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  • 51.
    Genkov, Atanas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Kudryashova, Alla
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Mo, Tianxiang
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Certification Schemes for Sustainable Buildings: Assessment of BREEAM, LEED and LBC from a Strategic Sustainable Development Perspective2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 52.
    Gilad, Shai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Husson, Margot
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Wygle, Mary
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Transformation of the City from the Bottom-Up: Supporting the Cohesion of Sustainability Initiatives2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing pressures on the global eco-system have reached a critical stage. Cities are the center of most pressures on the biosphere and the contribution to unsustainability. Examined critically, the Sustainable Initiatives addressing urban challenges tend to act independently from each other. This situation is called the Silo-Effect, which is the state of isolation of Sustainability Initiatives in the city arena. The Silo-Effect results in a situation where the Initiatives‘ use of time, energy, and resources is not optimal, therefore creating less effective impact towards urban sustainability. The purpose of this research is to suggest solutions to the Silo-Effect by asking the question, What are the components needed to support the cohesion of Sustainable Initiatives across silos in the city? The methodology of grounded theory inspired the data collection and analysis process of thirteen interviews with professionals from the field. Results confirmed the existence of the Silo-Effect and revealed the main components supporting Cohesion Across Silos. Emerging insights include the need to 1) create Supportive Structures that will maximize the abundant social, human, cultural and economic capitals of practitioners, provide a shared space, and support collaboration, coordination and communications efforts between Initiatives, 2) create new models of local governance and funding systems that support cohesion, and 3) focus experimentation on the neighborhood scale to minimize complexity.

  • 53.
    Glukhova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Cividini, Martina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Erimasita, Silvia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Closed loop building approach to address sustainability challenge into the future of urban areas2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanization trends and climate changes result in a significant pressure for a future development of urban areas. The construction industry can play a primary role in addressing some of the challenges, but in order to make it happen, the phases of design, construction, use and deconstructio of a building should meet the criteria of sustainability. The closed loop approach can help the construction industry to move in the right direction. 

    This thesis analysis the closed loop approach to identify its potential contribution in solving the sustainability challenges in urban areas, as well as explores the key aspects helping or hindering the implementation of the approach. The methods used for the research include the framework for strategic sustainable development, case study analysis and interviews with experts in the field.

    The research exposed several gaps in the use of the approach moving towards sustainability, mainly due to the fact that the unique and shared definition of it is missing and neither actions nor tools are suggested for a successful implementation of the approach. Main barriers are related to the material choice, flexibility of the design, communication and legislation aspects, work with supply chain and interaction with stakeholders. Nonetheless most of them are also seen as potential enablers. Recommendations are provided to help overcoming the existing barriers and valorizing the key enablers, but the clear definition of the approach is necessary to exploit potentialitie of the closed loop approach.  

  • 54.
    Goepel, Nell
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Svanhall, Frida
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Rahme, Maira
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Strategic Recommendations for the Design of Nudges towards a Sustainable Society.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 55.
    Gossenberger, Julia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Härnby, Fredrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sander, Lena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Steps in the Right Direction: Understanding European Sustainability Food Labels2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of feeding 9.55 billion people by 2050 is interwoven with the sustainability challenge, e.g. climate change, eutrophication, biodiversity loss, as well as social issues. These factors are affecting the ability to produce enough food for an increasing population, while the food system itself is a contributor to the declining capacities of the ecosystems. This thesis identifies Sustainability Food Labeling and Certification as one tool to promote more sustainable production and encourage conscious consumption. The complexity of the problem requires a strategic approach to strive towards sustainability. Therefore this thesis examines European Food Labels to gain understanding of the extent to which they address the sustainability challenge and how this could be improved by a Strategic Sustainable Development approach. Data was obtained through a document analysis of certification schemes and websites; and interviews with labeling bodies and platforms. The analysis revealed some weaknesses including definitions of sustainability which were found to be too general, a focus on mainly environmental sustainability, and little cooperation between labeling bodies. Using these findings, suggestions were drawn to foster a strategic approach. The recommendations call for a concrete definition of sustainability, a broader inclusion of social sustainability and greater cooperation between labels.

  • 56.
    Gould, Rachael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Integrating sustainability into concept selection decision-making2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The audience for this research is fellow researchers and others helping product developers to start including sustainability when they are selecting product concepts.

    The aims of the research were to understand the needs of product developers integrating sustainability into concept selection and what might be done to help them.

    The research approach was to iterate between the three studies of design research methodology. The first study focused on understanding the challenges that product developers face when integrating sustainability into concept selection. The aim of the second study was to identify potential support to help product developers to deal with the challenges.  And the third study was to try out the potential support to see if it actually helps product developers address the challenges they face. These studies were executed through reviewing literature and exploring two cases.

    The results led to a focus on supporting the decision-making process and supporting analysing with  respect to social sustainability.  Selecting concepts is a complex decision made under challenging conditions. Bringing in the complex, new and unfamiliar aspects of sustainability can make good decision-making even more challenging. When integrating sustainability, two particular barriers to good concept selection decision-making are errors due to illusory correlation and confirmation bias.

