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  • 501.
    Shojaifar, Alireza
    et al.
    Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, CHE.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gwerder, Martin
    Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, CHE.
    Elicitation of SME requirements for cybersecurity solutions by studying adherence to recommendations2018Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Dalpiaz F.,Franch X.,Kirikova M.,Ralyte J.,Spoletini P.,Chisik Y.,Ferrari A.,Madhavji N.,Palomares C.,Sabetzadeh M.,van der Linden D.,Schmid K.,Charrada E.B.,Sawyer P.,Forbrig P.,Zamansky A., CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2075Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) have become the weak spot of our economy for cyber attacks. These companies are large in number and often do not have the controls in place to prevent successful attacks, respectively are not prepared to systematically manage their cybersecurity capabilities. [Question/problem] One of the reasons for why many SME do not adopt cybersecurity is that developers of cybersecurity solutions understand little the SME context and the requirements for successful use of these solutions. [Principal ideas/results] We elicit requirements by studying how cybersecurity experts provide advice to SME. The experts' recommendations offer insights into what important capabilities of the solution are and how these capabilities ought to be used for mitigating cybersecurity threats. The adoption of a recommendation hints at a correct match of the solution, hence successful consideration of requirements. Abandoned recommendations point to a misalignment that can be used as a source to inquire missed requirements. Re-occurrence of adoption or abandonment decisions corroborate the presence of requirements. [Contributions] This poster describes the challenges of SME regarding cybersecurity and introduces our proposed approach to elicit requirements for cybersecurity solutions. The poster describes CYSEC, our tool used to capture cybersecurity advice and help to scale cybersecurity requirements elicitation to a large number of participating SME. We conclude by outlining the planned research to develop and validate CYSEC1 Copyright 2018 for this paper by its authors.

  • 502.
    Silva, Dennis
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Rabelo, Ricardo
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Campanha, Matheus
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Neto, Pedro Santos
    Universidade Federal do Piaui, BRA.
    Oliveira, Pedro Almir
    Instituto Federal do Maranhão, BRA.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A hybrid approach for test case prioritization and selection2016Inngår i: 2016 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, CEC 2016, IEEE, 2016, s. 4508-4515Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software testing consists in the dynamic verification of the behavior of a program on a set of test cases. When a program is modified, it must be tested to verify if the changes did not imply undesirable effects on its functionality. The rerunning of all test cases can be impossible, due to cost, time and resource constraints. So, it is required the creation of a test cases subset before the test execution. This is a hard problem and the use of standard Software Engineering techniques could not be suitable. This work presents an approach for test case prioritization and selection, based in relevant inputs obtained from a software development environment. The approach uses Software Quality Function Deployment (SQFD) to deploy the features relevance among the system components, Mamdani fuzzy inference systems to infer the criticality of each class and Ant Colony Optimization to select test cases. An evaluation of the approach is presented, using data from simulations with different number of tests.

  • 503.
    Silva, Dennis Savio
    et al.
    Federal University of Piauí, BRA.
    Rabelo, Ricardo De Andrade Lira
    Federal University of Piauí, BRA.
    Neto, Pedro Santos
    Federal University of Piauí, BRA.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Oliveira, Pedro Almir
    Federal Institute of Maranhao, BRA.
    A test case prioritization approach based on software component metrics2019Inngår i: Conference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 2939-2945Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common way of performing regression testing is by executing all test cases associated with a software system. However, this approach is not scalable since time and cost to execute the test cases increase together with the system's size. A way to address this consists of prioritizing the existing test cases, aiming to maximize a test suite's fault detection rate. To address the limitations of existing approaches, in this paper we propose a new approach to maximize the rate of fault detection of test suites. Our proposal has three steps: I) infer code components' criticality values using a fuzzy inference system; ii) calculate test cases' criticality; iii) prioritize the test cases using ant colony optimization. The test cases are prioritized considering criticality, execution time and history of faults, and the resulting test suites are evaluated according to their fault detection rate. The evaluation was performed in eight programs, and the results show that the fault detection rate of the solutions was higher than in the non-ordered test suites and ones obtained using a greedy approach, reaching the optimal value when possible to verify. A sanity check was performed, comparing the obtained results to the results of a random search. The approach performed better at significant levels of statistic and practical difference, evidencing its true applicability to the prioritization of test cases. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 504.
    Silva, Lakmal
    et al.
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Monitoring and maintenance of telecommunication systems: Challenges and research perspectives2019Inngår i: ENGINEERING SOFTWARE SYSTEMS: RESEARCH AND PRAXIS / [ed] Kosiuczenko, P; Zielinski, Z, Springer Verlag , 2019, 830, Vol. 830, s. 166-172Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present challenges associated with monitoring and maintaining a large telecom system at Ericsson that was developed with high degree of component reuse. The system constitutes of multiple services, composed of both legacy and modern systems that are constantly changing and need to be adapted to changing business needs. The paper is based on firsthand experience from architecting, developing and maintaining such a system, pointing out current challenges and potential avenues for future research that might contribute to addressing them. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 505.
    Silvander, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Business Process Optimization with Reinforcement Learning2019Inngår i: Lect. Notes Bus. Inf. Process., Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 356, s. 203-212Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the use of deep reinforcement learning to optimize business processes in a business support system. The focus of this paper is to investigate how a reinforcement learning algorithm named Q-Learning, using deep learning, can be configured in order to support optimization of business processes in an environment which includes some degree of uncertainty. We make the investigation possible by implementing a software agent with the help of a deep learning tool set. The study shows that reinforcement learning is a useful technique for business process optimization but more guidance regarding parameter setting is needed in this area. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 506.
    Silvander, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Component Selection with Fuzzy Decision Making2018Inngår i: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier B.V. , 2018, Vol. 126, s. 1378-1386Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many situations a decision maker (DM) would like to grade a component, or rank several components of the same type. Often a component type has many features, which are deemed as valuable by the DM. Other vital features are not known by the DM but are needed for the component to function. However, it should be possible to guide the DM to find the desired business solution, without putting a requirement of detailed knowledge of the component type on the DM. We propose a framework for component selection with the help of fuzzy decision making. The work is based on algorithms from fuzzy decision making, which we have adapted or extended. The framework was validated by practitioners, which found the framework useful. © 2018 The Author(s).

  • 507.
    Silvander, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Towards Intent-Driven Systems2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software supporting an enterprise’s business, also known as a business support system, needs to support the correlation of activities between actors as well as influence the activities based on knowledge about the value networks in which the enterprise acts. This can be supported with the help of intent-driven systems. The aim of intent-driven systems is to capture stakeholders’ intents and transform these into a form that enables computer processing of them. Only then are different machine actors able to negotiate with each other on behalf of their respective stakeholders and their intents, and suggest a mutually beneficial agreement.

    Objective: When building a business support system it is critical to separate the business model of the business support system itself from the business models used by the enterprise which is using the business support system. The core idea of intent-driven systems is the possibility to change behavior of the system itself, based on stakeholder intents. This requires a separation of concerns between the parts of the system used to execute the stakeholder business, and the parts which are used to design the business based on stakeholder intents. The business studio is a software that supports the realization of business models used by the enterprise by configuring the capabilities provided by the business support system. The aim is to find out how we can support the design of a business studio which is based on intent-driven systems.

    Method: We are using the design science framework as our research frame- work. During our design science study we have used the following research methods: systematic literature review, case study, quasi experiment, and action research.

