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Univ Fed Pernambuco UFPE, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo G.
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo UNIFESP, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Silva, Carla
    Univ Fed Pernambuco UFPE, BRA.
    Specifying Safety Requirements with GORE languages2017In: XXXI BRAZILIAN SYMPOSIUM ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (SBES 2017), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 154-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A suitable representation of Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) requirements is crucial to avoid misunderstandings in safety requirements and issues in safety specification. However, current general requirements specification languages do not fully support the particularities of specifying SCS. Objective: In this paper, our goal is to identify and propose a set of important features that should be provided by requirements languages to support an early safety requirements specification. Moreover, we aim to compare the ability of the four most used Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering (GORE) languages (i*, KAOS, GRL, NFR-Framework) in supporting the proposed features. Method: We first established a conceptual foundation and a conceptual model based on the literature, challenges elicited in previous works, and demands of safety standards at the requirements level that practitioners must satisfy in order to certify their systems. Results: We proposed a set of 15 features that requirements languages should provide to an early safety requirements specification. Regarding the comparison of GORE languages, in summary, all surveyed languages lacks explicit modeling constructs to express how hazards can occur in the system, the accidents, their impact and how they can mitigated. Conclusions: The conceptual foundation, conceptual model, and the set of features is a novelty. Finally, the features can be used to propose new requirements languages for SCS or to define extensions for the ones already available.

  • 529.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Integration between requirements engineering and safety analysis: A systematic literature review2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 125, p. 68-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) require more sophisticated requirements engineering (RE) approaches as inadequate, incomplete or misunderstood requirements have been recognized as a major cause in many accidents and safety-related catastrophes. Objective: In order to cope with the complexity of specifying SCS by RE, we investigate the approaches proposed to improve the communication or integration between RE and safety engineering in SCS development. We analyze the activities that should be performed by RE during safety analysis, the hazard/safety techniques it could use, the relationships between safety information that it should specify, the tools to support safety analysis as well as integration benefits between these areas. Method: We use a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) as the basis for our work. Results: We developed four taxonomies to help RE during specification of SCS that classify: techniques used in (1) hazard analysis; (2) safety analysis; (3) safety-related information and (4) a detailed set of information regarding hazards specification. Conclusions: This paper is a step towards developing a body of knowledge in safety concerns necessary to RE in the specification of SCS that is derived from a large-scale SLR. We believe the results will benefit both researchers and practitioners.

  • 530.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Ceará, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Safe-RE: A safety requirements metamodel based on industry safety standards2018In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, p. 196-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The development of Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) requires an adequate understanding of safety terms to avoid the specification of poor, incomplete or unclear safety requirements. However, there are some misunderstandings, mostly by requirements engineers, about the definition of such concepts. Hence, integration of safety concerns in the Requirements Engineering (RE) and a common nomenclature is necessary to improve the specification of these systems. Objective: To fill this gap, this paper presents Safe-RE, a safety requirements metamodel based on industry safety standards whose aim is to support the specification of safety-related concepts in the RE process. Method: We rely on safety standards as a basis for our work since companies must follow them to have their systems certified. Results: To illustrate the Safe-RE metamodel usage, we applied its concepts in an insulin infusion pump system. Conclusions: We hope that Safe-RE can contribute to improving the elicitation and specifications of such systems and therefore, reducing accidents and safety-related catastrophes. We also discuss some benefits we envision of using the metamodel, its limitations, and open issues. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 531.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Assessment of safety processes in requirements engineering2018In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 358-363Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirements issues tend to be mitigated in organizations with high process maturity levels since they do their business in a systematic, consistent and proactive approach. In a Safety-Critical System (SCS), requirements problems have been associated with accidents and safety incidents. Objective: This work investigates which safety practices/actions are suitable to be used in the Requirements Engineering (RE) process of SCS and how to design a safety maturity model for this area. Method: we adopted different empirical techniques to propose Uni-REPM SCS, which consists of a safety module to be included in the Unified Requirements Engineering Process Maturity Model (Uni-REPM). Results: The safety module has seven main processes, 14 sub-processes and 148 safety actions describing principles and practices that form the basis of safety processes maturity. Conclusions: Preliminary validation with two practitioners and nine academic experts indicates that the safety module can help organizations to evaluate their current safety practices with respect to their RE process. Moreover, it also offers a step-wise improvement strategy to raise their safety maturity level. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 532.
    Vilela, Jéssyka Flavyanne Ferreira
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Ceara, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson Freire B.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Safety Practices in Requirements Engineering: The Uni-REPM Safety Module2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software is an important part in safety- critical system (SCS) development since it is becoming a major source of hazards. Requirements-related hazards have been as- sociated with many accidents and safety incidents. Requirements issues tend to be mitigated in companies with high processes maturity levels since they do their business in a systematic, consistent and proactive approach. However, requirements en- gineers need systematic guidance to consider safety concerns early in the development process. Goal: the paper investigates which safety practices are suitable to be used in the Requirements Engineering (RE) process for SCS and how to design a safety maturity model for this area. Method: we followed the design science methodology to propose Uni-REPM SCS, a safety module for Unified Requirements Engineering Process Maturity Model (Uni-REPM). We also conducted a static validation with two practitioners and nine academic experts to evaluate its coverage, correctness, usefulness and applicability. Results: The module has seven main processes, fourteen sub-processes and 148 practices that form the basis of safety processes maturity. Moreover, we describe its usage through a tool. Conclusions: The validation indicates a good coverage of practices and well receptivity by the experts. Finally, the module can help companies in evaluating their current practices. IEEE

