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  • 501.
    Svedklint, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Bellstrand, Magnus
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Prestanda och webbramverk2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöktes det tio vanliga ramverk inom webb branschen, både de mest använda ramverken samt några nya uppstickare som har växt mycket de senaste åren. För att skala upp en hemsida till många användare är det viktigt att strukturen bakom sidan presterar bra, därför är det viktigt att välja rätt ramverk. Så hur ska en webbutvecklare då välja ramverk för att kunna uppnå en bra prestanda? Det är allmänt känt att användare lämnar sidor när responstiden ökar. Prestandan försämras snabbt när dynamiskt innehåll hanteras, vilket medför ökade hårdvarukostnader för att kunna hantera prestanda problemen. För att lösa detta så bidrar denna undersökning med riktlinjer för valet av rätt ramverk. Genom att prestandatester utfördes på tio utvalda ramverk, och där efter listades de snabbaste ramverken blev det ett resultat som visar på det ramverk som presterar bäst. Det utfördes även en observation av installationens utförande för att få reda på problematik som kan uppstå när respektive ramverk installeras. Det noterades även hur bra respektive ramverks manual hjälpte till för att guida installationen och att lösa problem som uppstod under installationen och konfigurationen av ramverken.

  • 502.
    Svensgård, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Henriksson, Johannes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mocking SaaS Cloud for Testing2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we evaluate how software testing is affected by the usage of a mock-object, a dummy implementation of a real object, in place of having data in a cloud that is accessed through an API. We define the problems for testing that having data in the cloud brings, which of these problems a mock-object can remedy and what problems there are with testing using the mock-object. We also evaluate if testing using the mock-object can find the same faults as testing against the cloud and if the same code can be covered by the tests. This is done at Blekinge Institute of Technology(BTH) by creating an integration system for the company Cybercom Sweden and Karlskrona Municipality. This integration system is made in C# and works by syncing schedules from Novaschem to a cloud service, Google Calendar. With this paper we show that a mock-object in place of a cloud is very useful for testing when it comes to clean-up, triggering certain states and to avoid query limitations.

  • 503.
    Svensson Sand, Kim
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Eliasson, Tord
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A comparison of functional and object-orientedprogramming paradigms in JavaScript2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple programming paradigms that have their own set rules forhow code should be written. Programming languages utilize one or multiple ofthese paradigms. In this thesis, we will compare object-oriented programming,that is the most used today with languages such as C++ and Java, and functionalprogramming. Functional programming was introduced in the 1950's butsuered from performance issues, and has not been used much except for in theacademic world. However, for its ability to handle concurrency and big data,functional programming is of interest in the industry again with languages suchas Scala. In functional programming side effects, any interaction outside of thefunction, are avoided as well as changing and saving state.

    To compare these paradigms we have chosen four dierent algorithms, whichboth of us have implemented twice, once according to object-oriented programmingand once according to functional programming. All algorithms were implementedJavaScript. JavaScript is a multiparadigm language that supportsboth functional and object-oriented programming. For all implementations,we have measured development time, lines of code, execution time and memoryusage. Our results show that object-oriented programming gave us betterperformance, but functional programming resulted in less code and a shorterdevelopment time.

  • 504.
    Swahn, Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Pthreads and OpenMP: A  performance and productivity study2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today most computer have a multicore processor and are depending on parallel execution to be able to keep up with the demanding tasks that exist today, that forces developers to write software that can take advantage of multicore systems. There are multiple programming languages and frameworks that makes it possible to execute the code in parallel on different threads, this study looks at the performance and effort required to work with two of the frameworks that are available to the C programming language, POSIX Threads(Pthreads) and OpenMP. The performance is measured by paralleling three algorithms, Matrix multiplication, Quick Sort and calculation of the Mandelbrot set using both Pthreads and OpenMP, and comparing first against a sequential version and then the parallel version against each other. The effort required to modify the sequential program using OpenMP and Pthreads is measured in number of lines the final source code has. The results shows that OpenMP does perform better than Pthreads in Matrix Multiplication and Mandelbrot set calculation but not on Quick Sort because OpenMP has problem with recursion and Pthreads does not. OpenMP wins the effort required on all the tests but because there is a large performance difference between OpenMP and Pthreads on Quick Sort OpenMP cannot be recommended for paralleling Quick Sort or other recursive programs. 

  • 505.
    Tanveer, Binish
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn IESE, DEU.
    Vollmer, Anna Maria
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn IESE, DEU.
    Braun, Stefan
    Insiders Technol GmBH, DEU.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An evaluation of effort estimation supported by change impact analysis in agile software development2019Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 31, nr 5, artikkel-id e2165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In agile software development, functionality is added to the system in an incremental and iterative manner. Practitioners often rely on expert judgment to estimate the effort in this context. However, the impact of a change on the existing system can provide objective information to practitioners to arrive at an informed estimate. In this regard, we have developed a hybrid method, that utilizes change impact analysis information for improving effort estimation. We also developed an estimation model based on gradient boosted trees (GBT). In this study, we evaluate the performance and usefulness of our hybrid method with tool support and the GBT model in a live iteration at Insiders Technologies GmbH, a German software company. Additionally, the solution was also assessed for perceived usefulness and understandability in a study with graduate and post-graduate students. The results from the industrial evaluation show that the proposed method produces more accurate estimates than only expert-based or only model-based estimates. Furthermore, both students and practitioners perceived the usefulness and understandability of the method positively.

  • 506.
    Tempero, Ewan
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, NZL.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, GRC.
    Barriers to Refactoring2017Inngår i: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 60, nr 10, s. 54-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    REFACTORING(6) IS SOMETHING software developers like to do. They refactor a lot. But do they refactor as much as they would like? Are there barriers that prevent them from doing so? Refactoring is an important tool for improving quality. Many development methodologies rely on refactoring, especially for agile methodologies but also in more plan-driven organizations. If barriers exist, they would undermine the effectiveness of many product-development organizations. We conducted a large-scale survey in 2009 of 3,785 practitioners' use of object-oriented concepts, 7 including questions as to whether they would refactor to deal with certain design problems. We expected either that practitioners would tell us our choice of design principles was inappropriate for basing a refactoring decision or that refactoring is the right decision to take when designs were believed to have quality problems. However, we were told the decision of whether or not to refactor was due to non-design considerations. It is now eight years since the survey, but little has changed in integrated development environment (IDE) support for refactoring, and what has changed has done little to address the barriers we identified.

  • 507.
    Thalanki, Pavan Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Maddukuri, Vinay Kiran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Classifying Research on UML model Inconsistencies with Systematic Mapping2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a universal and standard modeling language that has been extensively used in software development process. Due to overlap and synchronous nature among different modeling artefacts in UML, several consistency issues have been identified in many software development projects that may lead to project failure. To reduce the level of such threat, over the past decade, a substantial research addressing those problems has been done both in academic and industry. This study is intended to investigate the reported research and to provide a systematic picture on different researched aspects of UML model inconsistencies, using the systematic mapping method. Objectives: The overall goal was to be achieved by fulfilling the following two main objectives: elaborating a proper and justified tool for performing the mapping and later used the tool in order to obtain a systematic and multidimensional picture of the approaches and the performed research in the area relating to different issues considering inconsistencies when using UML in software development. Research Methods: In order to ensure quality of the final foreseen systematic picture of the conducted research, a considerable effort was put first on a preparation of the tool that was used to obtain the mapping. The tool was a rigorous process based on classification methods and mapping guidelines obtained from a systematic literature review on the systematic mapping in software engineering. Then the tool was applied in a systematic way to obtain a number of mappings, followed by the analysis of the obtained results. Results: The systematic literature review resulted in identifying 5 mapping guidelines, 21 classifications, and 2 categorization methods. After analysis of them, a justified mapping process was developed by selecting standard guidelines, appropriate classifications and categorization methods. The mapping process applied for the period of 1999-2012 revealed 198 relevant studies developed by 321 researchers. On the basis this evidences, a number of mappings illustrating the conducted research on UML model inconsistencies ware obtained. The mapping reviled that the published research is mostly focused on rather formal issues such as semantic, syntactic, intramodel, inter-model and evolution problems, while a less attention is placed on more practical on time, and security problems. When the quality of research is concerned, 38% of papers proposed solutions as well as validated them through academic, industry or both, 35% of papers proposed only solutions. When the usage of empirical methods is considered, case studies are most frequently used (in almost half of the relevant papers) and followed by experiments (reported in 15% of papers), while 25% carried works do on report a systematic method used. Conclusions: The findings of systematic mapping study revealed that there are some aspect related to consistency such as time and security that are not given big attention. Identification and in-depth studying of inconsistencies in UML designs along with their dependencies are also missing. Most of the investigations are also academic with no evidence whether these reports produce interest for industry or not. State-of-the-art followed by state-of-the-practice studies related to consistency checking techniques and validating them in real industrial setting could be recommended.