    Results: We have produced two design artifacts as a start to be able to support the design of a business studio. These artifacts are the models and quasi-experiment in Chapter 3, and the action research in Chapter 4. The models found during the case study have proved to be a valuable artifact for the stakeholder. The results from the quasi-experiment and the action research are seen as new problem solving knowledge by the stakeholder.

    Conclusion: The synthesis shows a need for further research regarding semantic interchange of information, actor interaction in intent-driven systems, and the governance of intent-driven systems.

  • 508.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Angelin, Lars
    Ericsson AB, SWE.
    Introducing intents to the OODA-loop2019Inngår i: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier B.V. , 2019, s. 878-883Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with Ericsson AB, we are using the design science framework when investigating how to create an intent-driven system for their business support system and its business studio. The aim is to present our initial results on how an extended OODA-loop can be used to realize a robust, but still flexible, software architecture for an intent-driven system. We explain how an extended OODA-loop is constructed and provide suggestions of how different part of it can be implemented. The initial results are promising but further research is needed to use the extended OODA-loop as reusable components in intent-driven systems. Our next step is to extend the generic methods with knowledge representation and reasoning capabilities. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 509.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Systematic Literature Review on Intent-Driven SystemsInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The aim of intent-driven systems is to capture stakeholders’ intents and transform these into a form that enables computer processing of the intents. Only then are different computer- based agents able to negotiate with each other on behalf of their respective stakeholders and their intents, and suggest a mutually beneficial agreement. This requires a separation of concerns between the parts of the system used to execute the stakeholder business, and the parts which are used to design the business based on stakeholder intents.

    Objective: The aim is to find out which methods/techniques as well as enabling aspects, useful for an intent-driven system, that are covered by research literature.

    Method: As a part of a design science study, a Systematic Literature Review is conducted.

    Results: The existence of methods/techniques which can be used as building blocks to construct intent-driven systems exist in the literature. How these methods/techniques can interact with the aspects needed to enabling flexible realizations of intent-driven systems is not evident in the existing literature.

    Conclusion: The synthesis shows a need for further research regarding semantic interchange of information, actor interaction in intent-driven systems, and the governance of intent-driven systems.

  • 510.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Towards Executable Business Rules2017Annet (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:  In today's implementations of business support systems, business rules are configured in different places of the system, and in different formats. This makes it hard to have a common view of what is defined, and to execute the same logic in different parts of systems. It is desired to have a common governance structure and a standardized way of handling the business rules.

    Objective: To investigate if it is possible to support visual and logical verification of business rules and to generate executable business rules.

    Method: Together with practitioners we conducted an experiment.

    Results: We have implemented a machine learning pipe-line which supports visual and logical verification of business rules, and the generation of executable business rules. From a machine learning perspective, we have added the possibility for the ID3 algorithm to use continuous features.

    Conclusion: The experiment shows that it is possible to support visual and logical verification of business rules, and to generate executable business rules with the help of a machine learning pipe-line.

  • 511.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Uncover and Assess Rule Adherence Based on Decisions2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Shishkov B., Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 319, s. 249-259Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Decisions taken by medical practitioners may be based on explicit and implicit rules. By uncovering these rules, a medical practitioner may have the possibility to explain its decisions in a better way, both to itself and to the person which the decision is affecting. Objective: We investigate if it is possible for a machine learning pipe-line to uncover rules used by medical practitioners, when they decide if a patient could be operated or not. The uncovered rules should have a linguistic meaning. Method: We are evaluating two different algorithms, one of them is developed by us and named “The membership detection algorithm”. The evaluation is done with the help of real-world data provided by a hospital. Results: The membership detection algorithm has significantly better relevance measure, compared to the second algorithm. Conclusion: A machine learning pipe-line, based on our algorithm, makes it possibility to give the medical practitioners an understanding, or to question, how decisions have been taken. With the help of the uncovered fuzzy decision algorithm it is possible to test suggested changes to the feature limits. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.

  • 512.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Uncovering Implicit Rules in Medicine DiagnosisInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:  Decisions taken by experts may be based on explicit and implicit rules. By uncovering the implicit rules the expert may have the possibility to explain its decisions in a better way, both for itself and the person which the decision is affecting. In the area of medicine, laws are enforcing the expert to be able to explain its decision when a patient is complaining about a decision. Another vital aspect is the ability of the expert to explain to the patient why a certain decision is taken, and the risks associated with the decision.

    Objective: To investigate if it is possible for a machine learning pipe-line to find implicit rules used by experts, when they decide if a patient could be operated or not.

    Method: We conduct an analysis of a data set, containing information about patients and the decision if an operation should be performed or not.

    Results: We have implemented a machine learning pipe-line which supports detection of implicit rules in a data set. The detection of the implicit rules are supported by an algorithm which implements an agglomerative merging of feature values. We have improved the original algorithm by showing the boarders of the feature values of a discretization bin.

    Conclusion: The analysis of the data set shows it is possible to find implicit rules used by the experts with the help of an agglomerative merging of feature values.

  • 513.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wilson, Magnus
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Encouraging Business Flexibility by Improved Context Descriptions2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design / [ed] Boris Shishkov, SciTePress, 2017, Vol. 1, s. 225-228Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-driven software architectures are emerging and gaining importance for many industries. As softwareintensive solutions continue to be more complex and operate in rapidly changing environments, there is a pressure for increased business flexibility realized by more efficient software architecture mechanisms to keep up with the necessary speed of change. We investigate how improved context descriptions could be implemented in software components, and support important software development practices like business modeling and requirement engineering. This paper proposes context descriptions as an architectural support for improving the connection between business flexibility and software components. We provide initial results regarding software architectural mechanisms which can support context descriptions as well as the context description’s support for business-driven software architecture, and the business flexibility demanded by the business ecosystems.

  • 514.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wilson, Magnus
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Supporting Continuous Changes to Business Intents2017Inngår i: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 27, nr 8, s. 1167-1198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software supporting an enterprise’s business, also known as a business support system, needs to support the correlation of activities between actors as well as influence the activities based on knowledge about the value networks in which the enterprise acts. This requires the use of policies and rules to guide or enforce the execution of strategies or tactics within an enterprise as well as in collaborations between enterprises. With the help of policies and rules, an enterprise is able to capture an actor’s intent in its business support system, and act according to this intent on behalf of the actor. Since the value networks an enterprise is part of will change over time the business intents’ life cycle states might change. Achieving the changes in an effective and efficient way requires knowledge about the affected intents and the correlation between intents.

    Objective: The aim of the study is to identify how a business support system can support continuous changes to business intents. The first step is to find a theoretical model which serves as a foundation for intent-driven systems.

    Method: We conducted a case study using a focus group approach with employees from Ericsson. This case study was influenced by the spiral case study process.

    Results: The study resulted in a model supporting continuous definition and execution of an enterprise. The model is divided into three layers; Define, Execute, and a com- mon governance view layer. This makes it possible to support continuous definition and execution of business intents and to identify the actors needed to support the business intents’ life cycles. This model is supported by a meta-model for capturing information into viewpoints.

    Conclusion: The research question is addressed by suggesting a solution supporting con- tinuous definition and execution of an enterprise as a model of value architecture compo- nents and business functions. The results will affect how Ericsson will build the business studio for their next generation business support systems.