  • 533.
    Vishnubhotla, Sai Datta
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    An insight into the capabilities of professionals and teams in agile software development: A systematic literature review2018In: PROCEEDINGS OF 2018 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (ICSCA 2018), Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, p. 10-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies investigated key characteristics of software engineers and factors influencing the performance of individuals, productivity of teams and project success within agile software development (ASD). They aided in the active investigation of human aspects in ASD. However, capability measurement and prediction with respect to agile workforce, owing to its importance, is an area that needs spotlight. Objective: The objective of this paper is to present the state of the art relating to capability measurement of software engineers and teams working in ASD projects. Method: We carried out a systematic literature review (SLR) focused on identifying attributes used for measuring and predicting the capabilities of individual software engineers and teams. Results: Evidence from 16 studies showed attributes that can measure capabilities of engineers and teams, and also attributes that can be used as capability predictors. Further, different instruments used to measure those attributes were presented. Conclusions: The SLR presented a wide list of attributes that were grouped into various categories. This information can be used by project managers as, for example, a checklist to consider when allocating software engineers to teams and in turn teams to a project. Further, this study indicated the necessity for an investigation into capability prediction models. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 534.
    Vishnubhotla, Sai Datta
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Designing a capability-centric web tool to support agile team composition and task allocation: A work in progress2018In: 2018 IEEE/ACM 11TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COOPERATIVE AND HUMAN ASPECTS OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (CHASE), IEEE Computer Society , 2018, Vol. F137813, p. 41-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant number of studies reported models for competence profiling, measuring capabilities of professionals and recommendation systems for roles within agile software development (ASD). These models coordinated in human resource management within ASD. However, in the light of swift, incremental and iterative nature of ASD practices, designing solutions that easily integrate capability measurements with ongoing project management routines, is an important area for investigation. With the support of interviews, grounded theory procedure and workshops, we identified the aspects valued by our industrial collaborator while allocating professionals to tasks. This information was further utilized towards devising a framework for capability-centric Web tool. This tool provides a one-stop solution for project managers to create projects, keep track of capabilities and execute allocation routines. © 2018 ACM.