    Despite the challenges, how good you are at making decisions matters. And a good decision-making process drives good decisions. This is especially relevant when bringing in complex and unfamiliar aspects, such as sustainability.  A likely candidate for helping product developers achieve a good decision-making process when integrating sustainability is active, value-focused decision-support. In other words, structuring the process into bite-sized steps and using particular techniques to avoid bias. At each step, decision-makers’ focus is anchored by the things that stakeholders value as important.   Further research is required to investigate the details of how to employ these process-support approaches in the particular context of integrating sustainability into concept selection decision-making.

    In addition to a process, complicated selection decisions demand analysis. Support for analysing concepts with respect to social sustainability was identified as a gap. We explored a potential approach that might contribute to this analysis, but found that it was not useful for the particular decision in hand.  This opened up some interesting questions for further research.

  • 57.
    Gould, Rachael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    The individual human side of supporting sustainable design beginners2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting to include sustainability considerations in a design project is a transition requiring a change in how things are done, that is, a change in behaviour. Furthermore, this transition takes place in the midst of the usual pressures of product design. Prior research on sustainable design has mostly explored the so-called technical side – identifying what tasks should be performed, such as specifics of including sustainability criteria when analysing product concepts. However, this has not been enough. These tasks are not being performed to the extent that they could, or that is needed. Recent studies have advocated the consideration of the human nature of the people who are to execute these ‘technical’ tasks. In other words, there is a need to work with the socio-psychological factors in order to help sustainable design beginners to adopt new mindsets and practice (their usual way of doing design).

    My aim was therefore to investigate how to support individual product design team members with the human aspects of transitioning to executing sustainable design. In particular, I focused on supporting good individual decision-making and individual behaviour change. This aim was addressed through multiple research projects with four partner companies working with the early phases of product design. Given a focus to change practice, I followed an action research approach with a particular emphasis on theory building. This action research approach comprised two phases: understanding the challenge and context, and then iteratively developing solutions through a theorise–design-act-observe-reflect cycle.

    Through the research projects, my colleagues and I found that there are challenges related to behaviour change and decision-making that are hindering execution of sustainable design. In order to help organisations to overcome or avoid these challenges, we found that it may be beneficial for those developing sustainable design tools and methods to (i) use techniques to mitigate for cognitive illusions, (ii) provide individuals with the opportunity to implement sustainable design while helping those individuals to increase their motivation and capability to execute sustainable design, and (iii) communicate with these individuals in such a way as to avoid triggering psychological barriers (self-defence mechanisms). I combined these points into two models.

    Together with the partner organisations, we applied the two models to design some actions that we then tested. The actions included integrating behaviour change and decision-making considerations into sustainable design tools as well as stand-alone interventions in the culture.

    Given the findings of these studies, I urge developers of sustainable design tools to see implementation of their tool as a learning journey. The beginning of the journey should comprise small steps supported by handrails, which then increase in size and decrease in support as the journey continues. Especially in the beginning, tool developers will also need to help travellers to avoid the decision-making errors that occur due to being in unfamiliar territory.

     

  • 58.
    Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Svensson, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Shrinking and scaffolding: supporting behaviour change towards implementing sustainable design2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To start to include sustainability in a design project is a transition. This transition requires change in how people do things, that is, behaviour change, and it takes place in the midst of the usual pressures of product design. Prior research on sustainable design has mostly explored the so-called technical side – identifying what tasks should be performed, such as specifics of including sustainability criteria when analysing product concepts. Recent studies have advocated the consideration of the human nature of the people who are to implement these ‘technical’ tasks, to undergo and drive the transition.

    We therefore embarked on an action research project to support behaviour change towards implementing sustainable design in the individual members of design project teams. Our action research partner was a design consultancy who wanted to begin working with sustainable design. Our research question was: How might the partner organisation support individual behaviour change towards implementing sustainable design?

    Firstly, we identified some barriers to behaviour change; these barriers were related to motivation, capability and opportunity to apply sustainable design. Secondly, to investigate how to address the barriers and support individual behaviour change, we integrated concepts on behaviour change, motivation, learning for sustainability and climate communication to form a conceptual system (a theoretical model). In parallel, we undertook a participatory action research project with the consultancy, where we iteratively and collaboratively employed our model to develop ideas for specific actions that the organisation could take. We also tried out some of these actions and observed the outcomes.

    We learnt that it is important to not just define what ‘technical’ tasks project teams should ideally perform, but to also scaffold the journey as a series of simpler steps. Shrinking the ‘technical’ tasks into meaningful steps that are within reach helps individuals to feel confident and competent, which in turn leads to increased intrinsic motivation and behaviour change. Progressively achieving small steps aligned with their values reduces the risk of dissonance and denial, and therefore increases the potential for action.

    In this article, we present our model and our learnings.

  • 59.
    Gould, Rachael K
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Integrating sustainable development and design-thinking-based product design2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to integrate sustainable development and design-thinking-based product design in order that the product design then contributes to society’s transition to a sustainable future. This is an important pursuit since product lifecycles are a major cause of society’s current sustainability challenges. To address this, many authors argue for integrating sustainable development into existing design processes rather than developing stand-alone tools and methods.Through action research with a design consultancy who wanted to start working with sustainable product design, we iterated between three stages: understanding needs, designing action, and trying out the action. The first stage comprised document analysis, focus-group style workshops, a survey and interviews. When designing the actions (enhancements to their design-thinking-based process), we drew on literature on sustainable product design, decision-making for sustainability, and organisational learning and change for sustainability. We also drew on our research partners’ practical experience. The enhanced process was tried out and further developed through feedback, student testing and co-development meetings.The result is an enhanced process where project teams (i) use the outcomes from the inspiration phase of the existing process to choose sustainable design strategies that are relevant for their particular project. Once the teams have chosen which strategies to work with, for example, design for remanufacture, we suggest that they (ii) use the strategies to develop ideation foci/questions that help them explore the design space. The third enhancement is for teams to (iii) compare concepts with respect to sustainability as part of their concept comparison and evaluation.