  • 508.
    Thorén, Emma
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Brännlund Stål, Filip
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Usage of Angular from developer’s perspective: Based on a literature and empirical study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Usage of frameworks is a crucial technology to be successful in developing business, Angular has exploded in usage because of its unique features. To give an as accurate knowledge as possible this essay contains a literature study of reliable references. The essay also contains an empirical study based on developers own perspective of Angular. With the help of this essay you will have the opportunity to choose which version of Angular suits your company best. With help from our responders we understand that Angular 2 is efficient and unique framework, we believe it will take Angular 2 a few years to be a standard technology at companies.

  • 509. Thuemmler, C.
    et al.
    Mival, O.
    Lim, A. K.
    Holanec, I.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A social-technological alignment matrix2015Inngår i: IEEE 16th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services, Healthcom 2014, 2015, Vol. Article number 7001841, s. 200-205Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper refers to the term ’implementation’ as the process of integrating a new technology into established workfows. Especially in health care this has proven to be a very critical phase and many large-scale projects have failed on this very last mile. Although strategies such as requirements engineering, co-designing and user interaction design have been proposed to reduce the risk of end-user rejection and subsequently project failur. There is still no tool to analyze, predict and quantify user acceptance and identify critical areas which might be addressed before the start of the implementation phase in order to reduce resistance and increase the effectiveness and effciency. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 510.
    Thümmler, Christoph
    et al.
    Technical University Munich, Munich, Geremany.
    Keow Lim, A.
    Celestor Ltd, UK.
    Holanec, Ivo
    Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, Edinburgh, UK.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Methodology to Assess Social Technological Alignment in the Health Domain2016Inngår i: Innovation and Research in BioMedical Engineering, ISSN 1959-0318, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 232-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been longstanding discussions whether social or technological factors eventually determine the speed of innovation, in particular when it comes to implementation. In order to identify and quantify potential resistance and implementation risks in the health domain we propose a set of key parameters, which are measurable in both – the social and the technological dimensions. Following a meta-analysis we identified the following parameters to be of relevance: readiness, shared values, motivation, elasticity, control and time. All these parameters are scalable and measurable in both dimensions with existing tools. Mapping and comparison of the social and technological dimensions of these parameters might allow conclusions on how far the social and technological dimensions of these parameters are aligned and where potential difficulties during the implementation have to be expected. (This paper refers to the technical term “implementation” as the process of integrating a new technology into established workflows).

  • 511.
    Tigulla, Anil Reddy
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kalidasu, Satya Srinivas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Evaluating Efficiency Quality Attribute in Open Source Web browsers2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Now a day’s end users are using different types of computer applications like web browsers, data processing tools like MS office, notepad etc., to do their day-to-day works. In the real world scenario, the usage of Open Source Software (OSS) products by both industrial people and end users are gradually increasing. The success of any OSS products depends on its quality standards. ‘Efficiency’ is one of the key quality factor, which portray the standards of product and it is observed that this factor is given little importance during its development. Therefore our research context lies within evaluating the efficiency quality attribute in OSS web browsers. Objectives: As discussed earlier the context of this research lies in evaluating the efficiency of OSS web browsers, the initial objective was to identify the available efficiency measures from the current literature and observe which type of measures are suitable for web browsers. Then our next objective is to compute values for the identified efficiency measures by considering a set of predefined web browsers from all the categories. Later we proposed Efficiency Baseline Criteria (EBC) and based on this criterion and experiment results obtained, the efficiency of OSS web browsers had been evaluated. Therefore the main objective of conducting this research is to formulate EBC guidelines, which can be later used by OSS developers to test their web browsers and ensure that all the quality standards are strictly adhered during the development of OSS products. Methods: Initially Literature Review (LR) was conducted in order to identify all the related efficiency quality attributes and also observe the sub-attribute functionalities, that are useful while measuring efficiency values of web browsers. Methods and procedures which are discussed in this LR are used as input for identifying efficiency measures that are related to web browsers. Later an experiment was performed in order to calculate efficiency values for CSS & proprietary set of web browsers (i.e. Case A) and OSS web browsers (i.e. Case B) by using different tools and procedures. Authors themselves had calculated efficiency values for both Case A and Case B web browsers. Based on the results of Case A web browsers, EBC was proposed and finally an statistical analysis (i.e. Mann Whitney U-test) is performed in order to evaluate the hypothesis which was formulated in experiment section. Results: From the LR study, it is observed that efficiency quality attribute is classified into two main categories (i.e. Time Behavior and Resource Utilization). Further under the category of Time behavior a total of 3 attributes were identified (i.e. Response time, Throughput and Turnaround time). From the results of LR, we had also observed the measuring process of each attribute for different web browsers. Later an experiment was performed on two different sets of web browsers (i.e. Case A and Case B web browsers). Based on the LR results, only 3 efficiency attributes (i.e. response time, memory utilization and throughput) were identified which are more suitable to the case of web browsers. These 3 efficiency attributes are further classified into 10 sub-categories. Efficiency values are calculated to both Case A and B for these 10 identified scenarios. Later from Case A results EBC values are generated. Finally hypothesis testing was done by initially performing K-S test and results suggest choosing non-parametric test (i.e. Mann Whitney U-test). Later Mann Whitney U-test was performed for all the scenarios and the normalized Z scores are more than 1.96, further suggested rejecting null hypothesis for all the 10 scenarios. Also EBC values are compared with Case B results and these also suggest us that efficiency standard of OSS web browsers are not equivalent to Case A web browsers. Conclusions: Based on quantitative results, we conclude that efficiency standards of OSS web browsers are not equivalent, when compared to Case A web browsers and the efficiency standards are not adhered during development process. Hence OSS developers should focus on implementing efficiency standards during the development stages itself in order to increase the quality of the end products. The major contribution from the two researchers to this area of research is “Efficiency Baseline Criteria”. The proposed EBC values are useful for OSS developers to test the efficiency standards of their web browser and also help them to analyze their shortcomings. As a result appropriate preventive measures can be planned in advance.

  • 512.
    Timsina, Achyuta
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Prajapati, Shree Dimna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mobile Applications Evolution2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to improved computing power, connectivity and interaction capability of mobile devices, their popularity and general acceptance in mass population has increased in recent years. Mobile applications are software systems running on mobile hand-held devices such as smart phones and tablets. Due to obvious differences in mobile applications, the evolution studies on them is of high importance. The primary objective is to study and compare the mobile applications evolution with the Lehman's laws of software evolution. Next is to identify and report how the software development team size influences mobile applications evolution. The study is conducted on 9 different open source mobile applications among which 5 were developed by single core developer and 4 were developed by multiple core developers. The selected projects' code repository is cloned into local copy and a number of tools are used on those repositories for extraction of relevant metrics from the artifacts. The Lehman laws are tested graphically, analytically and in some cases statistically. Six of the Lehman's laws are tested for validation in sample mobile applications. Among the six laws, I-Continuing Change is found supportive, III-Self Regulation and VI-Continuing Growth are found partial supportive in mobile applications. The II-Increasing complexity and V-Conservation of Familiarity are inconclusive. The IV-Conservation of Organizational Stability is not supportive in our sample mobile applications. Moreover, mobile applications are developed by a single or a few developers. Small team mobile projects have less time between releases compared to large team projects. The growth pattern of mobile applications is different than that predicted by Lehman laws.