  • 515.
    Silvander, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wälitalo, Lisa
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Knowledge creation through a teaching and learning spiral2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: We have experienced the use of a domain specific language sometimes makes it difficult to present domain knowledge to a group or an individual that has limited or different knowledge about the specific domain, and where the presenter and the audience do not have sufficient insight into each other's contexts. In order to create an environment w here knowledge transfer can exists it is vital to understand how the roles are shifting during the interaction between the participants. In an educational environment Teaching and Learning Activities (TLA) could, in ideal situations, be invented during the design of the curriculum. This might not be the case when interacting with practitioners or students from diverse fields. This situation requires a method to find TLAs for the specific situation. For the domain knowledge to be useful for learners it has to be connected to the context/domain where the learners are active. In this paper we combine a spiral learning process with constructive alignment, which resulted in a teaching and learning spiral process. The outcome of the teach - ing and learning spiral process is to provide the knowledge of using the introduced domain knowledge in a context/domain where the learners are active.

    Objective: The aim with this work is to present guidelines that will contribute to a more effective knowledge creation process in heterogeneous groups, both in an educational environment and in interaction with different groups of practitioners in society.

    Method: We conducted a case study using observations and surveys.

    Results: The results from our case study support a positive effect on the learning outcomes when adopting this methodology. The learning outcome is to gain deeper understanding of the introduced domain knowledge and being able to dis - cuss how the new domain knowledge can be integrated to the learners own context.

    Conclusions: We have formulated guidelines for how to use the teaching and learning spiral process in an effective and efficient way.

  • 516. Solinski, Adam
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Prioritizing agile benefits and limitations in relation to practice usage2016Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 447-482Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been significant shift from rigid development (RD) toward agile. However, it has also been spotted that agile methodologies are hardly ever followed in their pure form. Hybrid processes as combinations of RD and agile practices emerge. In addition, agile adoption has been reported to result in both benefits and limitations. This exploratory study (a) identifies development models based on RD and agile practice usage by practitioners; (b) identifies agile practice adoption scenarios based on eliciting practice usage over time; (c) prioritizes agile benefits and limitations in relation to (a) and (b). Practitioners provided answers through a questionnaire. The development models are determined using hierarchical cluster analysis. The use of practices over time is captured through an interactive board with practices and time indication sliders. This study uses the extended hierarchical voting analysis framework to investigate benefit and limitation prioritization. Four types of development models and six adoption scenarios have been identified. Overall, 45 practitioners participated in the prioritization study. A common benefit among all models and adoption patterns is knowledge and learning, while high requirements on professional skills were perceived as the main limitation. Furthermore, significant variances in terms of benefits and limitations have been observed between models and adoption patterns. The most significant internal benefit categories from adopting agile are knowledge and learning, employee satisfaction, social skill development, and feedback and confidence. Professional skill-specific demands, scalability, and lack of suitability for specific product domains are the main limitations of agile practice usage. Having a balanced agile process allows to achieve a high number of benefits. With respect to adoption, a big bang transition from RD to agile leads to poor quality in comparison with the alternatives.

  • 517.
    Somaraju, Dilip
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Prediction of Time, Cost and Effort needed for software organizations to transit from ISO 9001:2008 to ISO 9001:2015.: A Survey2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Several quality standards have been developed over the years in order to define quality metrics for an organization’s product and even processes. One of the famous standards among them is the ISO 9000 standards which started several years ago. Since its beginning, ISO standards have seen several upgrades. Currently ISO 9001:2008 is in use which is being upgraded to ISO 9001: 2015. Companies have to migrate to the new scheme within three years of the prescribed time in order to retain certification to the ISO 9001 standards. The present thesis is targeted at finding the expected changes and the work improvements in the context of software engineering.

    Objectives. The main aim of the study is to find the expected changes and work improvements needed to migrate to the new version. This is done by fulfilling the following objectives, they are: analyze the expected changes and motivations for the changes in the new ISO 9001 version. Understand the required work and improvements needed for a software organization to successfully upgrade their certification to the new ISO 9001:2015 version. Predict the estimated cost/time /effort that could be incurred for organization to get certified to the forthcoming ISO version.

    Methods. In order to meet the objectives, a literature review was done and the changes incorporated in the new scheme are identified. A survey was conducted in order to predict the impact of cost, time and effort on the new changes in moving to ISO 9001:2008 to ISO 9001:2015. The survey was sent only to software organizations as the context of this study is only restricted to quality in software engineering. The collected data was analyzed using bi-variate analysis and Friedman test on SPSS tool.

    Results. From the literature review, the changes brought about in the new scheme were identified. These changes made were used in the survey questionnaire designed. The survey questionnaire was designed to investigate the expectations of the organizations on the time taken, cost incurred and the effort needed to implement these changes. A total of 63 responses were recorded from the survey.

    Conclusions. From the analysis it was found that several key changes were identified in the new scheme when compared to the old one. From the survey responses, the cost needed for implementing the changes is expected to be moderate, the time needed is predicted as less than 1 year and the effort needed for implementing the changes was estimated to be more. Along with this, the document also holds clear results about clause by clause expected time, cost and effort estimates and the reasons for these assumptions.

  • 518.
    Spandel, Daniel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kjellgren, Johannes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Choosing between Git and Subversion: How does the choice affect software developers?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today a lot of software projects are using version control systems for maintaining their software source code. There are a lot of version control systems, and the choice of which one to choose is far from simple. Today the two biggest version control systems are Git and Subversion. In this paper we have found the main differences between the two, and investigated how the choice between them affects software developers. Although software developers in many aspects are unaffected by the choice, we did find some interesting findings. When using Git, our empirical study shows that software developers seem to check in their code to the main repository more frequently than they do when using Subversion. We also found indications that software developers tend to use Subversion with a graphical interface, whereas the preferred interface for working with Git seems to be command-line. We were also surprised of how insignificant the learning aspect of the systems seems to be for the developers. Our goal with this paper is to provide a foundation to stand upon when choosing what version control system to use for a software project.

  • 519.
    Stade, Melanie
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Seyff, Norbert
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Albrecht, Oliver
    SEnerCon GmbH, DEU.
    Feedback Gathering from an Industrial Point of View2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 71-79Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback communication channels allow end-users to express their needs, which can be considered in software development and evolution. Although feedback gathering and analysis have been identified as an important topic and several researchers have started their investigation, information is scarce on how software companies currently elicit end-user feedback. In this study, we explore the experiences of software companies with respect to feedback gathering. The results of a case study and online survey indicate two sides of the same coin: On the one hand, most software companies are aware of the relevance of end-user feedback for software evolution and provide feedback channels, which allow end-users to communicate their needs and problems. On the other hand, the quantity and quality of the feedback received varies. We conclude that software companies still do not fully exploit the potential of end-user feedback for software development and evolution. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 520.
    Stade, Melanie
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Oriol, Marc
    Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Cabrera, Oscar
    Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ESP.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Schaniel, Ronnie
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Seyff, Norberg
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Schmidt, Oleg
    SEnerCon GmbH, DEU.
    Providing a user forum is not enough: First experiences of a software company with CrowdRE2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 164-169Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowd-based requirements engineering (CrowdRE) is promising to derive requirements by gathering and analyzing information from the crowd. Setting up CrowdRE in practice seems challenging, although first solutions to support CrowdRE exist. In this paper, we report on a German software company's experience on crowd involvement by using feedback communication channels and a monitoring solution for user-event data. In our case study, we identified several problem areas that a software company is confronted with to setup an environment for gathering requirements from the crowd. We conclude that a CrowdRE process cannot be implemented ad-hoc and that future work is needed to create and analyze a continuous feedback and monitoring data stream. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 521.
    Starefors, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    MLID: A multilabelextension of the ID3 algorithm2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractMachine learning is a subfield within artificial intelligence that revolves around constructingalgorithms that can learn from, and make predictions on data. Instead of following strict andstatic instruction, the system operates by adapting and learning from input data in order tomake predictions and decisions. This work will focus on a subcategory of machine learningcalled “MultilabelClassification”, which is the concept of where items introduced to thesystem is categorized by an analytical model, learned through supervised learning, whereeach instance of the dataset can belong to multiple labels, or classes.This paper presents the task of implementing a multilabelclassifier based on the ID3algorithm, which we call MLID (MultilabelIterative Dichotomiser). The solution is presentedboth in a sequentially executed version as well as an parallelized one.We also presents acomparison based on accuracy and execution time, that is performed against algorithms of asimilar nature in order to evaluate the viability of using ID3 as a base to further expand andbuild upon in regards of multi label classification.In order to evaluate the performance of the MLID algorithm, we have measured theexecution time, accuracy, and made a summarization of precision and recall into what iscalled Fmeasure,which is the harmonic mean of both precision and sensitivity of thealgorithm. These results are then compared to already defined and established algorithms,on a range of datasets of varying sizes, in order to assess the viability of the MLID algorithm.The results produced when comparing MLID against other multilabelalgorithms such asBinary relevance, Classifier Chains and Random Trees shows that MLID can compete withother classifiers in term of accuracy and Fmeasure,but in terms of training the algorithm,the time required is proven inferior. Through these results, we can conclude that MLID is aviable option to use as a multilabelclassifier. Although, some constraints inherited from theoriginal ID3 algorithm does impede the full utility of the algorithm, we are certain thatfollowing the same path of development and improvement as ID3 experienced would allowMLID to develop towards a suitable choice of algorithm for a diverse range of multilabelclassification problems.