  • 60.
    Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Why choose one sustainable design strategy over another: A decision-support prototype2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Van der Loos M.,Salustri F.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Kokkolaras M.,Maier A.M.,Skec S.,Kim H., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 5, p. 111-120, article id DS87-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable design strategies provide tangible ways for integrating sustainability into early phaseproduct design work. Examples include design for remanufacturing and design for the base of thepyramid. There are many such strategies and it is difficult to choose between them. Sustainable productdesign activities also need to be tailored to business priorities. We therefore designed a decision-supportprototype to aid project teams to choose strategies based on relevance to the project in terms of bothbusiness and sustainability value. To design the prototype, we first identified potential strategies fromsustainable product development literature. We then used literature on each of six selected strategies toidentify potential business and sustainability benefits. We developed a way to compare sustainabilityvalue based on a scientifically established definition of sustainability and a lifecycle perspective. Theprototype is designed to be usable by practitioners who are not necessarily sustainable design experts.The prototype was created to enable future work to test ways to integrate the selection of sustainabledesign strategies into the early phases of product design.

  • 61.
    Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Missimer, Merlina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Using social sustainability principles to analyse activities of the extraction lifecycle phase: Learnings from designing support for concept selection2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no 1, p. 267-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing product concepts with respect to social sustainability is a contemporary challenge for which there is little support available for product developers. Our aim was to build on previous work to support product developers in a case company with this challenge. We designed a first prototype of support for product developers to use a previously developed definition when analysing the extraction lifecycle activities associated with their product concepts. The prototype instructs users to model the location of the extraction activities and then use existing databases and indicators to analyse the social sustainability performance of each location. The databases and indicators were selected according to their relevance to scientific principles for social sustainability. We then performed initial evaluation of the support, through which we learnt that the approach may make it possible for product developers to analyse extraction activities, but the level of accuracy of analysis that is possible is not good enough for comparing the concepts in the case study decision. We discuss the implications of these challenges and suggest that it may be better to re-design our approach in order to provide learningful support for product developers or support for other decision-making in the company.

  • 62.
    Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Svensson, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Sustainable product development and tricks on the mind: Formulating conceptual models of cognitive illusions and mitigating actions2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar to visual illusions playing tricks on your eyes, cognitive illusions cause you to misjudge reality and therefore potentially make biased decisions. You are especially vulnerable when starting to introduce sustainability into concept development decision-making since this setting offers unfamiliarity, and complexity. Given a shortage of theories regarding which cognitive illusions product developers are susceptible to, we formulated a conceptual model. This model is based on the decision-making tasks that product developers undertake when they are developing concepts and the conditions that they experience when integrating sustainability into this decision-making. From decision-making literature, we identified the following cognitive illusions as occurring when undertaking those tasks under those conditions: availability, anchoring and confirmation bias when generating ideas; illusory correlation and validity effect when selecting between ideas; evaluability bias and status quo bias when gate reviewing. Based on the model, we synthesised literature on how to mitigate for the identified illusions and organised this synthesis according to when (during which task type) a product developer should perform the mitigating actions. These mitigating actions vary according to task type and focus on the quality of the decision-making process.

  • 63.
    Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Thompson, Anthony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A method for comparing concepts with respect to sustainability and other values2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting concepts involves challenging decisions because decision-makers must consider many factors and the implications of the selection are far-reaching and unknown. As markets become increasingly sustainability-driven, bringing sustainability considerations into the decision is necessary. This is challenging due to the complexity of the concept of sustainability and it being unfamiliar to many decision-makers. In this work we therefore aimed to develop support for helping decision-makers to consider sustainability when selecting a concept. We undertook a case study where we studied decision-makers selecting a road construction process. Then we developed a method of support to help these decision-makers to select a process. The developed method helps decision-makers consider sustainability aspects when selecting concepts. The method supports decision-makers to compare alternatives by using indicators that are based on the values of actors in the extended value network. Global society is included as an actor who values development that is more sustainable. We modelled and visualised the outputs from the developed method in order to support decision-makers in the case study with their specific decision. Early indications from our testing are that the method and general approach could be useful for decision-makers wanting to consider sustainability in concept selection.

  • 64.
    Grunde, John
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Li, Siqi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Merl, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Craft Breweries and Sustainability: Challenges, Solutions, and Positive Impacts2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently our society is heading towards the walls of the funnel; the funnel being a metaphor that describes the growing pressures that is acting on society. In order to move society towards sustainability and away from the walls of the funnel, all areas of our society need to move in that direction. Craft breweries being a part of this society need to move, as well. This research uses the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) to assess the sustainability challenges and the positive impacts of a craft brewery, as well as viable solutions to overcome the challenges these breweries face. The data was collected through literature, sustainability reports and a survey. Our research revealed five main challenges and four main positive impacts of a craft brewery; these challenges are energy, water, agriculture, packaging and distribution, and alcohol consumption, while the positive impacts are local connection, local economy, social interaction, and cultural identity. Furthermore, a prototype of a tool was developed to help craft breweries to become more sustainable and could help to move society, as a whole, towards sustainability.