  • 513.
    Tomalik, Edyta
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Image-based Microscale Particle Velocimetry in Live Cell Microscopy2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nowadays, one of the medical problem is rolling cell adhesion. Rolling cell adhesion is a complex process that requires the analysis of the challenging environment such as body fluid and is the process responsible for recruiting the cell to specific organs. In order to explore the rolling cell adhesion, mathematical model is proposed. Different image processing methods are created, such as optical flow - Lucas Kanade algorithm, and other type of methods related to mechanical fluid, namely PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry). Aim: The aim of this master thesis is the identification of challenges while using PIV in live cell images and propose the algorithm, which may analyze the rolling cell adhesion problem. Methods: In order to understand properly the rolling cell adhesion problem from biological site, literature review combined with the expert consultation is performed. According to gather information, mathematical model is proposed. Particle Image Velocimetry is explained according to literature review, where at the beginning the expert recommends some books as a primary research. As a result of this research, PIV challenges are identified and generally PIV idea is explained. Then two experiments are performed. The first experiment evaluates detection algorithms and the second one, analyses track algorithm vs. PIV. In order to evaluate the mentioned algorithms, some evaluation method are selected and some criteria are defined. Unfortunately the found methods are not perfect, therefore a new method related to performance evaluation using time series is proposed. Thesis result: The result of this thesis is a proposition of the algorithm, which can be used in the rolling cell adhesion. The algorithm is formed according to the detailed exploration of the rolling cell adhesion and analysis of the selected algorithms related to the image analysis during the theoretical research and experiments.

  • 514.
    Tornberg, Peder
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Self-organizing Distributed Team: Working agile and effective2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In order for a software development team to be successful, cost effective and perform effectively the team needs to coordinate and communicate sufficiently in order to compensate for the obstacles that a distributed team face. The focus of this report is to observe a distributed team as they try to overcome the obstacles that a distributed team face when it comes to coordination and collaboration. The team is being observed as they try to overcome those obstacles while working on a project for a client in another country. Methods, processes and tools are introduced in order for the team to become a self-organizing distributed team that works agile and effective. With the team being observed throughout the course of the project and the literature review on the subject, this report will analyze the team and the methods used in order to come to a conclusion on what enables a distributed team to become a self-organizing team that works agile and effective in a international market.

    There are obstacles that a distributed self-organizing team face. With efficient communication methods and tools for coordination the team can become a strong self-organizing team that works agile and productive.

  • 515.
    Tripathi, Nirnaya
    et al.
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Oivo, Markku
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Pompermaier, Leandro Bento
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Kudakacheril, Arun Sojan
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Liukkunen, Kari
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An anatomy of requirements engineering in software startups using multi-vocal literature and case survey2018Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, s. 130-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software startups aim to develop innovative products, grow rapidly, and thus become important in the development of economy and jobs. Requirements engineering (RE) is a key process area in software development, but its effects on software startups are unclear. Objective: The main objective of this study was to explore how RE (elicitation, documentation, prioritization and validation) is used in software startups. Method: A multi-vocal literature review (MLR) was used to find scientific and gray literature. In addition, a case survey was employed to gather empirical data to reach this study's objective. Results: In the MLR, 36 primary articles were selected out of 28,643 articles. In the case survey, 80 respondents provided information about software startup cases across the globe. Data analysis revealed that during RE processes, internal sources (e.g., for source), analyses of similar products (e.g., elicitation), uses of informal notes (e.g., for documentation), values to customers, products and stakeholders (e.g., for prioritization) and internal reviews/prototypes (e.g., for validation) were the most used techniques. Conclusion: After an analysis of primary literature, it was concluded that research on this topic is still in early stages and more systematic research is needed. Furthermore, few topics were suggested for future research. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 516.
    Truszczynski, Mateusz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Identifying Solutions for  Customer – Supplier Communication Problems in  Agile Software Projects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. There are several methods of developing software in a systematic, engineering way. One of them are traditional methods such as waterfall. Nowadays, more common are becoming agile methodologies. Agile aims at addressing and improving a communication in software projects. However, customer - supplier communication in software projects still causes many difficulties.

    Objectives. In this study I wanted to identify basic customer – supplier communication problems that agile practitioners encounter in agile software projects. I also wanted to provide basic guidelines based on identified, prioritized problems and identified, prioritized solutions.

    Methods. Using recently published journal articles and conference proceedings  I identify customer – supplier communication problems that agile practitioners encounter in agile software projects. In order to identify solutions, and also prioritize the identified problems I used a survey. Then, based on analysis of results of the survey foreseen guidelines were synthesized. 

    Results. Literature study resulted in the identification of eight customer – supplier communication problems that agile practitioners encounter in agile software projects. The survey provided critical weighted evaluation of the problems and also suggested solutions to the problems. The obtained weighted results were used to develop the basic guidelines together with suggested solutions to each of them.

    Conclusions. The research was designed to help agile practitioners in their communication with a customer. The obtained results provide basic and starting guidelines that are based on the experience of the agile practitioners. That can be further extended based on future local and individual experience of agile practitioners.

  • 517. Tümmler, Christoph
    et al.
    Mival, Oli
    Lim Jumelle, Ai Keow
    Holanec, Ivo
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Social Technological Aligment Matrix2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper refers to the term “implementation” as the process of integrating a new technology into established workflows. Especially in health care this has proven to be a very critical phase and many large-scale projects have failed on this very last mile. Although strategies such as requirements engineering, co-designing and user interaction design have been proposed to reduce the risk of end-user rejection and subsequently project failur. There is still no tool to analyze, predict and quantify user acceptance and identify critical areas which might be addressed before the start of the implementation phase in order to reduce resistance and increase the effectiveness and efficiency.

  • 518. Ulziit, B.a
    et al.
    Warraich, Z.A.b
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A conceptual framework of challenges and solutions for managing global software maintenance2015Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 27, nr 10, s. 763-792Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Software maintenance process in globally distributed settings brings significant management challenges to software organizations. Objectives Investigate the factors specific to managing software maintenance process in globally distributed settings and best practices in software organizations. Method A systematic literature review and interviews with industry practitioners were conducted. For analysis and synthesis, the grounded theory method was used. Results We identified a number of management challenges and mitigation strategies and then classified them under people, process, product, and technology factors. Overall, a structure of challenges and solutions, the conceptual framework, has been developed that may be used to understand and classify global maintenance challenges. Conclusions Distributed software maintenance process has specific management challenges in relation to process, people, product, and technology. Therefore, companies performing maintenance in distributed settings should consider these factors, which are not present in the general global software development literature, although many lessons apply to both. © 2015 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  • 519.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Coordinating requirements engineering and software testing2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large, software-intensive systems is a complex undertaking that is generally tackled by a divide and conquer strategy. Organizations face thereby the challenge of coordinating the resources which enable the individual aspects of software development, commonly solved by adopting a particular process model. The alignment between requirements engineering (RE) and software testing (ST) activities is of particular interest as those two aspects are intrinsically connected: requirements are an expression of user/customer needs while testing increases the likelihood that those needs are actually satisfied.

    The work in this thesis is driven by empirical problem identification, analysis and solution development towards two main objectives. The first is to develop an understanding of RE and ST alignment challenges and characteristics. Building this foundation is a necessary step that facilitates the second objective, the development of solutions relevant and scalable to industry practice that improve REST alignment.

    The research methods employed to work towards these objectives are primarily empirical. Case study research is used to elicit data from practitioners while technical action research and field experiments are conducted to validate the developed  solutions in practice.

    This thesis contains four main contributions: (1) An in-depth study on REST alignment challenges and practices encountered in industry. (2) A conceptual framework in the form of a taxonomy providing constructs that further our understanding of REST alignment. The taxonomy is operationalized in an assessment framework, REST-bench (3), that was designed to be lightweight and can be applied as a postmortem in closing development projects. (4) An extensive investigation into the potential of information retrieval techniques to improve test coverage, a common REST alignment challenge, resulting in a solution prototype, risk-based testing supported by topic models (RiTTM).

    REST-bench has been validated in five cases and has shown to be efficient and effective in identifying improvement opportunities in the coordination of RE and ST. Most of the concepts operationalized from the REST taxonomy were found to be useful, validating the conceptual framework. RiTTM, on the other hand, was validated in a single case experiment where it has shown great potential, in particular by identifying test cases that were originally overlooked by expert test engineers, improving effectively test coverage.