  • 535.
    Wagner, Stefan
    et al.
    Univ Stuttgart, DEU.
    Fernandez, Daniel Mendez
    Tech Univ Munich, DEU.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Vetro, Antonio
    Politecn Torino, ITA.
    Kalinowski, Marcos
    Pontifical Catholic Univ Rio de Janeiro, BRA.
    Wieringa, Roel
    Univ Twente, NLD.
    Pfahl, Dietmar
    University of Tartu, EST.
    Conte, Tayana
    Universidade Federal do Amazonas, BRA.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    Karlstad Univ, SWE.
    Greer, Desmond
    Queens Univ Belfast, IRL.
    Lassenius, Casper
    Aalto Univ, FIN.
    Mannisto, Tomi
    Univ Helsinki, FIN.
    Nayebi, Maleknaz
    Univ Calgary, CAN.
    Oivo, Markku
    Univ Oulu, FIN.
    Penzenstadler, Birgit
    California State University, Long Beach, USA.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Ruhe, Guenther
    Univ Calgary, CAN.
    Schekelmann, Andre
    Hsch Niederrhein, DEU.
    Sen, Sagar
    Simula, Fornebu, NOR.
    Spinola, Rodrigo
    Salvador Univ UNIFACS, BRA.
    Tuzcu, Ahmed
    zeb.rolfes.schierenbeck.associates GmbH, DEU.
    De la Vara, Jose Luis
    Carlos III Univ Madrid, ESP.
    Winkler, Dietmar
    Tech Univ Wien, AUT.
    Status Quo in Requirements Engineering: A Theory and a Global Family of Surveys2019In: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, ISSN 1049-331X, E-ISSN 1557-7392, Vol. 28, no 2, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering (RE) has established itself as a software engineering discipline over the past decades. While researchers have been investigating the RE discipline with a plethora of empirical studies, attempts to systematically derive an empirical theory in context of the RE discipline have just recently been started. However, such a theory is needed if we are to define and motivate guidance in performing high quality RE research and practice. We aim at providing an empirical and externally valid foundation for a theory of RE practice, which helps software engineers establish effective and efficient RE processes in a problem-driven manner. We designed a survey instrument and an engineer-focused theory that was first piloted in Germany and, after making substantial modifications, has now been replicated in 10 countries worldwide. We have a theory in the form of a set of propositions inferred from our experiences and available studies, as well as the results from our pilot study in Germany. We evaluate the propositions with bootstrapped confidence intervals and derive potential explanations for the propositions. In this article, we report on the design of the family of surveys, its underlying theory, and the full results obtained from the replication studies conducted in 10 countries with participants from 228 organisations. Our results represent a substantial step forward towards developing an empirical theory of RE practice. The results reveal, for example, that there are no strong differences between organisations in different countries and regions, that interviews, facilitated meetings and prototyping are the most used elicitation techniques, that requirements are often documented textually, that traces between requirements and code or design documents are common, that requirements specifications themselves are rarely changed and that requirements engineering (process) improvement endeavours are mostly internally driven. Our study establishes a theory that can be used as starting point for many further studies for more detailed investigations. Practitioners can use the results as theory-supported guidance on selecting suitable RE methods and techniques.

  • 536.
    Wahlström, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Comparing Scaling Benefits of Monolithic and Microservice Architectures Implemented in Java and Go2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 537.
    Wang, Cheng
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Liu, Changling
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Adopting DevOps in Agile: Challenges and Solutions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. DevOps is a hot topic in recent years. It emphasizes the combination of development and operation. Agile is one of the most popular development methods, but Agile mainly focused on software development part, there is no more involvement in deployment and operations. In this case, many companies consider adopting DevOps in Agile to attempt to improve the situation.

    Objectives. The combination of two different technologies is bound to produce some challenges, whether it is for practitioners or researchers, it is very important to find these challenges and mitigate them, so this article aims to investigate the challenges of adopting DevOps in Agile, then through the systematic literature review and survey questionnaire to determine the corresponding mitigation strategy. Then, in order to detail understand the process of adopting DevOps in Agile, we use interview to research the real process of adopting DevOps in agile.

    Methods. According to our research question, we used the systematic literature review(SLR), survey questionnaire and interview as our research methodology. Through literature review, we collected data of adopting DevOps in Agile, and summary the challenges and its relevant mitigation strategies. Then survey questionnaire helped us linking the content of literature to the industry, and compare their difference. Through the interview, we explored the actual process of adopting DevOps in Agile in industry, and correspond the challenges to the actual process.

    Results. Our study summarized the software development process of adopting DevOps based on Agile and revealed 23 challenges and corresponding mitigation strategies. The report also compares the commonalities and gaps between the results from the literature and the findings of real-life adopting of DevOps challenges and mitigation strategies.