  • 65.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    HOW TO DEFINE A SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN SPACE2015In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED). Milan, Italy, July 27-30, 2015., DESIGN SOC, UNIV STRATHCLYDE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In order for a company to define a sustainability design space and become more sustainable it must know: what sustainability means; how sustainability can be achieved; and, how sustainability can be measured. 

    The main contribution of this paper is an approach to define the design space for sustainability, with purpose to give support in the early product innovation process. A novel approach is presented for how to identify strategic sustainability criteria, tactical design guidelines and sustainability compliance index that are important parts of a sustainability design space. A case company within the aerospace industry has been chosen to test and validate the sustainability criteria and how it can give support in evaluating the current sustainability profile of a product component by using the suggested Sustainability Compliance Index (SCI). 

    The result from company feedback and early pilot-testing showed that the sustainability criteria and sustainability compliance index can give support in decisions regarding sustainability perspective in early concept development. The pilot-tests also indicated that there is a need for further development and validation.

  • 66.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sustainability criteria and sustainability compliance index for decision support in product development2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 251-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability criteria used for decision support in the product innovation process and aligned throughout the design process is one key element to efficiently introduce a sustainability perspective early in product development. The aim of this paper is to present an approach for identifying such sustainability criteria and to suggest a process for how these can be developed in any manufacturing company. The sustainability criteria are presented in a set of matrices, separating the criteria into product life-cycle phases and socio-ecological sustainability principles. In addition the paper presents a qualitative measurement scale for the criteria, called a sustainability compliance index that indicates to what degree a product or process concept performs in relation to a sustainable solution. The sustainability criteria were tested in different settings at a case company within the aerospace industry to give a first indication and evaluation of the ability to give guidance and support in bringing in a sustainability perspective when developing, evaluating and selecting different concepts in the early phases of product development.

  • 67.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Material criticality assessment in early phases of sustainable product development2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 161, p. 40-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving structural performance of products is often realized by introducing increasingly advanced and complex materials as well as material combinations. What material to use in products is decided in the early product development phases and has a decisive impact for manufacturing, maintenance and end-of-life. A particular challenge is that the decisions need to be made upfront, where information of the forthcoming product is limited. This paper presents an early product development method to assess the criticality of alloy materials from a resource availability- and sustainability perspective. The method distinguishes itself from previous studies that focus on element criticality on a country level. The method is used to characterize and analyze the criticality of alloys in a three-step process that aims to support product design teams selecting what material alloy to use in early phases of design. It provides a proactive and systematic approach related to critical materials to avoid potential future problems on a long-term basis. The method presented has been developed in an action research-based approach in an aerospace company where a product design team validated and evaluated the material criticality method. The generic nature of the method is likely to be applicable not only to aerospace companies but also to other industries using advanced alloys. An important finding from applying the method in the company case was the clear link between long term business impact and sustainability performance. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 68.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Wallin, Johanna
    Zetterlund, Helena
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Material criticality method: Product vulnerability from a sustainable business perspective2016In: Proceedings of the International Design Conference / [ed] Bojcetic N.,Marjanovic D.,Pavkovic N.,Storga M.,Skec S., DESIGN SOC, UNIV STRATHCLYDE , 2016, Vol. DS 84, p. 221-230Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Pigosso, Daniella
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DEN.
    Sustainability integration in a technology readiness assessment framework2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Van der Loos M.,Salustri F.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Kokkolaras M.,Maier A.M.,Skec S.,Kim H., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 5, no DS87-5, p. 229-238, article id DS87-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an approach to systematically include sustainability into the Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) is proposed. The aim is to answer the question "how can sustainability provide systematic guidance in technology development and early product development?". Results from a case study illustrate that the suggested approach can support i) the inclusion of sustainability into the early design stages, when only limited data and information is available; ii) the enhancement of the comprehensiveness of sustainability and ease of use in the day-to-day engineering working environment; and iii) simplified sustainability assessments without being too simplistic and/or reducing the sustainability scope. The proposed approach is being co-developed in collaboration with a case company, and tests on an actual technology development project are planned. The next steps are related to the application of the proposed approach in other companies to test its robustness and enhance its generalization for application in diverse contexts.