  • 522.
    Strandberg, Jane
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lyckne, Mattias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Webbsäkerhet och vanliga brister: kunskapsläget bland utvecklare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    This bachelor thesis looks at developers knowledge about web security both regarding their own view on their knowledge and their actual knowledge about vulnerabilities and how you mitigate against them. Web developers knowledge regarding web security are becoming more and more important as more applications and services moves to the web and more and more items become connected to the internet. We are doing this by conducting a survey among developers that are currently studying in the field or are working in the field to get a grip on how the knowledge is regarding the most common security concepts. What we saw was that the result varies between the different concepts and many lack much of the knowledge in web security that is getting increasingly more important to have.

  • 523.
    Sulaman, Sardar Muhammad
    et al.
    Lund University, SWE.
    Beer, Armin
    Beer Test Consulting, AUT.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Höst, Martin
    Lund University, SWE.
    Comparison of the FMEA and STPA safety analysis methods: a case study2019Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 349-387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As our society becomes more and more dependent on IT systems, failures of these systems can harm more and more people and organizations. Diligently performing risk and hazard analysis helps to minimize the potential harm of IT system failures on the society and increases the probability of their undisturbed operation. Risk and hazard analysis is an important activity for the development and operation of critical software intensive systems, but the increased complexity and size puts additional requirements on the effectiveness of risk and hazard analysis methods. This paper presents a qualitative comparison of two hazard analysis methods, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and system theoretic process analysis (STPA), using case study research methodology. Both methods have been applied on the same forward collision avoidance system to compare the effectiveness of the methods and to investigate what are the main differences between them. Furthermore, this study also evaluates the analysis process of both methods by using a qualitative criteria derived from the technology acceptance model (TAM). The results of the FMEA analysis were compared to the results of the STPA analysis, which were presented in a previous study. Both analyses were conducted on the same forward collision avoidance system. The comparison shows that FMEA and STPA deliver similar analysis results.

  • 524.
    Sun, Tao
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Product Context Analysis with Twitter Data2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. For the product manager, the product context analysis, which aims to align their products to the market needs, is very important. By understanding the market needs, the product manager knows the product context information about the environment the products conceived and the business the products take place. The product context analysis using the product context information helps the product manager find the accurate position of his/her products and support the decision-making of the products. The product context information generally could be found in the user feedbacks. And the traditional techniques of acquiring the user feedbacks can be replaced by collecting the existed online user feedbacks with a cheaper cost. Therefore, researchers did studies on the online user feedbacks and the results showed those user feedbacks contain the product context information. Therefore, in this study, I tried to elicit the product context information from the user feedbacks posted on Twitter.

    Objectives. Objectives of this study are 1. I investigated what kinds of Apps can be used to collect   more related Tweets, and 2. I investigated what kinds of product context information can be elicited from the collected Tweets.

    Methods. To achieve the first objective, I designed unified criteria for selecting Apps and collecting App-related Tweets, and then conduct the statistical analysis to find out what is/are the factor(s) affect (s) the Tweets collection. To achieve the second objective, I conducted the directed content analysis on the collected Tweets with an indicator for identifying the product context information, and then make a descriptive statistical analysis of the elicited product context information.

    Results. I found the top-ranked Apps or Apps in few themes like “Health and Fitness” and “Games” have more and fresher App-related Tweets. And from my collected Tweets, I can elicit at least 15 types of product context information, the types include “user experience”, “use case”, “partner”, “competitor”, “platforms” and so on.

    Conclusions. This is an exploratory study of eliciting product context information from the Tweets. It presented the method of collecting the App-related Tweets and eliciting product context information from the collected Tweets. It showed what kinds of App are suitable to do so and what types of product context information can be elicited from the Tweets. This study let us be aware of that the Tweets can be used for the product context analysis, and let us know the appropriate condition to use the Tweets for the product context analysis.

  • 525.
    Sundelin, Anders
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Test-Driving FinTech Product Development: An Experience Report2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Ciolkowski M.,Hebig R.,Kuhrmann M.,Pfahl D.,Tell P.,Amasaki S.,Kupper S.,Schneider K.,Klunder J., Springer, 2018, Vol. 112171, s. 219-226Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present experiences from eight years of developing a financial transaction engine, using what can be described as an integration-test-centric software development process.We discuss the product and the relation between three different categories of its software and how the relative weight of these artifacts has varied over the years.In addition to the presentation, some challenges and future research directions are discussed.

  • 526.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A model for assessing and re-assessing the value of software reuse2017Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 29, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software reuse is often seen as a cost avoidance rather than a gained value. This results in a rather one-sided debate where issues such a resource control, release schedule, quality, or reuse in more than one release are neglected. Aims: We propose a reuse value assessment framework, intended to provide a more nuanced view of the value and costs associated with different reuse candidates. Method: This framework is constructed based on findings from an interview study at a large software development company. Results: The framework considers the functionality, compliance to standards, provided quality, and provided support of a reuse candidate, thus enabling an informed comparison between different reuse candidates. Furthermore, the framework provides means for tracking the value of the reused asset throughout subsequent releases. Conclusions: The reuse value assessment framework is a tool to assist in the selection between different reuse candidates. The framework also provides a means to assess the current value of a reusable asset in a product, which can be used to indicate where maintenance efforts would increase the utilized potential of the reusable asset.