  • 520.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Wang, XiaoFeng
    Nguyen-Duc, Anh
    Shah, Syed
    Bajwa, Sohaib Shahid
    Baltes, Guido H.
    Conboy, Kieran
    Cullina, Eoin
    Dennehy, Denis
    Edison, Henry
    Fernandez-Sanchez, Carlos
    Garbajosa, Juan
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Hokkanen, Laura
    Kon, Fabio
    Lunesu, Ilaria
    Marchesi, Michele
    Morgan, Lorraine
    Oivo, Markku
    Selig, Christoph
    Seppänen, Pertti
    Sweetman, Roger
    Tyrväinen, Pasi
    Ungerer, Christina
    Yagüe, Agustin
    Software Startups: A Research Agenda2016Inngår i: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 89-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software startup companies develop innovative, software-intensive products within limited timeframes and with few resources, searching for sustainable and scalable business models. Software startups are quite distinct from traditional mature software companies, but also from micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises, introducing new challenges relevant for software engineering research. This paper’s research agenda focuses on software engineering in startups, identifying, in particular, 70+ research questions in the areas of supporting startup engineering activities, startup evolution models and patterns, ecosystems and innovation hubs, human aspects in software startups, applying startup concepts in non-startup environments, and methodologies and theories for startup research. We connect and motivate this research agenda with past studies in software startup research, while pointing out possible future directions. While all authors of this research agenda have their main background in Software Engineering or Computer Science, their interest in software startups broadens the perspective to the challenges, but also to the opportunities that emerge from multi-disciplinary research. Our audience is therefore primarily software engineering researchers, even though we aim at stimulating collaborations and research that crosses disciplinary boundaries. We believe that with this research agenda we cover a wide spectrum of the software startup industry current needs.

  • 521.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Large-scale Information Retrieval in Software Engineering - An Experience Report from Industrial Application2016Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 2324-2365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software Engineering activities are information intensive. Research proposes Information Retrieval (IR) techniques to support engineers in their daily tasks, such as establishing and maintaining traceability links, fault identification, and software maintenance. Objective: We describe an engineering task, test case selection, and illustrate our problem analysis and solution discovery process. The objective of the study is to gain an understanding of to what extent IR techniques (one potential solution) can be applied to test case selection and provide decision support in a large-scale, industrial setting. Method: We analyze, in the context of the studied company, how test case selection is performed and design a series of experiments evaluating the performance of different IR techniques. Each experiment provides lessons learned from implementation, execution, and results, feeding to its successor. Results: The three experiments led to the following observations: 1) there is a lack of research on scalable parameter optimization of IR techniques for software engineering problems; 2) scaling IR techniques to industry data is challenging, in particular for latent semantic analysis; 3) the IR context poses constraints on the empirical evaluation of IR techniques, requiring more research on developing valid statistical approaches. Conclusions: We believe that our experiences in conducting a series of IR experiments with industry grade data are valuable for peer researchers so that they can avoid the pitfalls that we have encountered. Furthermore, we identified challenges that need to be addressed in order to bridge the gap between laboratory IR experiments and real applications of IR in the industry.

  • 522.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Process Improvement Archaeology: What led us here and what’s next?2018Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 53-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While in every organization corporate culture and history change over time, intentional efforts to identifyperformance problems are of particular interest when trying to understand the current state of an organization.The results of past improvement initiatives can shed light on the evolution of an organization, and represent,with the advantage of perfect hindsight, a learning opportunity for future process improvements. Weencountered the opportunity to test this premise in an applied research collaboration with the SwedishTransport Administration (STA), the government agency responsible for the planning, implementation andmaintenance of long-term rail, road, shipping and aviation infrastructure in Sweden.

  • 523.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Requirements quality assurance in industry: Why, what and how?2017Inngår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer, 2017, Vol. 10153, s. 77-84Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context and Motivation: Natural language is the most common form to specify requirements in industry. The quality of the specification depends on the capability of the writer to formulate requirements aimed at different stakeholders: they are an expression of the customer’s needs that are used by analysts, designers and testers. Given this central role of requirements as a mean to communicate intention, assuring their quality is essential to reduce misunderstandings that lead to potential waste. Problem: Quality assurance of requirement specifications is largely a manual effort that requires expertise and domain knowledge. However, this demanding cognitive process is also congested by trivial quality issues that should not occur in the first place. Principal ideas: We propose a taxonomy of requirements quality assurance complexity that characterizes cognitive load of verifying a quality aspect from the human perspective, and automation complexity and accuracy from the machine perspective. Contribution: Once this taxonomy is realized and validated, it can serve as the basis for a decision framework of automated requirements quality assurance support.

  • 524.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Assessing Requirements Engineering and Software Test Alignment - Five Case Studies2015Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 109, nr C, s. 62-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large, software-intensive systems is a complex undertaking that we generally tackle by a divide and conquerstrategy. Companies thereby face the challenge of coordinating individual aspects of software development, in particular betweenrequirements engineering (RE) and software testing (ST). A lack of REST alignment can not only lead to wasted effort but alsoto defective software. However, before a company can improve the mechanisms of coordination they need to be understood first.With REST-bench we aim at providing an assessment tool that illustrates the coordination in software development projects andidentify concrete improvement opportunities. We have developed REST-bench on the sound fundamentals of a taxonomy onREST alignment methods and validated the method in five case studies. Following the principles of technical action research, wecollaborated with five companies, applying REST-bench and iteratively improving the method based on the lessons we learned.We applied REST-bench both in Agile and plan-driven environments, in projects lasting from weeks to years, and staffed as largeas 1000 employees. The improvement opportunities we identified and the feedback we received indicate that the assessmentwas effective and efficient. Furthermore, participants confirmed that their understanding on the coordination between RE and STimproved.

  • 525.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Yates, Andrew
    Max Planck Institut für Informatik, DEU.
    Expert-sourcing domain-specific knowledge: The case of synonym validation2019Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One prerequisite for supervised machine learning is high quality labelled data. Acquiring such data is, particularly if expert knowledge is required, costly or even impossible if the task needs to be performed by a single expert. In this paper, we illustrate tool support that we adopted and extended to source domain-specific knowledge from experts. We provide insight in design decisions that aim at motivating experts to dedicate their time at performing the labelling task. We are currently using the approach to identify true synonyms from a list of candidate synonyms. The identification of synonyms is important in scenarios were stakeholders from different companies and background need to collaborate, for example when defining and negotiating requirements. We foresee that the approach of expert-sourcing is applicable to any data labelling task in software engineering. The discussed design decisions and implementation are an initial draft that can be extended, refined and validated with further application. Copyright © 2019 by the paper’s authors.

  • 526.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Improving Expert Estimation of Software Development Effort in Agile Contexts2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 527.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Effort Estimation in Co-located and Globally Distributed Agile Software Development: A Comparative Study2016Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF 2016 JOINT CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SOFTWARE MEASUREMENT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE PROCESS AND PRODUCT MEASUREMENT (IWSM-MENSURA) / [ed] Heidrich, J Vogelezang, F, IEEE , 2016, s. 219-224Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile methods are used both by both colocated and globally distributed teams. Recently separate studies have been conducted to understand how effort estimation is practiced in Agile Software Development (ASD) in co-located and distributed contexts. There is need to compare the findings of these studies. Objectives: The objective of this comparative study is to identify the similarities and differences in how effort estimation is practiced in co-located and globally distributed ASD. Method: We combined the data of the two surveys to conduct this comparative study. First survey was conducted to identify the state of the practice on effort estimation in co-located ASD, while the second one identified the same in globally distributed ASD context. Results: The main findings of this comparative study are: 1) Agile practitioners, both in co-located and distributed contexts, apply techniques that use experts' subjective assessment to estimate effort. 2) Story points are the most frequently used size metrics in both co-located and distributed agile contexts 3) Team's prior experience and skill level are leading cost drivers in both contexts. Distributed agile practitioners cited additional cost drivers related to the geographical distance between distributed teams. 4) In both co-located and distributed agile context, effort is estimated mainly at iteration and release planning levels 5) With regard to the accuracy of effort estimates, underestimation is the dominant for both co-located and distributed agile software development. Conclusions: Similar techniques and size metrics have been used to estimate effort by both co-located and distributed agile teams. The main difference is with regard to the factors that are considered as important cost drivers. Global barriers due to cultural, geographical and temporal differences are important cost and effort drivers for distributed ASD. These additional cost drivers should be considered when estimating effort of a distributed agile project to avoid gross underestimation.