  • 70.
    Holmstedt, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, SWE.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, SWE.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Can Stockholm Royal Seaport be part of the puzzle towards global sustainability?: From local to global sustainability using the same set of criteria2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sustainable development is today seen as one of the keys towards unlocking the quest for a sustainable world. One feature of urban sustainability is the increased interest in developing sustainable urban districts. For many of these developments, guiding sustainability documents are developed to frame future goals. However, few of these documents specify on which grounds they determine the sustainability of goals and they are largely developed as independent islands of local sustainability. This is unfortunate as cities and their districts are fully dependent on surrounding environments. Failing to include a holistic approach into the local planning increases the risk of sub-optimisation, future lock-ins and missed targets on a higher level. The aim of this study is to analyse whether the environmental and sustainability programme for Stockholm Royal Seaport, a new urban district in Stockholm, Sweden, can guide development of the district towards holistic ecological sustainability. By using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development a holistic template for an ecologically sustainable planet has been described, important sectors for the built environment have been identified and the environmental and sustainability programme for the district has been analysed. This study showed that the vision and operational goals put forward in the Stockholm Royal Seaport programme complies relatively well with the designed template. However, important deviations in all sectors but land use have been identified. These deviations arise in the translation process between theory and practice. The vision for the district and the implementation phase are not aligned due to too narrow a perspective of a sustainable urban district, lack of robust sustainability principles including use of such to identify key strategic questions. In addition to the lack of an all-embracing conceptual framework, there is also a lack of structures for cooperation between stakeholders and conflicts between local and regional agendas. Use of a unifying framework can describe desirable future scenarios where the local level does not contribute to violation of the universal sustainability principles and identify step-wise routes towards such scenarios. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 71.
    Hoy, Sara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sarker, Christina Swarna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schmidt, Eike Niclas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Planting Seeds for the Future: Sustainability, Theory U, and Youth2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Youth will be dealing with the global sustainability challenge that our world is currently facing. They are considered to play a crucial role as future leaders in the transition towards a more sustainable society. These leaders need an inherent understanding of the sustainability challenge that they are confronted with. This research explores how sustainability practitioners can use Theory U in order to help younger generations approach sustainability. Both the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) and Theory U informed this research as they use a systems thinking approach to deal with complexity. A qualitative research approach was chosen, and sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted. The results revealed seven overarching themes around youth, youth and sustainability, and using Theory U with youth. The findings suggest that Theory U can support sustainability practitioners in working with youth as it offers a strong systems thinking approach, personal development, and connectedness for youth. Complementary with the FSSD’s rigorous approach to sustainability, Theory U offers great potential to youth and sustainability that is yet untapped. In equipping youth at an early age with leadership skills, capacities, and a wider awareness, Theory U can plant the seeds for future sustainability leaders to grow. 

  • 72. Isaksson, Ola
    et al.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Model Based Decision Support for Value and Sustainability in Product Development2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposing and clarify “sustainability” implications in the same way as concrete targets on product functionality is challenging, mainly due to the problem of showing numbers and ‘hard facts’ related to the value generated by sustainability-oriented decisions. The answer lies in methods and tools that are able, already in a preliminary design stage, to highlight how sustainable design choice can create value for customers and stakeholders, generating market success in the long term. The paper objective is to propose a framework where Sustainable Product Development (SPD) and Value Driven Design (VDD) can be integrated to realize a model-driven approach to support early stage design decisions. Also, the paper discusses how methods and tools for Model-Based Decision Support (MBDS) (e.g., response surface methodology) can be used to increase the computational efficiency of sustainability- and value-based analysis of design concepts. The paper proposes a range of activities to guide a model-based evaluation of sustainability consequences in design, showing also that capabilities exist already today for combining research efforts into a multi disciplinary decision making environment.

  • 73.
    Isaksson, Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Luleå universitet, SWE.
    Digitalisation, sustainability and servitisation: Consequences on product development capabilities in manufacturing firms2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, The Design Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of the three mega-trends (1) digitalisation (2) sustainability and (3) servitisation on design and development capabilities in manufacturing companies. First, technological advancements have created both product opportunities, and new aids, captured in e.g. the Industry 4.0 paradigm, and intensively driving digitalisation of businesses, that, besides the technological challenges, cause new challenges and problem areas, such as information ownership and shared long-term responsibilities. Second, the need for sustainable solutions increases the focus on the design of circular, resource efficient and radically new technological solutions to be designed with a total life cycle perspective in mind, through use phase, repair and overhaul, until recycling and end-of-life. Third, and finally, the classical roles for suppliers, integrators and users are being changed as servitisation and Product-Service Systems (PSS) offerings affect both products and businesses, and ultimately entire value networks with new constellations of business partners contributing to the realization of solutions for customers. This paper builds on a conceptual literature review to identify relevant information about the three trends regarding their impact on design and societal development. In addition, a semi-structured interview study was conducted to investigate possibilities and challenges that four different types of manufacturing companies perceive today with respect to the mega-trends, and more specifically how these trends impact the design and development capabilities in the studied companies. Results from this empirical study show that digitalisation is viewed as an opportunity to find new solutions to meet customer needs and be competitive at the future market. Sustainable Product Development (SPD) was instead primarily to fulfil requirements and legislation. However, it was clear that some manufacturers start to see market forces as a driver. PSS can be seen as a means to create new solutions, often with digital tools as facilitator. Altogether, the literature study and the empirical data show that increasingly, designers are expected to design entire solutions, as opposed to merely artefacts. This implies that designers need to consider not only the product performance and cost, but products' and solutions' behaviour and impact over complete life cycles, developed and organized by business networks together with several suppliers and other partners with different capabilities. The basis for the designer is a technology mix comprising services, software, electronics and hardware, bundled into offerings in new business models, interlinked with new digital opportunities. Moreover, it is clear that the three trends do not represent stand-alone perspectives but affect one another in an intertwined way. To achieve long-term effects, the sustainability issues need to be integrated with many other subject areas, and implemented simultaneously as digital solutions, e.g. digital twins to physical artefacts are conceived, and value creating networks are being built up. Obviously, these three trends affect the need for change in product design capabilities and escalate the challenges of the integrated product development viewpoint, in a way that is difficult to master for individual engineers. Support for design and development work is needed that takes into account the mega-trends digitalisation, sustainability, and servitisation.