  • 527.
    Svedklint, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Bellstrand, Magnus
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Prestanda och webbramverk2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöktes det tio vanliga ramverk inom webb branschen, både de mest använda ramverken samt några nya uppstickare som har växt mycket de senaste åren. För att skala upp en hemsida till många användare är det viktigt att strukturen bakom sidan presterar bra, därför är det viktigt att välja rätt ramverk. Så hur ska en webbutvecklare då välja ramverk för att kunna uppnå en bra prestanda? Det är allmänt känt att användare lämnar sidor när responstiden ökar. Prestandan försämras snabbt när dynamiskt innehåll hanteras, vilket medför ökade hårdvarukostnader för att kunna hantera prestanda problemen. För att lösa detta så bidrar denna undersökning med riktlinjer för valet av rätt ramverk. Genom att prestandatester utfördes på tio utvalda ramverk, och där efter listades de snabbaste ramverken blev det ett resultat som visar på det ramverk som presterar bäst. Det utfördes även en observation av installationens utförande för att få reda på problematik som kan uppstå när respektive ramverk installeras. Det noterades även hur bra respektive ramverks manual hjälpte till för att guida installationen och att lösa problem som uppstod under installationen och konfigurationen av ramverken.

  • 528.
    Svensgård, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Henriksson, Johannes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mocking SaaS Cloud for Testing2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we evaluate how software testing is affected by the usage of a mock-object, a dummy implementation of a real object, in place of having data in a cloud that is accessed through an API. We define the problems for testing that having data in the cloud brings, which of these problems a mock-object can remedy and what problems there are with testing using the mock-object. We also evaluate if testing using the mock-object can find the same faults as testing against the cloud and if the same code can be covered by the tests. This is done at Blekinge Institute of Technology(BTH) by creating an integration system for the company Cybercom Sweden and Karlskrona Municipality. This integration system is made in C# and works by syncing schedules from Novaschem to a cloud service, Google Calendar. With this paper we show that a mock-object in place of a cloud is very useful for testing when it comes to clean-up, triggering certain states and to avoid query limitations.

  • 529.
    Svensson Sand, Kim
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Eliasson, Tord
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A comparison of functional and object-orientedprogramming paradigms in JavaScript2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple programming paradigms that have their own set rules forhow code should be written. Programming languages utilize one or multiple ofthese paradigms. In this thesis, we will compare object-oriented programming,that is the most used today with languages such as C++ and Java, and functionalprogramming. Functional programming was introduced in the 1950's butsuered from performance issues, and has not been used much except for in theacademic world. However, for its ability to handle concurrency and big data,functional programming is of interest in the industry again with languages suchas Scala. In functional programming side effects, any interaction outside of thefunction, are avoided as well as changing and saving state.

    To compare these paradigms we have chosen four dierent algorithms, whichboth of us have implemented twice, once according to object-oriented programmingand once according to functional programming. All algorithms were implementedJavaScript. JavaScript is a multiparadigm language that supportsboth functional and object-oriented programming. For all implementations,we have measured development time, lines of code, execution time and memoryusage. Our results show that object-oriented programming gave us betterperformance, but functional programming resulted in less code and a shorterdevelopment time.

  • 530.
    Swahn, Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Pthreads and OpenMP: A  performance and productivity study2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today most computer have a multicore processor and are depending on parallel execution to be able to keep up with the demanding tasks that exist today, that forces developers to write software that can take advantage of multicore systems. There are multiple programming languages and frameworks that makes it possible to execute the code in parallel on different threads, this study looks at the performance and effort required to work with two of the frameworks that are available to the C programming language, POSIX Threads(Pthreads) and OpenMP. The performance is measured by paralleling three algorithms, Matrix multiplication, Quick Sort and calculation of the Mandelbrot set using both Pthreads and OpenMP, and comparing first against a sequential version and then the parallel version against each other. The effort required to modify the sequential program using OpenMP and Pthreads is measured in number of lines the final source code has. The results shows that OpenMP does perform better than Pthreads in Matrix Multiplication and Mandelbrot set calculation but not on Quick Sort because OpenMP has problem with recursion and Pthreads does not. OpenMP wins the effort required on all the tests but because there is a large performance difference between OpenMP and Pthreads on Quick Sort OpenMP cannot be recommended for paralleling Quick Sort or other recursive programs. 

  • 531.
    Tanveer, Binish
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn IESE, DEU.
    Vollmer, Anna Maria
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn IESE, DEU.
    Braun, Stefan
    Insiders Technol GmBH, DEU.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An evaluation of effort estimation supported by change impact analysis in agile software development2019Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 31, nr 5, artikkel-id e2165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In agile software development, functionality is added to the system in an incremental and iterative manner. Practitioners often rely on expert judgment to estimate the effort in this context. However, the impact of a change on the existing system can provide objective information to practitioners to arrive at an informed estimate. In this regard, we have developed a hybrid method, that utilizes change impact analysis information for improving effort estimation. We also developed an estimation model based on gradient boosted trees (GBT). In this study, we evaluate the performance and usefulness of our hybrid method with tool support and the GBT model in a live iteration at Insiders Technologies GmbH, a German software company. Additionally, the solution was also assessed for perceived usefulness and understandability in a study with graduate and post-graduate students. The results from the industrial evaluation show that the proposed method produces more accurate estimates than only expert-based or only model-based estimates. Furthermore, both students and practitioners perceived the usefulness and understandability of the method positively.

  • 532.
    Tempero, Ewan
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, NZL.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, GRC.
    Barriers to Refactoring2017Inngår i: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 60, nr 10, s. 54-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    REFACTORING(6) IS SOMETHING software developers like to do. They refactor a lot. But do they refactor as much as they would like? Are there barriers that prevent them from doing so? Refactoring is an important tool for improving quality. Many development methodologies rely on refactoring, especially for agile methodologies but also in more plan-driven organizations. If barriers exist, they would undermine the effectiveness of many product-development organizations. We conducted a large-scale survey in 2009 of 3,785 practitioners' use of object-oriented concepts, 7 including questions as to whether they would refactor to deal with certain design problems. We expected either that practitioners would tell us our choice of design principles was inappropriate for basing a refactoring decision or that refactoring is the right decision to take when designs were believed to have quality problems. However, we were told the decision of whether or not to refactor was due to non-design considerations. It is now eight years since the survey, but little has changed in integrated development environment (IDE) support for refactoring, and what has changed has done little to address the barriers we identified.

  • 533.
    Thalanki, Pavan Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Maddukuri, Vinay Kiran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Classifying Research on UML model Inconsistencies with Systematic Mapping2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a universal and standard modeling language that has been extensively used in software development process. Due to overlap and synchronous nature among different modeling artefacts in UML, several consistency issues have been identified in many software development projects that may lead to project failure. To reduce the level of such threat, over the past decade, a substantial research addressing those problems has been done both in academic and industry. This study is intended to investigate the reported research and to provide a systematic picture on different researched aspects of UML model inconsistencies, using the systematic mapping method. Objectives: The overall goal was to be achieved by fulfilling the following two main objectives: elaborating a proper and justified tool for performing the mapping and later used the tool in order to obtain a systematic and multidimensional picture of the approaches and the performed research in the area relating to different issues considering inconsistencies when using UML in software development. Research Methods: In order to ensure quality of the final foreseen systematic picture of the conducted research, a considerable effort was put first on a preparation of the tool that was used to obtain the mapping. The tool was a rigorous process based on classification methods and mapping guidelines obtained from a systematic literature review on the systematic mapping in software engineering. Then the tool was applied in a systematic way to obtain a number of mappings, followed by the analysis of the obtained results. Results: The systematic literature review resulted in identifying 5 mapping guidelines, 21 classifications, and 2 categorization methods. After analysis of them, a justified mapping process was developed by selecting standard guidelines, appropriate classifications and categorization methods. The mapping process applied for the period of 1999-2012 revealed 198 relevant studies developed by 321 researchers. On the basis this evidences, a number of mappings illustrating the conducted research on UML model inconsistencies ware obtained. The mapping reviled that the published research is mostly focused on rather formal issues such as semantic, syntactic, intramodel, inter-model and evolution problems, while a less attention is placed on more practical on time, and security problems. When the quality of research is concerned, 38% of papers proposed solutions as well as validated them through academic, industry or both, 35% of papers proposed only solutions. When the usage of empirical methods is considered, case studies are most frequently used (in almost half of the relevant papers) and followed by experiments (reported in 15% of papers), while 25% carried works do on report a systematic method used. Conclusions: The findings of systematic mapping study revealed that there are some aspect related to consistency such as time and security that are not given big attention. Identification and in-depth studying of inconsistencies in UML designs along with their dependencies are also missing. Most of the investigations are also academic with no evidence whether these reports produce interest for industry or not. State-of-the-art followed by state-of-the-practice studies related to consistency checking techniques and validating them in real industrial setting could be recommended.