    Conclusions. In this article, we introduced the challenges and corresponding mitigation strategies for adopting DevOps based on agile and summarize the corresponding software development process. The obvious challenges and mitigation strategies were divided into four categories: 1) People 2) Project 3) Process 4) Organization, after which we conducted further discussions based on the actual conditions and compared the results of systematic literature review and the results of questionnaire to detail explore their difference.

  • 538.
    Wei, Wenyang
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Private User’s Trust on Data sharing in e- health Applications2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. One of the challenges in requirement engineering is the ability using survey as a requirement-engineering tool towards the software to refine user’s requirements. For instance, with the development of the way of healthcare, many advances in technology transformed the way of healthcare. E-health application is one of the technologies. As more and more health information that is stored electronically, e- health applications have given rise to trust issue in the area of data sharing. Identified the relationship between trust and data sharing based on the survey method is a valid approach, but the current studies still do not give a definite guideline about how requirement engineering should use a survey method step-by-step to refine the needs of users’ trust into software attributes. Based on the mentioned situation in e-health, defining a method to design survey to elicit requirements is needed.

    Objective. In this paper, the aim of the study is to design a survey method for refining user’s requirements of trust in requirement engineering based on the current state-of-art. The paper present the research on data sharing in e-health application. Methods. This study presented an action research, which identified the way about how to refine user’s requirement of trust. Survey was the main approach to do investigation among the e-health applications. Three cycles of AR were conducted in this paper, and three versions of questionnaires were designed in the research process in order to identify the factors that affected user’s trust in data sharing in e-health applications.

    Results. Through the action research, I found out three factors that affected user’s trust in data sharing, then the factors were identified, analysis and summarized, and the relationship between trusts and the factors is describe based on analysis results of the collected data, which obtain from the improved questionnaires. To find out the relationship between trust and the factors help present the process that how to design an accurate survey to refine user’s requirements.

    Based on the process and results of the action research, the survey guideline to refine user’s requirements of trust is designed and described. Conclusions. Based on the results that obtained in this study, I designed a preliminary survey guideline for refining user’s requirements of trust. This study will help requirement engineering to elicit requirement of trust in e-health based on a new and specific survey method. 

  • 539.
    Widell, Sanna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Levin, Linnéa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Möjligheter och begränsningar i molnet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag väljer många företag och kommuner att placera data i molnet istället för på en lokal server, detta medför nya problem som tidigare inte varit aktuella. Datainspektionen har påpekat brister i hur två kommuner använder molntjänster för att lagra personlig data då de ställer sig tveksamma till molnleverantörernas hantering av data samt insynen till molnleverantörerena. I detta arbete kommer det undersökas hur den svenska personuppgiftslagen fungerar när data läggs ut i en molntjänst. Resultatet av uppsatsen kommer även visa på de olika säkerhetshoten som finns i molnet och se vad säkerhetsexperter säger för att ta reda på om kommuner och företag är medvetna om och uppmärksammar samma hot. För att ta reda på detta har intervjuer genomförts med en svensk molnleverantör, företag som utvecklar tjänster mot molnet, privatpersoner som nyttjar molnet och experter inom säkerhet från Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, BTH. Resultatet av studien visar att det är svårt att se om en amerikansk leverantör uppfyller de svenska lagarna för personuppgifter, det visar också att det är teoretiskt möjligt att anlita en svensk leverantör och uppfylla lagen. Det har även visat sig att den största oron gällande molnet är bristen på kontroll av data.

  • 540.
    Wilson, Magnus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Ericsson AB.
    Towards Effective and Efficient Business Model change: Opportunities and challenges for software-intensive product development companies2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization initiates and drives significant changes to the process level, organization level, and business level of software-intensive product development (SIPD) companies and their customers. Digitalization creates new opportunities through digital transformation strategies of the business environment. Digitalization also significantly reduces the turnaround-time on a transaction, driving new challenges for the alignment of business and technology changes. For a successful business model realization, a company must understand what capabilities the organization has (in staff and products), what is required, and more importantly, how to turn these capabilities into good-enough abilities without disturbing the effectiveness and efficiency of the daily operations. Integrating the product and service development and the value delivery with a learning organization is critical for efficient business model change (BMCh).