  • 74.
    Jaghbeer, Yasmeen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Exploration of Simulation-Driven Support Tools for Sustainable Product Development2017In: Procedia CIRP / [ed] Tim C. McAloone, Daniela C.A. Pigosso, Niels Henrik Mortensen and Yoshiki Shimomura, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, p. 271-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global society is encountering many challenges such as climate change, resource depletion, etc., which comes with a set of challenges and opportunities for businesses. Applied research in operational tools and methods that support sustainable product- and service systems innovation, aims to strengthen businesses to overcome these challenges. In recent years, several tools and methods have been developed in the sustainable product development field with focus on modelling and digitalization. This paper explores how sustainability has been integrated in modelling and simulation, and presents results from a literature review with the purpose of highlighting opportunities and challenges in the field. Furthermore, an initial model-based engineering support toolbox (MBE) is presented, with focus on support tools for socio-ecological sustainability integration in the early product development stages.

  • 75.
    Jaghbeer, Yasmeen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Motyka, Yvonne
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A process for designing lean-and sustainable production2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, The Design Society, 2017, no DS87-1, p. 51-60, article id DS87-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's trends such as globalization, increased customer demands, and increased sustainability challenges have caused a paradigm shift, where the importance of designing lean-and sustainable modern manufacturing systems is realized by many companies. This study proposes a process of action steps using Value Stream Mapping method integrated with sustainability life cycle analysis and sustainability compliance index to assist in designing lean-and sustainable production systems. The developed process was validated through a case study to test the adopted tools and how they can capture and improve the lean-and sustainability levels. The current sustainability and lean levels were explored first, followed by analyzing and developing the future improved state. A roadmap of about 40 actions was suggested to the case company distributed on a one year time plan. The key contribution of this study is an applicable and generic process of action steps including several adopted tools from the leanand sustainable product development fields to help manufacturing companies in creating roadmaps for more lean-and sustainable production systems.

  • 76.
    Jansson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Jasinska, Martyna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nordbeck, Katarina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Enhancing Restoration Guidelines Through a Strategic Sustainable Development Approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Land areas being used unsustainably are depleted and/or degraded. To prevent this from happening and/or to reverse the effects, we need to restore these environments. However, not all restoration practices are equal, and some do not adhere to rigorous standards of sustainability. In this study, restoration guidelines and opinions from field experts were analysed from an SSD perspective. The focus of this thesis was limestone quarries in northern Europe due to quarries’ impacts to the socio-ecological system and the sensitivity of northern ecosystems. The results were divided into two sub-sections: FSSD comparison to guidelines, which included an SP analysis to principles in guidelines, and interviews. The conclusion was that the SSD approach could enhance these quarry restoration guidelines by incorporating the recommendations formulated from the results and discussion. One recommendation was having the eight SPs as overarching boundaries for success. Incorporating these recommendations would fill the sustainability gaps, aiding in the practitioner's ability to be strategic and have long-term success within sustainable limits. 

  • 77.
    Kolb, Florentina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Swinton, Frank
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Solodovnik, Iuliia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Jönsson, Tina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Putting Farm-to-School on Sweden’s sustainability menu2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global food system plays a significant role in the sustainability challenge. One way to approach such a complex problem is to provide a science-based, functional definition of success, and then to find leverage points in the system that can force change. Because they are accessed by all children, we see food education and responsibly sourced school food as such leverage points.

    Farm-to-School is a US concept which encourages schools to provide classroom food education, a garden, and locally produced food in the school restaurant. We explored how the Farm-to-School concept might move the Swedish public-school system, in a strategic way, towards sustainability, using the municipality of Karlskrona as an example.

    We interviewed stakeholders in Karlskrona to understand the current system, and what the benefits of Farm-to-School and the obstacles to implementation might be. We also interviewed stakeholders in the US, to gain knowledge about their experience of Farm-toSchool.

    We found that in Karlskrona there are some initiatives but restrictive regulations hindered innovation and local procurement, insufficient leadership meant there was no unified vision to work towards, collaboration was absent and not encouraged, and there was a shortage of resources. We therefore do not advise implementing Farm-to-School at present.

  • 78.
    Koukouvetsios, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Suci, Putri Sari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Velpula, John Vimal Tej Kumar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Winterhalder, Johanna Maria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Mapping Social Sustainability Tools2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the lack of clear guidance regarding the way business could include social sustainability into their operations, the objective of this research project was to study the functionality of social sustainability tools which are used worldwide by business practitioners and assess how useful these tools are to overcome barriers related with social aspects of sustainability as they are described in the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD): health, influence, competence, impartiality and meaning-making. A qualitative method analysis was selected, based upon direct content analysis. Elements from the 5 Level Framework (5LF) and the FSSD were used for designing two review processes to analyse selected social sustainability tools. The 5LF is useful for planning in complex systems, while the FSSD is designed to address complex challenges and recognize opportunities which aim to sustainability. The findings from the research show which tools, based on their functionality, can help a company move towards sustainability and illustrate how they address different social sustainability aspects. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed which included key features of the selected social sustainability tools. These recommendations could help business practitioners to choose the most appropriate tool for specific business context depending on the company’s needs.