  • 528.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Taxonomies in software engineering: A Systematic mapping study and a revised taxonomy development method2017Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 85, s. 43-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software Engineering (SE) is an evolving discipline with new subareas being continuously developed and added. To structure and better understand the SE body of knowledge, taxonomies have been proposed in all SE knowledge areas. Objective: The objective of this paper is to characterize the state-of-the-art research on SE taxonomies. Method: A systematic mapping study was conducted, based on 270 primary studies. Results: An increasing number of SE taxonomies have been published since 2000 in a broad range of venues, including the top SE journals and conferences. The majority of taxonomies can be grouped into the following SWEBOI(knowledge areas: construction (19.55%), design (19.55%), requirements (15.50%) and maintenance (11.81%). Illustration (45.76%) is the most frequently used approach for taxonomy validation. Hierarchy (53.14%) and faceted analysis (39.48%) are the most frequently used classification structures. Most taxonomies rely on qualitative procedures to classify subject matter instances, but in most cases (86.53%) these procedures are not described in sufficient detail. The majority of the taxonomies (97%) target unique subject matters and many taxonomy-papers are cited frequently. Most SE taxonomies are designed in an ad-hoc way. To address this issue, we have revised an existing method for developing taxonomies in a more systematic way. Conclusion: There is a strong interest in taxonomies in SE, but few taxonomies are extended or revised. Taxonomy design decisions regarding the used classification structures, procedures and descriptive bases are usually not well described and motivated. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 529.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Effort Estimation in Large-Scale Software Development: An Industrial Case Study2018Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 99, s. 21-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software projects frequently incur schedule and budget overruns. Planning and estimation are particularlychallenging in large and globally distributed projects. While software engineering researchers have beeninvestigating effort estimation for many years to help practitioners to improve their estimation processes, there is littleresearch about effort estimation in large-scale distributed agile projects.Objective: The main objective of this paper is three-fold: i) to identify how effort estimation is carried out in largescaledistributed agile projects; ii) to analyze the accuracy of the effort estimation processes in large-scale distributedagile projects; and iii) to identify the factors that impact the accuracy of effort estimates in large-scale distributed agileprojects.Method: We performed an exploratory longitudinal case study. The data collection was operationalized througharchival research and semi-structured interviews.Results: The main findings of this study are: 1) underestimation is the dominant trend in the studied case, 2) reestimationat the analysis stage improves the accuracy of the effort estimates, 3) requirements with large size/scopeincur larger effort overruns, 4) immature teams incur larger effort overruns, 5) requirements developed in multi-sitesettings incur larger effort overruns as compared to requirements developed in a collocated setting, and 6) requirementspriorities impact the accuracy of the effort estimates.Conclusion: Effort estimation is carried out at quotation and analysis stages in the studied case. It is a challengingtask involving coordination amongst many different stakeholders. Furthermore, lack of details and changes in requirements,immaturity of the newly on-boarded teams and the challenges associated with the large-scale add complexitiesin the effort estimation process.

  • 530.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Effort estimation in agile software development: a survey on the state of the practice2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE 2015), ACM Digital Library, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 531.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    An Effort Estimation Taxonomy for Agile Software Development2017Inngår i: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 641-674Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Agile Software Development (ASD) effort estimation plays an important role during release and iteration planning. The state of the art and practice on effort estimation in ASD have been recently identified. However, this knowledge has not yet been organized. The aim of this study is twofold: (1) To organize the knowledge on effort estimation in ASD and (2) to use this organized knowledge to support practice and the future research on effort estimation in ASD. We applied a taxonomy design method to organize the identified knowledge as a taxonomy of effort estimation in ASD. The proposed taxonomy offers a faceted classification scheme to characterize estimation activities of agile projects. Our agile estimation taxonomy consists of four dimensions: estimation context, estimation technique, effort predictors and effort estimate. Each dimension in turn has several facets. We applied the taxonomy to characterize estimation activities of 10 agile projects identified from the literature to assess whether all important estimation-related aspects are reported. The results showed that studies do not report complete information related to estimation. The taxonomy was also used to characterize the estimation activities of four agile teams from three different software companies. The practitioners involved in the investigation found the taxonomy useful in characterizing and documenting the estimation sessions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • 532.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Weidt, F.
    Britto, R.
    Effort estimation in Agile Software Development: A systematic literature review2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the emergence of agile methodologies in 2001, many software companies have shifted to Agile Software Development (ASD), and since then many studies have been conducted to investigate effort estimation within such context; however to date there is no single study that presents a detailed overview of the state of the art in effort estimation for ASD. Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the art in the area of effort estimation in ASD. Method: To report the state of the art, we conducted a systematic literature review in accordance with the guidelines proposed in the evidence-based software engineering literature. Results: A total of 25 primary studies were selected; the main findings are: i) Subjective estimation techniques (e.g. expert judgment, planning poker, use case points estimation method) are the most frequently applied in an agile context; ii) Use case points and story points are the most frequently used size metrics respectively; iii) MMRE (Mean Magnitude of Relative Error) and MRE (Magnitude of Relative Error) are the most frequently used accuracy metrics; iv) team skills, prior experience and task size are cited as the three important cost drivers for effort estimation in ASD; and v) Extreme Programming (XP) and SCRUM are the only two agile methods that are identified in the primary studies. Conclusion: Subjective estimation techniques, e.g. expert judgment-based techniques, planning poker or the use case points method, are the one used the most in agile effort estimation studies. As for the size metrics, the ones that were used the most in the primary studies were story points and use case points. Several research gaps were identified, relating to the agile methods, size metrics and cost drivers, thus suggesting numerous possible avenues for future work

  • 533.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Weidt, Francila
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Effort estimation in agile software development: a systematic literature review2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Predictive Models in Software Engineering, 2014, s. 82-91Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Ever since the emergence of agile methodologies in 2001, many software companies have shifted to Agile Software Development (ASD), and since then many studies have been conducted to investigate effort estimation within such context; however to date there is no single study that presents a detailed overview of the state of the art in effort estimation for ASD. Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the art in the area of effort estimation in ASD. Method: To report the state of the art, we conducted a systematic literature review in accordance with the guidelines proposed in the evidence-based software engineering literature.Results: A total of 25 primary studies were selected; the main findings are: i) Subjective estimation techniques (e.g. expert judgment, planning poker, use case points estimation method) are the most frequently applied in an agile context; ii) Use case points and story points are the most frequently used size metrics respectively; iii) MMRE (Mean Magnitude of Relative Error) and MRE (Magnitude of Relative Error) are the most frequently used accuracy metrics; iv) team skills, prior experience and task size are cited as the three important cost drivers for effort estimation in ASD; and v) Extreme Programming (XP) and SCRUM are the only two agile methods that are identified in the primary studies. Conclusion: Subjective estimation techniques, e.g. expert judgment-based techniques, planning poker or the use case points method, are the one used the most in agile effort estimation studies. As for the size metrics, the ones that were used the most in the primary studies were story points and use case points. Several research gaps were identified, relating to the agile methods, size metrics and cost drivers, thus suggesting numerous possible avenues for future work.

  • 534.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Use of personality tests in empirical software engineering studies: A review of ethical issues2019Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, s. 237-242Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a lot of research on personality and its impact on software engineering practice. These studies use different psychological tests to identify personality types of software practitioners. The administration of these tests requires expertise. As the humans are involved, other ethical issues, such as consent, also become important. In this study, we evaluated a small sample of 15 studies that used a psychological test Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in a software engineering context with respect to different ethical issues related to informed consent, qualification of the test administrators and the use of appropriate tests. The results show that most of the studies in our sample seriously lack with respect to various ethical issues. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 535.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Neto, Pedro
    bFederal University of Piaui , BRA.
    Developing and Using Checklists to Improve Software Effort Estimation: a Multi-Case Study2018Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, s. 286-309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Expert judgment based effort estimation techniques are widely used for estimating software effort. In the absence of process support, experts may overlook important factors during estimation, leading to inconsistent estimates. This might cause underestimation, which is a common problem in software projects. This multi-case study aims to improve expert estimation of software development effort. Our goal is two-fold: 1) to propose a process to develop and evolve estimation checklists for agile teams, and 2) to evaluate the usefulness of the checklists in improving expert estimation processes. The use of checklists improved the accuracy of the estimates in two case companies. In particular, the underestimation bias was reduced to a large extent. For the third case, we could not perform a similar analysis, due to the unavailability of historical data. However, when checklist was used in two sprints, the estimates were quite accurate (median Balanced Relative Error (BRE) bias of -0.05 ). The study participants from the case companies observed several benefits of using the checklists during estimation, such as increased confidence in estimates, improved consistency due to help in recalling relevant factors, more objectivity in the process, improved understanding of the tasks being estimated, and reduced chances of missing tasks.