  • 534.
    Thorén, Emma
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Brännlund Stål, Filip
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Usage of Angular from developer’s perspective: Based on a literature and empirical study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Usage of frameworks is a crucial technology to be successful in developing business, Angular has exploded in usage because of its unique features. To give an as accurate knowledge as possible this essay contains a literature study of reliable references. The essay also contains an empirical study based on developers own perspective of Angular. With the help of this essay you will have the opportunity to choose which version of Angular suits your company best. With help from our responders we understand that Angular 2 is efficient and unique framework, we believe it will take Angular 2 a few years to be a standard technology at companies.

  • 535. Thuemmler, C.
    et al.
    Mival, O.
    Lim, A. K.
    Holanec, I.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A social-technological alignment matrix2015Inngår i: IEEE 16th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services, Healthcom 2014, 2015, Vol. Article number 7001841, s. 200-205Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper refers to the term ’implementation’ as the process of integrating a new technology into established workfows. Especially in health care this has proven to be a very critical phase and many large-scale projects have failed on this very last mile. Although strategies such as requirements engineering, co-designing and user interaction design have been proposed to reduce the risk of end-user rejection and subsequently project failur. There is still no tool to analyze, predict and quantify user acceptance and identify critical areas which might be addressed before the start of the implementation phase in order to reduce resistance and increase the effectiveness and effciency. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 536.
    Thümmler, Christoph
    et al.
    Technical University Munich, Munich, Geremany.
    Keow Lim, A.
    Celestor Ltd, UK.
    Holanec, Ivo
    Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, Edinburgh, UK.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Methodology to Assess Social Technological Alignment in the Health Domain2016Inngår i: Innovation and Research in BioMedical Engineering, ISSN 1959-0318, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 232-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been longstanding discussions whether social or technological factors eventually determine the speed of innovation, in particular when it comes to implementation. In order to identify and quantify potential resistance and implementation risks in the health domain we propose a set of key parameters, which are measurable in both – the social and the technological dimensions. Following a meta-analysis we identified the following parameters to be of relevance: readiness, shared values, motivation, elasticity, control and time. All these parameters are scalable and measurable in both dimensions with existing tools. Mapping and comparison of the social and technological dimensions of these parameters might allow conclusions on how far the social and technological dimensions of these parameters are aligned and where potential difficulties during the implementation have to be expected. (This paper refers to the technical term “implementation” as the process of integrating a new technology into established workflows).

  • 537.
    Tigulla, Anil Reddy
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kalidasu, Satya Srinivas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Evaluating Efficiency Quality Attribute in Open Source Web browsers2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Now a day’s end users are using different types of computer applications like web browsers, data processing tools like MS office, notepad etc., to do their day-to-day works. In the real world scenario, the usage of Open Source Software (OSS) products by both industrial people and end users are gradually increasing. The success of any OSS products depends on its quality standards. ‘Efficiency’ is one of the key quality factor, which portray the standards of product and it is observed that this factor is given little importance during its development. Therefore our research context lies within evaluating the efficiency quality attribute in OSS web browsers. Objectives: As discussed earlier the context of this research lies in evaluating the efficiency of OSS web browsers, the initial objective was to identify the available efficiency measures from the current literature and observe which type of measures are suitable for web browsers. Then our next objective is to compute values for the identified efficiency measures by considering a set of predefined web browsers from all the categories. Later we proposed Efficiency Baseline Criteria (EBC) and based on this criterion and experiment results obtained, the efficiency of OSS web browsers had been evaluated. Therefore the main objective of conducting this research is to formulate EBC guidelines, which can be later used by OSS developers to test their web browsers and ensure that all the quality standards are strictly adhered during the development of OSS products. Methods: Initially Literature Review (LR) was conducted in order to identify all the related efficiency quality attributes and also observe the sub-attribute functionalities, that are useful while measuring efficiency values of web browsers. Methods and procedures which are discussed in this LR are used as input for identifying efficiency measures that are related to web browsers. Later an experiment was performed in order to calculate efficiency values for CSS & proprietary set of web browsers (i.e. Case A) and OSS web browsers (i.e. Case B) by using different tools and procedures. Authors themselves had calculated efficiency values for both Case A and Case B web browsers. Based on the results of Case A web browsers, EBC was proposed and finally an statistical analysis (i.e. Mann Whitney U-test) is performed in order to evaluate the hypothesis which was formulated in experiment section. Results: From the LR study, it is observed that efficiency quality attribute is classified into two main categories (i.e. Time Behavior and Resource Utilization). Further under the category of Time behavior a total of 3 attributes were identified (i.e. Response time, Throughput and Turnaround time). From the results of LR, we had also observed the measuring process of each attribute for different web browsers. Later an experiment was performed on two different sets of web browsers (i.e. Case A and Case B web browsers). Based on the LR results, only 3 efficiency attributes (i.e. response time, memory utilization and throughput) were identified which are more suitable to the case of web browsers. These 3 efficiency attributes are further classified into 10 sub-categories. Efficiency values are calculated to both Case A and B for these 10 identified scenarios. Later from Case A results EBC values are generated. Finally hypothesis testing was done by initially performing K-S test and results suggest choosing non-parametric test (i.e. Mann Whitney U-test). Later Mann Whitney U-test was performed for all the scenarios and the normalized Z scores are more than 1.96, further suggested rejecting null hypothesis for all the 10 scenarios. Also EBC values are compared with Case B results and these also suggest us that efficiency standard of OSS web browsers are not equivalent to Case A web browsers. Conclusions: Based on quantitative results, we conclude that efficiency standards of OSS web browsers are not equivalent, when compared to Case A web browsers and the efficiency standards are not adhered during development process. Hence OSS developers should focus on implementing efficiency standards during the development stages itself in order to increase the quality of the end products. The major contribution from the two researchers to this area of research is “Efficiency Baseline Criteria”. The proposed EBC values are useful for OSS developers to test the efficiency standards of their web browser and also help them to analyze their shortcomings. As a result appropriate preventive measures can be planned in advance.