    This thesis seeks to develop conceptual models for how BMCh is linked to value, learning organization design, and the transformation of capabilities into abilities derived from business model activities and actor interactions. Such conceptual models facilitate to investigate and identify critical mechanisms and capabilities needed to effectively and efficiently manage BMCh at full scale for SIPD companies, allowing them to exploit the on-going digitalization, may it be through (disruptive) business model innovation, technology innovation, or by continuously adapting and evolving the business operations.  

    I use the SIPD company as the unit of analysis, with the dual-lens of value and knowledge, set in the context of a business model and how the value creation and capture are influenced by the interaction between two actors performing a business model activity. I build on the business model literature and infuse theories for knowledge creation, learning organizations, and contractual promises to create value. Conducting a cross-disciplinary literature review, followed by a synthesis of related literature, industry best-practices, and an associated design science study, my propositions were validated in a longitudinal case study exploring a service industrialization program in the telecommunication industry.

    I have produced five conceptual models and seven propositions as a start to be able to support the design of a governance mechanism, as the critical engine for both the learning organization and effective and efficient BMCh. The industry now explores the models found during the case study.

    My synthesis shows a need for further research into BMCh regarding early detection and measurements of gaps in value, gaps in knowledge, ambiguity, equivocality, and abilities. Flexible role-based governance views present the measurements, as part of the governance mechanisms for full-scale, effective, and efficient BMCh. Further, I also aim to implement such governance mechanisms in software, by using the associated research in intent-driven systems. In the meantime, I propose industry to build knowledge and experience related to the seven propositions.

  • 541.
    Wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Business Modeling and Flexibility in Software-Intensive Product Development - A Systematic Literature Review2018In: 17th IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society, I3E 2018, Kuwait City, Kuwait, October 30 – November 1, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Springer, Springer, 2018, p. 292-304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuously achieving and maintaining competitive advantage is the critical survival factor for software-intensive product development companies undergoing digitalization transformation. These companies remain uncertain if investments in business modeling is sufficient to cope with rapidly changing business models, technology, and customer demands. We conducted a Systematic Literature Review using the snowballing methodology to explore the effects of business modeling on business flexibility and variability in the realization. Our results confirm a research gap regarding translating desired strategic flexibility into business options that can efficiently and effectively be implemented using software-based variability in the realization. We conclude that more research is needed consolidating business model innovation, experimentation, and operationalization. Building on theories for learning and knowledge creation, we propose a framework for describing change and analyzing strategic, tactical and operational choices in business model experimentation.

  • 542.
    Wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Business modeling and flexibility in software-intensive product development: A systematic literature review2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11195, p. 292-304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuously achieving and maintaining competitive advantage is the critical survival factor for software-intensive product development companies undergoing digitalization transformation. These companies remain uncertain if investments in business modeling is sufficient to cope with rapidly changing business models, technology, and customer demands. We conducted a Systematic Literature Review using the snowballing methodology to explore the effects of business modeling on business flexibility and variability in the realization. Our results confirm a research gap regarding translating desired strategic flexibility into business options that can efficiently and effectively be implemented using software-based variability in the realization. We conclude that more research is needed consolidating business model innovation, experimentation, and operationalization. Building on theories for learning and knowledge creation, we propose a framework for describing change and analyzing strategic, tactical and operational choices in business model experimentation. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018.

  • 543.
    Wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Ericsson AB.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The implications of digitalization on business model changeIn: Business & Information Systems Engineering, ISSN 1867-0202Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many software-intensive product development companies are still struggling with the alignment of business and technology changes to find an optimal balance between products and services while remaining agile, effective, and efficient. Business model alignment is highlighted as a new business model research area for understanding the relationships between the dynamic nature of business models, organization design, and the value creation in the business model activities.

    In this paper, we synthesize the impact of digitalization on business model change for the software-intensive product development industry. Based on established theories, we link effectiveness and efficiency, to value creation in business model activities and organizational learning, in a step towards conceptualizing business model change as a significant part of developing software architectural support for a business model change in a learning organization.  