  • 536.
    V N ANJANAYA UDAY, MAJETI
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Effects of Development Platform Heterogeneity in Testing of Heterogeneous systems: An Industrial Survey2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Over the years, software has evolved to a large and complex system of systems. According to the literature, a heterogeneous system is defined as “a system comprised of n number of subsystems where at least one subsystem exhibits heterogeneity with respect to other subsystem”. The area of research in heterogeneous system has also received large attention in recent years, as a result of shift in technology and customer needs. In heterogeneous systems, heterogeneity may occur in different dimensions for different systems.

    Objectives. The main aim of this thesis is, “to investigate the effects of development platform heterogeneity in heterogeneous system on the test process”. The objectives to achieve our aim is to determine the influence of platform heterogeneity on software testing and also to investigate best practices for testing heterogeneous systems with different types of heterogeneity.

    Methods. An industrial survey and interviews with practitioners are considered as a research method in this thesis. The purpose of this survey is to help the testers to understand how the platform heterogeneity affects the test process.

    Results. In this research, the researcher had gathered data related to effects and best practices in heterogeneous systems from both survey and interviews.

    Conclusions. In this thesis, the researcher had investigated the effects of development platform heterogeneity in heterogeneous system on the test process and also identified the best practices for testing heterogeneous systems that exhibit different types of heterogeneity. Apart from these, the researcher also identified different types of development platforms used for development of a heterogeneous type of systems in the industry.

  • 537.
    Vajrapu, Rakesh Guptha
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kothwar, Sravika
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Software Requirements Prioritization Practices in Software Start-ups: A Qualitative research based on Start-ups in India2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirements prioritization is used in software product management and is concerned with identifying the most valuable requirements from a given set. This is necessary to satisfy the needs of customers, to provide support for stakeholders and more importantly for release planning. Irrespective of the size of the organization (small, medium and large), requirements prioritization is important to minimize the risk during development. However, few studies explore how requirements prioritization is practiced in start-ups. Software start-ups are becoming important suppliers of innovative and software-intensive products.Earlier studies suggest that requirements discovery and validation is the core activity in start-ups. However, due to limited resources, start-ups need to prioritize on what requirements to focus. If they do it wrong it leads to wasted resources.While larger organizations may afford such waste, start-ups cannot.Moreover, researchers have identified that start-ups are not small versions of large companies and the existing software development practices cannot be transferred directly due to low rigor in current studies.Thus, we planned to conduct an exploratory study on requirements prioritization practices in the context of software start-ups.

    Objectives: The main aim of our study is to explore the state-of-art of requirements prioritization practices used in start-ups.We also identify the challenges associated with the corresponding practices and few possible solutions.

    Methods: In this qualitative research, we conduct a literature review by referring to many article sources like IEEE Xplore, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify the prioritization practices and challenges in general. An interview study is conducted by using semi-structured interviews to collect data from practitioners.Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview data.

    Results: We have identified 15 practices from 8 different start-ups companies with corresponding challenges and possible solutions. Our results show mixed reviews in terms of the prioritization practices at start-ups. From the total of 8 companies about 6 companies followed formal methods while in the remaining 2 companies, prioritization was informal and not clear. The results show that value-based method is the dominant prioritization technique in start-ups. The results also show that customer input and return on investment aspects of prioritization play a key role when compared to other aspects.

    Conclusions: The results of this study provide an understanding of the various requirements prioritization practices in start-ups and challenges faced in implementing them.These results are validated from the answers found in the literature. The solutions identified for the corresponding challenges allow the practitioners to approach them in a better way. As this study focused only on Indian software start-up companies, it is recommended to extend to Swedish software start-up companies as well to get a broader perspective. Scaling of sample size is also recommended. This study may help future research on requirements engineering in start-ups. It may also help practitioners who have an intention to begin a software start-up company to get an idea of what challenges they may face while prioritizing requirements and can use these solutions to mitigate them.

  • 538.
    Vaka, Kranthi
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Narla, Karthik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The impact of maturity, scale and distribution on software quality: An industrial case study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In this ever-changing world of software development, the process of organizations adopting distributed development is gaining prominence. Implementing various development processes in such distributed environment is giving rise to numerous issues which affects the quality of the product. These issues could be due to the involvement of architects across national borders during the process of development. In this research, the focus is to improve software quality by addressing the impact of maturity and scale between teams and its affect on code review process. Further to identify the issues behind the distribution between teams separated by geographical, temporal and cultural distances.

    Objectives. The main objective of this research is to identify how different factors such as maturity on quality of deliverables, scale and distribution that impacts the code review process affecting software quality. Based on code review comments in data set, the factors that were examined in this research are evolvability of defects and difference in the quality of software developed by mature and immature teams within code review process. Later on, the issues related to the impact of geographical, temporal and cultural distances on the type of defects revealed during distributed development are identified.

    Methods. To achieve these objectives, a case study was conducted at Ericsson. A mixed approach has been chosen that includes, archival data and semi-structured interviews to gather useful data for this research. Archival data is one of the data collection method used for reviewing comments in data set and gather quantitative results for the study. We employed approaches such as descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, and graphical representation to analyze data. Moreover, to strengthen these results, semi-structured group interview is conducted to triangulate the data and collect additional insights about code review process in large scale organizations.

    Results. By conducting this research, it is inferred that teams with a lower level of maturity produce more number of defects. It was observed that 35.11% functional, 59.03% maintainability, 0.11% compatibility, 0.028% security, 0.73% reliability, 4.96% performance efficiency, 0.014% portability of defects were found from archival data. Majority of defects were of functional and maintainability type, which impacts software quality in distributed environment. In addition to the above-mentioned results, other findings are related to evolvability of defects within immature teams which shows that there is no particular trend in increase or decrease in number of defects. Issues that occur due to distribution between teams are found out in this research. The overall results of this study are to suggest the impact of maturity and scale on software quality by making numerical assumptions and validating these finding with interviews. Interviews are also used to inquire information about the issues from dataset related to the impact of global software engineering (GSE) distances on code review process.

    Conclusions. At the end of this research it is concluded that in these type of projects, immature teams produce more number of defects than mature teams. This is because when large-scale projects are distributed globally, it is always harder to share and acquire knowledge between teams, increase group learning and mentor teams located in immature sites. Immature developers have problems of understanding the structure of code, new architects need to acquire knowledge on the scope and real time issues for improving quality of software. Using results presented in this thesis, researchers can find new gaps easily to extend the research on various influences on code review process in distributed environment. 

  • 539.
    Vakkalanka, Sairam
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Narayanasetty, SR Phanindra Kumar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Investigating Research on Teaching Modeling in Software Engineering -A Systematic Mapping Study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Modeling is an important activity, which is used, in different phases of software engineering. Without models and modeling, it is nearly impossible to design and develop software systems, which demands the need for modeling to be taught in software engineering. There exist a number of reported models, methods, tools and languages to teach modeling in software engineering, which suggests the need for a classification and an overview of the area. This research investigates the state of published research on teaching modeling in software engineering in order to provide a systematic overview and classification of these different ways of teaching modeling with an insight on their importance and relevance to this research area. Objectives: The overall goal of the research was achieved with fulfilling the following objectives: understanding how systematic mapping is conducted, developing a systematic mapping process that will properly provide data for investigating the published research, applying the process, and finally reflecting on the results of the mappings, analyzing the importance and evaluating relevance of the published research. Methods: Systematic literature review was used as a tool to understand and inspect how systematic mapping was carried out in the area of software engineering. Based on the results of systematic literature review, new guidelines were formulated to conduct systematic mapping. These guidelines were used to investigate the published research on teaching modeling in software engineering. The results obtained through the systematic mapping were evaluated based on Industrial relevance, Rigor and citation count to examine their importance and identify research gaps. Results: 131 articles were classified into five classes such as Languages, Course Design, Curriculum design, Diagrams, others using semi-manual classification scheme and classification facets such as the type of audience, type of contribution, type of research, type of publication, type of publication year, type of research method and type of study setting. After the evaluation of Industrial relevance, rigor & citation ranking on the obtained results of the classification, 8 processes, 4 tools, 3 methods, 2 measurement-metrics and 1 model were extracted to teach modeling in software engineering. Also, this classification when compared with an existing classification, which is based on interviews and discussions, showed that our classification provides a wider overview with a deeper insight of the different ways to teach modeling in software engineering. Conclusions: Results of this systematic mapping study indicate that there is an increase in the research activity on teaching modeling in software engineering, with Unified Modeling Language (UML) being the widely research area. Much research is emphasized on teaching modeling to students from academia which indicates a research gap in developing methods, models, tools and processes to teach modeling to students/practitioners from the industry. Also, considering the citation ranking, industrial relevance and rigor of the articles, areas such as course design and curriculum development are highly neglected, suggesting the need for more research focus.