  • 79.
    Kwok, Sze Yin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Towards Strategic Sustainable Product Development: Challenges and Opportunities for Communicating Sustainability in a Value Chain2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, The Design Society, 2018, Vol. Code 141730Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable product development and sustainable manufacturing have been considered one of the main enablers towards addressing the global sustainability challenge. Sustainable communication among stakeholders in a value chain is believed to be an important catalyst for effective collaboration towards reaching sustainability goals. However, research that focuses on sustainability communication in the context of product development remains scant.

    Sustainable product development literature has traditionally examined decision-making and value-adding activities without explicitly considering sustainable communication as part of these. A great variety of tools, methods and frameworks have been developed to enhance understanding of the complex sustainability challenge and support decision-making in product development and consumption. However, there lacks a complete picture of sustainability communication in product development context from a practical point of view.

    This paper aims to provide an updated overview of the existing practices in sustainability communication and related support tools. The overarching research question was defined to be: How to improve support for sustainability communication among stakeholders in a value chain?

    Findings reported in this paper are drawn from a conceptual literature review and a workshop with participants from two large product development and manufacturing companies. This paper outlines an overview of sustainability communication tools on operational, tactical and strategic levels in relation to stakeholders in the upstream and downstream of a value chain. It was found that the biggest communication gap lies between product developers and consumers. This led to the specific question of how can consumers communicate sustainability related information to product developers to accelerate the development towards more sustainable solutions? Challenges of bridging this communication gap, as well as challenges for applying support tools in the product innovation process are delineated. Based on the discussion with industrial partners involved in the workshop, a number of success factors of support tools were identified. Opportunities for developing sustainability communication solutions are proposed with an emphasis on connecting consumers with product developers. Two future research directions are suggested to be i) further investigation into consumer perception to improve information design on different levels, and ii) closing the communication loop with consumers using digital technologies such as the internet-of-things.

  • 80.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    The missing pillar: exploring social sustainability in product development2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are increasingly pressed to consider sustainability aspects when making decisions during product development. However, the methodological support for doing so is immature. The immaturity is particularly pronounced regarding the social dimension (or pillar) of sustainability and regarding strategic sustainability considerations. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore how the social dimension of sustainability and a strategic sustainability perspective could be better included in methodological support for product development. This was pursued in two ways.

     

    Firstly, a two-staged review of the literature was conducted. Stage one focused on summarizing the state of the art of integration of social sustainability aspects in product development and stage two focused on critically analyzing and evaluating these efforts. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was used to guide the analysis of the current integration efforts and the evaluation of their potential for supporting sustainable product development and strategic sustainable development in general. Secondly, a recently published principled definition of social sustainability was used to enhance two approaches for including sustainability considerations in product development. One of these approaches is focused on decision-making support at concept selection, based on assessment and comparison of sustainability implications of the considered product concepts. The other approach is focused on developing sustainability criteria and a related sustainability compliance index in support of concept development.

     

    In the literature review, social life cycle assessment methods (Social LCA) were found to represent a large part of the current efforts, and several challenges with those methods were identified. From a decision support perspective, they were found to have weaknesses regarding applicability and robustness: results from the assessment, usually performed by scientists to evaluate a scientific question, may be too complex to interpret from a business standpoint; the impact perspective may be too narrow, missing important aspects of social sustainability; and generally they lack a strategic perspective. The use of a strategic sustainable development perspective in the approaches prototyped in this thesis is a way of tackling these challenges. The use of backcasting from visions framed by sustainability principles can: help organize and make sense of the general field of sustainability, highlighting where overlaps between objectives exist; provide the long term perspective needed for sustainability; allow for product developers to gain awareness of potential impacts of a product’s life cycle phases within existing knowledge, time and resource constraints; help build a roadmap in order to reduce a product’s contribution to unsustainability (including social unsustainability).

     

    Future research will focus on further testing and development of the suggested approaches and specifically on further development of tactical design guidelines that provide support for the fulfilment of long-term sustainability criteria and clarify the connection between decisions taken during product development and a product’s sustainability profile.

  • 81.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Analyzing Social LCA approaches through the lens of Strategic Sustainable Development2016In: Proceedings of ISPIM Conferences, 2016, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years several approaches to Social LCA have been proposed. Despite recognized shortcomings of those, recent development has focused more on testing existing approaches and less on finding a unifying framework that can support Social LCA to deliver on its promise: to aid decision making regarding social issues related to product life cycles. This paper offers an analysis and evaluation of the potential contribution of the body of work on Social LCA to sustainable development using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. A number of strengths and weaknesses from a strategic sustainability perspective are identified and recommendations to improve the support for how to deal with social issues in the product innovation process are provided.