  • 538.
    Timsina, Achyuta
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Prajapati, Shree Dimna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mobile Applications Evolution2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to improved computing power, connectivity and interaction capability of mobile devices, their popularity and general acceptance in mass population has increased in recent years. Mobile applications are software systems running on mobile hand-held devices such as smart phones and tablets. Due to obvious differences in mobile applications, the evolution studies on them is of high importance. The primary objective is to study and compare the mobile applications evolution with the Lehman's laws of software evolution. Next is to identify and report how the software development team size influences mobile applications evolution. The study is conducted on 9 different open source mobile applications among which 5 were developed by single core developer and 4 were developed by multiple core developers. The selected projects' code repository is cloned into local copy and a number of tools are used on those repositories for extraction of relevant metrics from the artifacts. The Lehman laws are tested graphically, analytically and in some cases statistically. Six of the Lehman's laws are tested for validation in sample mobile applications. Among the six laws, I-Continuing Change is found supportive, III-Self Regulation and VI-Continuing Growth are found partial supportive in mobile applications. The II-Increasing complexity and V-Conservation of Familiarity are inconclusive. The IV-Conservation of Organizational Stability is not supportive in our sample mobile applications. Moreover, mobile applications are developed by a single or a few developers. Small team mobile projects have less time between releases compared to large team projects. The growth pattern of mobile applications is different than that predicted by Lehman laws.

  • 539.
    Tomalik, Edyta
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Image-based Microscale Particle Velocimetry in Live Cell Microscopy2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nowadays, one of the medical problem is rolling cell adhesion. Rolling cell adhesion is a complex process that requires the analysis of the challenging environment such as body fluid and is the process responsible for recruiting the cell to specific organs. In order to explore the rolling cell adhesion, mathematical model is proposed. Different image processing methods are created, such as optical flow - Lucas Kanade algorithm, and other type of methods related to mechanical fluid, namely PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry). Aim: The aim of this master thesis is the identification of challenges while using PIV in live cell images and propose the algorithm, which may analyze the rolling cell adhesion problem. Methods: In order to understand properly the rolling cell adhesion problem from biological site, literature review combined with the expert consultation is performed. According to gather information, mathematical model is proposed. Particle Image Velocimetry is explained according to literature review, where at the beginning the expert recommends some books as a primary research. As a result of this research, PIV challenges are identified and generally PIV idea is explained. Then two experiments are performed. The first experiment evaluates detection algorithms and the second one, analyses track algorithm vs. PIV. In order to evaluate the mentioned algorithms, some evaluation method are selected and some criteria are defined. Unfortunately the found methods are not perfect, therefore a new method related to performance evaluation using time series is proposed. Thesis result: The result of this thesis is a proposition of the algorithm, which can be used in the rolling cell adhesion. The algorithm is formed according to the detailed exploration of the rolling cell adhesion and analysis of the selected algorithms related to the image analysis during the theoretical research and experiments.

  • 540.
    Tornberg, Peder
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Self-organizing Distributed Team: Working agile and effective2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In order for a software development team to be successful, cost effective and perform effectively the team needs to coordinate and communicate sufficiently in order to compensate for the obstacles that a distributed team face. The focus of this report is to observe a distributed team as they try to overcome the obstacles that a distributed team face when it comes to coordination and collaboration. The team is being observed as they try to overcome those obstacles while working on a project for a client in another country. Methods, processes and tools are introduced in order for the team to become a self-organizing distributed team that works agile and effective. With the team being observed throughout the course of the project and the literature review on the subject, this report will analyze the team and the methods used in order to come to a conclusion on what enables a distributed team to become a self-organizing team that works agile and effective in a international market.

    There are obstacles that a distributed self-organizing team face. With efficient communication methods and tools for coordination the team can become a strong self-organizing team that works agile and productive.

  • 541.
    Tran, Huynh Khanh Vi
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Test-Case Quality: Understanding Practitioners’ Perspectives2019Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Franch X.,Mannisto T.,Martinez-Fernandez S., Springer , 2019, Vol. 11915, s. 37-52Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Test-case quality has always been one of the major concerns in software testing. To improve test-case quality, it is important to better understand how practitioners perceive the quality of test-cases. Objective: Motivated by that need, we investigated how practitioners define test-case quality and which aspects of test-cases are important for quality assessment. Method: We conducted semi-structured interviews with professional developers, testers and test architects from a multinational software company in Sweden. Before the interviews, we asked participants for actual test cases (written in natural language) that they perceive as good, normal, and bad respectively together with rationales for their assessment. We also compared their opinions on shared test cases and contrasted their views with the relevant literature. Results: We present a quality model which consists of 11 test-case quality attributes. We also identify a misalignment in defining test-case quality among practitioners and between academia and industry, along with suggestions for improving test-case quality in industry. Conclusion: The results show that practitioners’ background, including roles and working experience, are critical dimensions of how test-case quality is defined and assessed. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 542.
    Tripathi, Nirnaya
    et al.
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Oivo, Markku
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Pompermaier, Leandro Bento
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Kudakacheril, Arun Sojan
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Liukkunen, Kari
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An anatomy of requirements engineering in software startups using multi-vocal literature and case survey2018Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, s. 130-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software startups aim to develop innovative products, grow rapidly, and thus become important in the development of economy and jobs. Requirements engineering (RE) is a key process area in software development, but its effects on software startups are unclear. Objective: The main objective of this study was to explore how RE (elicitation, documentation, prioritization and validation) is used in software startups. Method: A multi-vocal literature review (MLR) was used to find scientific and gray literature. In addition, a case survey was employed to gather empirical data to reach this study's objective. Results: In the MLR, 36 primary articles were selected out of 28,643 articles. In the case survey, 80 respondents provided information about software startup cases across the globe. Data analysis revealed that during RE processes, internal sources (e.g., for source), analyses of similar products (e.g., elicitation), uses of informal notes (e.g., for documentation), values to customers, products and stakeholders (e.g., for prioritization) and internal reviews/prototypes (e.g., for validation) were the most used techniques. Conclusion: After an analysis of primary literature, it was concluded that research on this topic is still in early stages and more systematic research is needed. Furthermore, few topics were suggested for future research. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 543.
    Truszczynski, Mateusz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Identifying Solutions for  Customer – Supplier Communication Problems in  Agile Software Projects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. There are several methods of developing software in a systematic, engineering way. One of them are traditional methods such as waterfall. Nowadays, more common are becoming agile methodologies. Agile aims at addressing and improving a communication in software projects. However, customer - supplier communication in software projects still causes many difficulties.

    Objectives. In this study I wanted to identify basic customer – supplier communication problems that agile practitioners encounter in agile software projects. I also wanted to provide basic guidelines based on identified, prioritized problems and identified, prioritized solutions.

    Methods. Using recently published journal articles and conference proceedings  I identify customer – supplier communication problems that agile practitioners encounter in agile software projects. In order to identify solutions, and also prioritize the identified problems I used a survey. Then, based on analysis of results of the survey foreseen guidelines were synthesized. 

    Results. Literature study resulted in the identification of eight customer – supplier communication problems that agile practitioners encounter in agile software projects. The survey provided critical weighted evaluation of the problems and also suggested solutions to the problems. The obtained weighted results were used to develop the basic guidelines together with suggested solutions to each of them.

    Conclusions. The research was designed to help agile practitioners in their communication with a customer. The obtained results provide basic and starting guidelines that are based on the experience of the agile practitioners. That can be further extended based on future local and individual experience of agile practitioners.

  • 544. Tümmler, Christoph
    et al.
    Mival, Oli
    Lim Jumelle, Ai Keow
    Holanec, Ivo
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Social Technological Aligment Matrix2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper refers to the term “implementation” as the process of integrating a new technology into established workflows. Especially in health care this has proven to be a very critical phase and many large-scale projects have failed on this very last mile. Although strategies such as requirements engineering, co-designing and user interaction design have been proposed to reduce the risk of end-user rejection and subsequently project failur. There is still no tool to analyze, predict and quantify user acceptance and identify critical areas which might be addressed before the start of the implementation phase in order to reduce resistance and increase the effectiveness and efficiency.