    Our unit of analysis is the value created in a transaction between two actors in a business model activity, and how that value is supporting transforming a capability into an efficient ability. Based on our results and to facilitate the cross-disciplinary analysis of business model dynamics, we present seven propositions and a conceptual model linking effectiveness, efficiency, value, transaction, and organizational learning to business model change via the \textit{value membrane}. 

  • 544.
    wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Towards Multi-context Goal Modeling and Analysis with the Help of Intents2018In: Proceedings - 2018 8th International Model-Driven Requirements Engineering Workshop, MoDRE 2018 / [ed] Moreira A.,Mussbacher G.,Sanchez P.,Araujo J., IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2018, p. 68-72, article id 8501496Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This vision paper discusses the need for enriching goal modeling with intents and context frame to provide much richer contextual information over goals and realization strategies. Based on the extensive experience of business modeling at Ericsson and a review of current goal modeling approaches, we suggest possible research directions towards enriching goal modeling.

  • 545.
    Wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Silvander, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Literature Review on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Business Modeling2018In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 265-302Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Achieving and maintaining a strategic competitive advantage through business and technology innovation via continually improving effectiveness and efficiency of the operations are the critical survival factors for software-intensive product development companies. These companies invest in business modeling and tool support for integrating business models into their product development, but remain uncertain, if such investments generate desired results. Aim: This study explores the effects of business modeling on effectiveness and efficiency for companies developing software-intensive products. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review using the snowballing methodology, followed by thematic and narrative analysis. 57 papers were selected for analysis and synthesis, after screening 16 320 papers from multiple research fields. Results: We analyzed the literature based on purpose, benefit, challenge, effectiveness, and efficiency with software and software-intensive products as the unit of analysis. The alignment between strategy and execution is the primary challenge, and we found no evidence that business modeling increases effectiveness and efficiency for a company. Any outcome variations may simply be a result of fluctuating contextual or environmental factors rather than the application of a specific business modeling method. Therefore, we argue that governance is the fundamental challenge needed for business modeling, as it must efficiently support simultaneous experimentation with products and business models while turning experiences into knowledge. Conclusion: We propose a conceptual governance model for exploring the effectiveness and efficiency of business modeling to occupy the missing link between business strategy, processes and software tools. We also recommend managers to introduce a systematic approach for experimentation and organizational learning, collaboration, and value co-creation.

  • 546.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Involving relevant stakeholders into the decision process about software components2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 129-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This papers surveys current stakeholder identification methods and techniques from the Requirements Engineering (RE) discipline. Upon critical analysis of available models and techniques, we identify the techniques that should be prioritized when identifying stakeholders that should be involved in the decision making processes about software components or assets. Next, we analyzed industrial decision scenarios and match the most prominent issues with stakeholder identification against the perceived benefits that the identified techniques offer. We conclude this paper with a research agenda in stakeholder identification for decision making about software components. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 547.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Borg, Markus
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Sulaman, Sardar Muhammad
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    An industrial case study on measuring the quality of the requirements scoping process2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science / [ed] Amasaki S.,Mikkonen T.,Felderer M.,Abrahamsson P.,Duc A.N.,Jedlitschka A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 10027, p. 487-494Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision making and requirements scoping occupy central roles in helping to develop products that are demanded by the customers and ensuring company strategies are accurately realized in product scope. Many companies experience continuous and frequent scope changes and fluctuations but struggle to measure the phenomena and correlate the measurement to the quality of the requirements process. We present the results from an exploratory interview study among 22 participants working with requirements management processes at a large company that develops embedded systems for a global market. Our respondents shared their opinions about the current set of requirements management process metrics as well as what additional metrics they envisioned as useful. We present a set of metrics that describe the quality of the requirements scoping process. The findings provide practical insights that can be used as input when introducing new measurement programs for requirements management and decision making.