  • 540.
    Vamsi Appana, Vamsi
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Evaluating Industrial Relevance in Search Based Software Engineering Research: A Systematic Mapping Study and Survey2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Search Based Software Engineering is one of the important field of software engineering. Over the past few years even though there is a lot of study performed on SBSE and its search techniques in software development areas, it appears SBSE is not very industry relevant at the moment because most of the academic work was limited towards the application of search techniques. Hence, author proposes a study to know the trend of SBSE literature over the past few years and also analyze to what degree current SBSE research is industry relevant

  • 541.
    Varanasi, Panchajanya
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Perspective of Leadership Requirement in Scrum Based Software Development - A Case Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Software Development has been witnessing great innovations over past few years with good number of technologies, tools and practices invading the industry. Client demands and collaboration in the development process are also seen increasing. So many new practices and methodologies are coming up and Agile is one of prominent practices adopted by many. Even in Agile, Scrum methodology is picking up more demand presently. As Software Development process and practices are changing so are the leadership styles in the same. Leadership is critical for success of any team. This study intended to explore this model and requirement of leadership in Scrum based Software Development in a practical scenario.

    Objectives. Leadership, which is essential in any Software project, differs from Traditional Methodology to Scrum Methodology of Agile practices in Software Development. Through a case study, the author attempted to investigate and explore the perspective of Leadership requirement in Scrum based Software Development in a practical scenario. The study aimed to gather and analyze the Leadership model implemented in two domestic projects in an Indian company, involved in two distinctive domains, and sum up the impressions gained in the same. The study aimed to assess whether the gathered knowledge adds up to the existing body of knowledge on the phenomenon or on the contrary whether any suggestions for improvement can be given to the case units.

    Methods. Case Study method was chosen for undertaking this explorative study. A literature review was conducted prior to the case study to gain knowledge on the phenomenon, which also answered one of the Research Questions and helped partially the other. A multiple case study was conducted through semi structured personal interviews, tools analysis and direct observation in the case units. Qualitative data analysis was made using Grounded Theory on this three orders of collected data. The results were compared with the Literature and conformity or variance analyzed. This comparative analysis is used for making recommendations to the case units for improvement or for additions to the existing body of knowledge.

    Results. Through the results of Literature Review, Leadership models in Software Development including Agile Scrum were summed up. And through the results of the case study, the leadership models and features implemented in the case units have been identified. These results are further validated and contrasted with the results of the literature review. How the literature models and the case unit models of leadership differed is studied. The justification for the implemented leadership model in the practical situation is also analyzed. Following, a review of the models employed at the case environments, the perspective of leadership in the two Scrum based Software Development projects is summed up. At the end, it is assessed what effect the case study would have on the existing body of knowledge on the phenomenon and modifications that can be proposed to the case units based on the results and analysis.

    Conclusion. It is concluded that the Case Units are implementing Situational Leadership and Transformational Leadership in a mixed way. Telling and Selling models in Situational Leadership are prominent while Participating and Delegating are ranking less. Some of the important features of Transformational Leadership like Self Management, Organizational Consciousness, Adaptability and Proactive are in implementation but not all features of the model are assumed. Even Scrum is implemented in a modified way, extending only controlled autonomy with higher monitoring and it had a direct effect on the leadership. On the whole it is directive leadership that is in play with co-existence of collaborative one situationally.

  • 542.
    Velpula, Chaitanyakumar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Requirements Negotiation and Conflict Resolution in Distributed Software Development: A Systematic Mapping Study and Survey2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore the industrial practices of requirements negotiation and conflict resolution within distributed software development. The motivation for this study is to get insight of the industrial practices in particular interventions (Communication tools, Models, Communication media) that used by practitioners to resolve requirements negotiation and conflicts resolution between clients and suppliers, since many researchers purposed interventions in the literature for requirements negotiation and conflicts resolution in distributed software development. Context: In Requirements Engineering, requirements negotiation and conflict resolution are crucial activities to achieve a common ground between clients and suppliers, it is considered as one of the crucial factors for delivering successful software. However, the shift from traditional collocated practices to a distributed environment offers both benefits and drawbacks which were studied earlier by researcher, but surprisingly there are few studies with insight of exploring the distributed requirements negotiations and conflict resolution practices. This research investigates the state of requirements negotiation and conflict resolution activities in distributed software development with an insight on their importance and relevance to this research area.

    Objectives: Overall goal of this thesis is to understand how requirements negotiations and conflict resolution are performed in distributed software development, knowing what are the available tools to perform requirements negotiation and conflict resolution, whether these existing tools are good enough to cope up with the industrial practices, knowing most widely used tools, methods and approaches, most importantly does the present research able to bridge the gap with in distributed software development?

    Methods: This thesis study comprises of two research methodologies. 1. Systematic mapping study (SMS)- To identify the proposed interventions in the literature to perform requirements negotiation and conflict resolution activities in Industrial Software Development within a distributed environment. 2. Industrial Survey- To identify industrial practices to perform rei quirements negotiation and conflict resolution in Industrial Software Development within a distributed environment.

    Results: 20 studies were identified through systematic mapping study (SMS). After analyzing the obtained studies, the list of interventions (Preparatory activities/communication tools/ Models) were gathered and analyzed. Thereupon, an industrial survey is conducted from the obtained literature, which has obtained 41 responses. Effective communication media for preparatory activities in requirements negotiations and conflict resolution are identified, validation of communication tools for effective requirements negotiations and conflict resolution is performed. Apart from the validation, this study provided list of factors that affects the requirement negotiations and conflict resolution activities in distributed software development.

    Conclusions: To conclude, the obtained results from this study will benefit practitioner in capturing more insight towards the requirements negotiations and conflict resolution in distributed software engineering. This study identified the preparatory activities involved for effective communication to perform requirements negotiation activities, effective tools, models and factors affecting of requirements negotiations and conflict resolution. In addition to this, validation of results obtained from the literature is carried through survey. Practitioners can be benefitted from the end results of by knowing the effective requirements negotiation and conflict resolution interventions (Communicational tools/ Models/ Communication media) for early planning in distributed software development. Researchers can extend the study by looking in to the real-time approaches followed by the practitioners to perform the both activities in the direction of future studies.

  • 543.
    Vestman, Simon
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cloud application platform - Virtualization vs Containerization: A comparison between application containers and virtual machines2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. As the number of organizations using cloud application platforms to host their applications increases, the priority of distributing physical resources within those platforms is increasing simultaneously. The goal is to host a higher quantity of applications per physical server, while at the same time retain a satisfying rate of performance combined with certain scalability. The modern needs of customers occasionally also imply an assurance of certain privacy for their applications.

    Objectives. In this study two types of instances for hosting applications in cloud application platforms, virtual machines and application containers, are comparatively analyzed. This investigation has the goal to expose advantages and disadvantages between the instances in order to determine which is more appropriate for being used in cloud application platforms, in terms of performance, scalability and user isolation.

    Methods. The comparison is done on a server running Linux Ubuntu 16.04. The virtual machine is created using Devstack, a development environment of Openstack, while the application container is hosted by Docker. Each instance is running an apache web server for handling HTTP requests. The comparison is done by using different benchmark tools for different key usage scenarios and simultaneously observing the resource usage in respective instance.

    Results. The results are produced by investigating the user isolation and resource occupation of respective instance, by examining the file system, active process handling and resource allocation after creation. Benchmark tools are executed locally on respective instance, for a performance comparison of the usage of physical resources. The amount of CPU operations executed within a given time is measured in order determine the processor performance, while the speed of read and write operations to the main memory is measured in order to determine the RAM performance. A file is also transmitted between host server and application in order to compare the network performance between respective instance, by examining the transfer speed of the file. Lastly a set of benchmark tools are executed on the host server to measure the HTTP server request handling performance and scalability of each instance. The amount of requests handled per second is observed, but also the resource usage for the request handling at an increasing rate of served requests and clients.