  • 545. Ulziit, B.a
    et al.
    Warraich, Z.A.b
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A conceptual framework of challenges and solutions for managing global software maintenance2015Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 27, nr 10, s. 763-792Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Software maintenance process in globally distributed settings brings significant management challenges to software organizations. Objectives Investigate the factors specific to managing software maintenance process in globally distributed settings and best practices in software organizations. Method A systematic literature review and interviews with industry practitioners were conducted. For analysis and synthesis, the grounded theory method was used. Results We identified a number of management challenges and mitigation strategies and then classified them under people, process, product, and technology factors. Overall, a structure of challenges and solutions, the conceptual framework, has been developed that may be used to understand and classify global maintenance challenges. Conclusions Distributed software maintenance process has specific management challenges in relation to process, people, product, and technology. Therefore, companies performing maintenance in distributed settings should consider these factors, which are not present in the general global software development literature, although many lessons apply to both. © 2015 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  • 546.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Coordinating requirements engineering and software testing2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large, software-intensive systems is a complex undertaking that is generally tackled by a divide and conquer strategy. Organizations face thereby the challenge of coordinating the resources which enable the individual aspects of software development, commonly solved by adopting a particular process model. The alignment between requirements engineering (RE) and software testing (ST) activities is of particular interest as those two aspects are intrinsically connected: requirements are an expression of user/customer needs while testing increases the likelihood that those needs are actually satisfied.

    The work in this thesis is driven by empirical problem identification, analysis and solution development towards two main objectives. The first is to develop an understanding of RE and ST alignment challenges and characteristics. Building this foundation is a necessary step that facilitates the second objective, the development of solutions relevant and scalable to industry practice that improve REST alignment.

    The research methods employed to work towards these objectives are primarily empirical. Case study research is used to elicit data from practitioners while technical action research and field experiments are conducted to validate the developed  solutions in practice.

    This thesis contains four main contributions: (1) An in-depth study on REST alignment challenges and practices encountered in industry. (2) A conceptual framework in the form of a taxonomy providing constructs that further our understanding of REST alignment. The taxonomy is operationalized in an assessment framework, REST-bench (3), that was designed to be lightweight and can be applied as a postmortem in closing development projects. (4) An extensive investigation into the potential of information retrieval techniques to improve test coverage, a common REST alignment challenge, resulting in a solution prototype, risk-based testing supported by topic models (RiTTM).

    REST-bench has been validated in five cases and has shown to be efficient and effective in identifying improvement opportunities in the coordination of RE and ST. Most of the concepts operationalized from the REST taxonomy were found to be useful, validating the conceptual framework. RiTTM, on the other hand, was validated in a single case experiment where it has shown great potential, in particular by identifying test cases that were originally overlooked by expert test engineers, improving effectively test coverage.

  • 547.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Wang, XiaoFeng
    Nguyen-Duc, Anh
    Shah, Syed
    Bajwa, Sohaib Shahid
    Baltes, Guido H.
    Conboy, Kieran
    Cullina, Eoin
    Dennehy, Denis
    Edison, Henry
    Fernandez-Sanchez, Carlos
    Garbajosa, Juan
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Hokkanen, Laura
    Kon, Fabio
    Lunesu, Ilaria
    Marchesi, Michele
    Morgan, Lorraine
    Oivo, Markku
    Selig, Christoph
    Seppänen, Pertti
    Sweetman, Roger
    Tyrväinen, Pasi
    Ungerer, Christina
    Yagüe, Agustin
    Software Startups: A Research Agenda2016Inngår i: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 89-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software startup companies develop innovative, software-intensive products within limited timeframes and with few resources, searching for sustainable and scalable business models. Software startups are quite distinct from traditional mature software companies, but also from micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises, introducing new challenges relevant for software engineering research. This paper’s research agenda focuses on software engineering in startups, identifying, in particular, 70+ research questions in the areas of supporting startup engineering activities, startup evolution models and patterns, ecosystems and innovation hubs, human aspects in software startups, applying startup concepts in non-startup environments, and methodologies and theories for startup research. We connect and motivate this research agenda with past studies in software startup research, while pointing out possible future directions. While all authors of this research agenda have their main background in Software Engineering or Computer Science, their interest in software startups broadens the perspective to the challenges, but also to the opportunities that emerge from multi-disciplinary research. Our audience is therefore primarily software engineering researchers, even though we aim at stimulating collaborations and research that crosses disciplinary boundaries. We believe that with this research agenda we cover a wide spectrum of the software startup industry current needs.

  • 548.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Large-scale Information Retrieval in Software Engineering - An Experience Report from Industrial Application2016Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 2324-2365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software Engineering activities are information intensive. Research proposes Information Retrieval (IR) techniques to support engineers in their daily tasks, such as establishing and maintaining traceability links, fault identification, and software maintenance. Objective: We describe an engineering task, test case selection, and illustrate our problem analysis and solution discovery process. The objective of the study is to gain an understanding of to what extent IR techniques (one potential solution) can be applied to test case selection and provide decision support in a large-scale, industrial setting. Method: We analyze, in the context of the studied company, how test case selection is performed and design a series of experiments evaluating the performance of different IR techniques. Each experiment provides lessons learned from implementation, execution, and results, feeding to its successor. Results: The three experiments led to the following observations: 1) there is a lack of research on scalable parameter optimization of IR techniques for software engineering problems; 2) scaling IR techniques to industry data is challenging, in particular for latent semantic analysis; 3) the IR context poses constraints on the empirical evaluation of IR techniques, requiring more research on developing valid statistical approaches. Conclusions: We believe that our experiences in conducting a series of IR experiments with industry grade data are valuable for peer researchers so that they can avoid the pitfalls that we have encountered. Furthermore, we identified challenges that need to be addressed in order to bridge the gap between laboratory IR experiments and real applications of IR in the industry.

  • 549.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Process Improvement Archaeology: What led us here and what’s next?2018Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 53-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While in every organization corporate culture and history change over time, intentional efforts to identifyperformance problems are of particular interest when trying to understand the current state of an organization.The results of past improvement initiatives can shed light on the evolution of an organization, and represent,with the advantage of perfect hindsight, a learning opportunity for future process improvements. Weencountered the opportunity to test this premise in an applied research collaboration with the SwedishTransport Administration (STA), the government agency responsible for the planning, implementation andmaintenance of long-term rail, road, shipping and aviation infrastructure in Sweden.

  • 550.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Requirements quality assurance in industry: Why, what and how?2017Inngår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer, 2017, Vol. 10153, s. 77-84Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context and Motivation: Natural language is the most common form to specify requirements in industry. The quality of the specification depends on the capability of the writer to formulate requirements aimed at different stakeholders: they are an expression of the customer’s needs that are used by analysts, designers and testers. Given this central role of requirements as a mean to communicate intention, assuring their quality is essential to reduce misunderstandings that lead to potential waste. Problem: Quality assurance of requirement specifications is largely a manual effort that requires expertise and domain knowledge. However, this demanding cognitive process is also congested by trivial quality issues that should not occur in the first place. Principal ideas: We propose a taxonomy of requirements quality assurance complexity that characterizes cognitive load of verifying a quality aspect from the human perspective, and automation complexity and accuracy from the machine perspective. Contribution: Once this taxonomy is realized and validated, it can serve as the basis for a decision framework of automated requirements quality assurance support.

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