  • 548.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Garrepalli, Thrinay
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Knowledge management in software testing: A systematic snowball literature review2018In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 51-78Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software testing benefits from the usage of Knowledge Management (KM) methods and principles. Thus, there is a need to adopt KM to the software testing core processes and attain the benefits that it provides in terms of cost, quality, etc. Aim: To investigate the usage and implementation of KM for software testing. The major objectives include 1. To identify various software testing aspects that receive more attention while applying KM. 2. To analyse multiple software testing techniques, i.e. test design, test execution and test result analysis and highlight KM involvement in these. 3. To gather challenges faced by industry due to the lack of KM initiatives in software testing. Method: A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted utilizing the guidelines for snowballing reviews by Wohlin. The identified studies were analysed in relation to their rigor and relevance to assess the quality of the results. Results: The initial resulting set provided 4832 studies. From these, 35 peer-reviewed papers were chosen among which 31 are primary, and 4 are secondary studies. The literature review results indicated nine testing aspects being in focus when applying KM within various adaptation contexts and some benefits from KM application. Several challenges were identified, e.g., improper selection and application of better-suited techniques, a low reuse rate of software testing knowledge, barriers in software testing knowledge transfer, no possibility to quickly achieve the most optimum distribution of human resources during testing, etc. Conclusions: The study brings supporting evidence that the application of KM in software testing is necessary, e.g., to increase test effectiveness, select and apply testing techniques. The study outlines the testing aspects and testing techniques that benefit their users.

  • 549.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Supporting Scope Tracking and Visualization for Very Large-Scale Requirements Engineering-Utilizing FSC+, Decision Patterns, and Atomic Decision Visualization2016In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 47-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding the optimal project scope that fulfills the needs of the most important stakeholders is challenging due to a plethora of aspects that may impact decisions. Large companies that operate in rapidly changing environments experience frequently changing customer needs which force decision makers to continuously adjust the scope of their projects. Change intensity is further fueled by fierce market competition and hard time-to-market deadlines. Staying in control of the changes in thousands of features becomes a major issue as information overload hinders decision makers from rapidly extracting relevant information. This paper presents a visual technique, called Feature Survival Charts+ (FSC+), designed to give a quick and effective overview of the requirements scoping process for Very Large-Scale Requirements Engineering (VLSRE). FSC+ were applied at a large company with thousands of features in the database and supported the transition from plan-driven to a more dynamic and change-tolerant release scope management process. FSC+ provides multiple views, filtering, zooming, state-change intensity views, and support for variable time spans. Moreover, this paper introduces five decision archetypes deduced from the dataset and subsequently analyzed and the atomic decision visualization that shows the frequency of various decisions in the process. The capabilities and usefulness of FSC+, decision patterns (state changes that features undergo) and atomic decision visualizations are evaluated through interviews with practitioners who found utility in all techniques and indicated that their inherent flexibility was necessary to meet the varying needs of the stakeholders.

  • 550.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kabbedijk, J.c
    Brinkkemper, S.c
    Regnell, B.b
    Callele, D.d
    Exploring factors affecting decision outcome and lead time in large-scale requirements engineering2015In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 647-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing decision lead time and outcome is important for successful product management. This work identifies decision lead time and outcome factors in large-scale requirements engineering. Our investigation brings supporting evidence that complex changes have longer lead time and that important customers more likely get what they request. The results provide input into the discussion of whether a large company should focus on only a few of its large customers and disregard its significantly larger group of small customers. Lead time, defined as the duration between the moment a request was filed and the moment the decision was made, is an important aspect of decision making in market-driven requirements engineering. Minimizing lead time allows software companies to focus their resources on the most profitable functionality and enables them to remain competitive within the quickly changing software market. Achieving and sustaining low decision lead time and the resulting high decision efficiency require a better understanding of factors that may affect both decision lead time and outcome. In order to identify possible factors, we conducted an exploratory two-stage case study that combines the statistical analysis of seven possible relationships among decision characteristics at a large company with a survey of industry participants. Our results show that the number of products affected by a decision increases the time needed to make a decision. Practitioners should take this aspect into consideration when planning for efficient decision making and possibly reducing the complexity of decisions. Our results also show that when a change request originates from an important customer, the request is more often accepted. The results provide input into the discussion of whether a large company should focus on only a few of its large customers and disregard its significantly larger group of small customers. The results provide valuable insights for researchers, who can use them to plan research of decision-making processes and methods, and for practitioners, who can use them to optimize their decision-making processes. In future work, we plan to investigate other decision characteristics, such as the number of stakeholders involved in the discussion about the potential change or the number of dependencies between software components. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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