    Conclusions. The virtual machine is a better choice for applications where privacy is a higher priority, due to the complete isolation and abstraction from the rest of the physical server. Virtual machines perform better in handling a higher quantity of requests per second, while application containers is faster in transferring files through network. The container requires a significantly lower amount of resources than the virtual machine in order to run and execute tasks, such as responding to HTTP requests. When it comes to scalability the prefered type of instance depends on the priority of key usage scenarios. Virtual machines have quicker response time for HTTP requests but application containers occupy less physical resources, which makes it logically possible to run a higher quantity of containers than virtual machines simultaneously on the same physical server.

  • 544.
    Viding, Emmie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Does Your TV Spy on You?: The security, privacy and safety issues with IoT2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of Internet of Things is steadily increasing, both in Sweden and globally. This relative new technology improves the lives of many; but at the price of their security, privacy and safety.

    This thesis consists of a literature study and an online survey. It investigates what security, privacy and safety risks Internet of Things devices may bring, how aware people are about these risks, how the user can minimize the risk of being hacked or attacked and what manufacturers can do to make safer Internet of Thing devices.

    The survey was created based on the risks related to Internet of Things devices which was found during the literature study.

    It was possible to identify security, privacy and safety risks related to Internet of Things. It was also possible to find answers of how both users and manufacturers can protect their devices from being hacked. The survey showed that there was a correlation between how interested people are in technology and how aware they are of the risks with Internet of Things.

    Internet of Things can be used to do DDoS attacks, espionage and eavesdropping. People who are interested in technology tends to protect themselves more actively (by changing default password and updating the software) compared to those who are not interested.

  • 545.
    Vilela, Jessyka
    et al.
    Univ Fed Ceara, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Univ Fed Pernambuco UFPE, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo G.
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo UNIFESP, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Silva, Carla
    Univ Fed Pernambuco UFPE, BRA.
    Specifying Safety Requirements with GORE languages2017Inngår i: XXXI BRAZILIAN SYMPOSIUM ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (SBES 2017), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, s. 154-163Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A suitable representation of Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) requirements is crucial to avoid misunderstandings in safety requirements and issues in safety specification. However, current general requirements specification languages do not fully support the particularities of specifying SCS. Objective: In this paper, our goal is to identify and propose a set of important features that should be provided by requirements languages to support an early safety requirements specification. Moreover, we aim to compare the ability of the four most used Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering (GORE) languages (i*, KAOS, GRL, NFR-Framework) in supporting the proposed features. Method: We first established a conceptual foundation and a conceptual model based on the literature, challenges elicited in previous works, and demands of safety standards at the requirements level that practitioners must satisfy in order to certify their systems. Results: We proposed a set of 15 features that requirements languages should provide to an early safety requirements specification. Regarding the comparison of GORE languages, in summary, all surveyed languages lacks explicit modeling constructs to express how hazards can occur in the system, the accidents, their impact and how they can mitigated. Conclusions: The conceptual foundation, conceptual model, and the set of features is a novelty. Finally, the features can be used to propose new requirements languages for SCS or to define extensions for the ones already available.

  • 546.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Integration between requirements engineering and safety analysis: A systematic literature review2017Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 125, s. 68-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) require more sophisticated requirements engineering (RE) approaches as inadequate, incomplete or misunderstood requirements have been recognized as a major cause in many accidents and safety-related catastrophes. Objective: In order to cope with the complexity of specifying SCS by RE, we investigate the approaches proposed to improve the communication or integration between RE and safety engineering in SCS development. We analyze the activities that should be performed by RE during safety analysis, the hazard/safety techniques it could use, the relationships between safety information that it should specify, the tools to support safety analysis as well as integration benefits between these areas. Method: We use a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) as the basis for our work. Results: We developed four taxonomies to help RE during specification of SCS that classify: techniques used in (1) hazard analysis; (2) safety analysis; (3) safety-related information and (4) a detailed set of information regarding hazards specification. Conclusions: This paper is a step towards developing a body of knowledge in safety concerns necessary to RE in the specification of SCS that is derived from a large-scale SLR. We believe the results will benefit both researchers and practitioners.

  • 547.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Ceará, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Safe-RE: A safety requirements metamodel based on industry safety standards2018Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, s. 196-201Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The development of Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) requires an adequate understanding of safety terms to avoid the specification of poor, incomplete or unclear safety requirements. However, there are some misunderstandings, mostly by requirements engineers, about the definition of such concepts. Hence, integration of safety concerns in the Requirements Engineering (RE) and a common nomenclature is necessary to improve the specification of these systems. Objective: To fill this gap, this paper presents Safe-RE, a safety requirements metamodel based on industry safety standards whose aim is to support the specification of safety-related concepts in the RE process. Method: We rely on safety standards as a basis for our work since companies must follow them to have their systems certified. Results: To illustrate the Safe-RE metamodel usage, we applied its concepts in an insulin infusion pump system. Conclusions: We hope that Safe-RE can contribute to improving the elicitation and specifications of such systems and therefore, reducing accidents and safety-related catastrophes. We also discuss some benefits we envision of using the metamodel, its limitations, and open issues. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 548.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Assessment of safety processes in requirements engineering2018Inngår i: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 358-363Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirements issues tend to be mitigated in organizations with high process maturity levels since they do their business in a systematic, consistent and proactive approach. In a Safety-Critical System (SCS), requirements problems have been associated with accidents and safety incidents. Objective: This work investigates which safety practices/actions are suitable to be used in the Requirements Engineering (RE) process of SCS and how to design a safety maturity model for this area. Method: we adopted different empirical techniques to propose Uni-REPM SCS, which consists of a safety module to be included in the Unified Requirements Engineering Process Maturity Model (Uni-REPM). Results: The safety module has seven main processes, 14 sub-processes and 148 safety actions describing principles and practices that form the basis of safety processes maturity. Conclusions: Preliminary validation with two practitioners and nine academic experts indicates that the safety module can help organizations to evaluate their current safety practices with respect to their RE process. Moreover, it also offers a step-wise improvement strategy to raise their safety maturity level. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 549.
    Vilela, Jéssyka Flavyanne Ferreira
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Ceara, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson Freire B.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Safety Practices in Requirements Engineering: The Uni-REPM Safety Module2018Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software is an important part in safety- critical system (SCS) development since it is becoming a major source of hazards. Requirements-related hazards have been as- sociated with many accidents and safety incidents. Requirements issues tend to be mitigated in companies with high processes maturity levels since they do their business in a systematic, consistent and proactive approach. However, requirements en- gineers need systematic guidance to consider safety concerns early in the development process. Goal: the paper investigates which safety practices are suitable to be used in the Requirements Engineering (RE) process for SCS and how to design a safety maturity model for this area. Method: we followed the design science methodology to propose Uni-REPM SCS, a safety module for Unified Requirements Engineering Process Maturity Model (Uni-REPM). We also conducted a static validation with two practitioners and nine academic experts to evaluate its coverage, correctness, usefulness and applicability. Results: The module has seven main processes, fourteen sub-processes and 148 practices that form the basis of safety processes maturity. Moreover, we describe its usage through a tool. Conclusions: The validation indicates a good coverage of practices and well receptivity by the experts. Finally, the module can help companies in evaluating their current practices. IEEE

  • 550.
    Vishnubhotla, Sai Datta
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    An insight into the capabilities of professionals and teams in agile software development: A systematic literature review2018Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF 2018 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (ICSCA 2018), Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, s. 10-19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies investigated key characteristics of software engineers and factors influencing the performance of individuals, productivity of teams and project success within agile software development (ASD). They aided in the active investigation of human aspects in ASD. However, capability measurement and prediction with respect to agile workforce, owing to its importance, is an area that needs spotlight. Objective: The objective of this paper is to present the state of the art relating to capability measurement of software engineers and teams working in ASD projects. Method: We carried out a systematic literature review (SLR) focused on identifying attributes used for measuring and predicting the capabilities of individual software engineers and teams. Results: Evidence from 16 studies showed attributes that can measure capabilities of engineers and teams, and also attributes that can be used as capability predictors. Further, different instruments used to measure those attributes were presented. Conclusions: The SLR presented a wide list of attributes that were grouped into various categories. This information can be used by project managers as, for example, a checklist to consider when allocating software engineers to teams and in turn teams to a project. Further, this study indicated the necessity for an investigation into capability prediction models. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

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