  • 82.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    An Introductory Approach to Concretize Social Sustainability for Sustainable Manufacturing2016In: Proceedings of TMCE 2016 / [ed] I. Horváth, J.-P. Pernot, Z. Rusák, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the growing awareness of sustainability issues and importance of considering sustainability aspects in the product innovation process, the methodological support for doing so is still immature compared to the methodological support for considering other aspects in the decision-making, such as product performance and manufacturability. The immaturity is particularly pronounced regarding the social dimension of sustainability. In this paper we use a novel process for identifying sustainability criteria and estimating a sustainability compliance index, with the purpose of supporting inclusion of social sustainability aspects in the decision-making in product development. By including social sustainability aspects into a compliance metric, the foundations for strategic and operative decisions can be integrated. The process has been developed and tested collaboratively with industry representatives in a selected case company. Preliminary results show that social sustainability criteria can be integrated in a meaningful way into a more complete metric, and that the learning resulting from gathering knowledge and experience is a first deployable benefit of the process. Challenges and possible ways forward for further implementing social sustainability aspects in product development are also identified and discussed. The next step will be to further test the applicability of the results, by involving more representatives in the case company and from companies in its value chain.

  • 83.
    Levy Franca, César
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Basile, George
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Thompson, Anthony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Exploring the Nexus of Product-Service Systems, Business Models and Sustainability - a need for strategic and practical approaches2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems (PSS) have been identified as potentially important for addressing sustainability challenges. However, progress has been relatively slow as regards realizing this potential, and a lack of practical approaches to the design of business models capable of supporting implementation of such PSS has been proposed as a partial reason. The aim of this study is to explore connections and the potential functional nexus between the three fields of PSS, Business Models and Sustainability, in pursuit of possible key enablers to further realization of the potential for sustainability-promoting PSS. A systematic review and analysis of the academic literature is performed. The review shows that, although a relatively new and unexplored endeavor, there is growing effort at the interface of the three fields. The review indicates that the main deficit so far is that the PSS and business model fields lack concrete guidelines and practical tools for how to embrace the sustainability dimension in a strategic way. Especially the strategic dimension emerges as a general finding from diverse sources as a potential key enabler for mutual benefits across the three fields. The study thus points to the need for research aiming at developing such guidelines and tools, and also at exploring case-based applications to create experiential knowledge, to fill the gaps in current theory and practice.

  • 84.
    Lindner, Patrick
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Mooij, Cynthia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Rogers, Heather
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Circular Economy in Cities: A Strategic Approach Towards a Sustainable Society?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing environmental and social pressure caused by human activity requires action toward a sustainable society. As our population grows and the proportion living in urban areas increases, cities are in a unique position to affect change. This has led to Circular Economy (CE) gaining momentum in municipalities as a tool for their city. Despite this momentum, there is lack of clarity about what CE is, how it can be most effectively implemented, and its relationship to strategic sustainable development (SSD).

    This research synthesized definitions of CE used in the field and investigated 21 cities worldwide to see how their municipalities have implemented CE practices. Using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD), the implemented actions were critically examined for their strategic contribution toward a sustainable society.

    The findings suggest that CE is defined broadly, and interpreted differently by different users. In some cases, this presents challenges for its strategic use. The CE actions examined are concluded to be within the boundaries of a sustainable society, as defined by the FSSD. Their strategic approach is determined to be largely positive, with some exceptions. Depending on its application, CE is concluded to be a useful, albeit insufficient, tool for municipalities working toward SSD.

  • 85.
    Liu, Qiyang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Han, Yini
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Liddawi, Shafiq
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Key Factors of Public Attitude towards Sustainable Transport Policies: A Case Study in Four Cities in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban transport systems are facing seemingly irreconcilable problems.Sustainable transport policies are necessary to address this sustainability challenge. However,their effectiveness highly depends on the public attitude towards them. A method combiningboth qualitative and quantitative research was used to redefine a sustainable transport policybased on sustainability principles, and find out the key factors of public attitude towardssustainable transport policies. Furthermore, the interrelations between these factors arerevealed by using structural equation modelling. 1685 questionnaires were sent to fourrepresentative cities in Sweden: Stockholm, Göteborg, Uppsala and Karlskrona. By using thisfirst hand data, we discovered some differences between Karlskrona and these other threecities. The negative attitudes towards reducing car use and promoting public transport inKarlskrona is opposite to the positive attitudes in other cities. The acceptance of taxes, speedlimitation and parking regulation is notably different as well. The results also indicate that citycharacteristics influence public attitudes towards sustainable transport policies more thancitizens’ characteristics. The functionality of a city is the most significant factor. Moreover,the results show a high dependence on individual car use. This suggests that planners shouldnot use the experience gained from other cities without investigating actual local conditions.

  • 86.
    Maria, Dzurik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Adrianne, Gilbride
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Dana, Gierke
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Purpose beyond Profit: Sustainability in the Outdoor Industry2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing population, finite resources, over-consumption, and unsustainable trends in business contribute to urgent and complex sustainability challenges in society. The intent of this research is to understand the role business can play in moving society toward sustainability, specifically by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses present in the outdoor industry. Evaluation of the outdoor industry using a lens of the FSSD highlights unique opportunities for the outdoor industry in moving society toward sustainability while addressing the complex challenges. Using the advantages of being cooperative and sharing the values of trust and a connection to nature, the outdoor industry has the potential to make a unique shift from the current profit-driven market economy. This thesis examines how the current operations of the industry can be more strategic, efficient, and impactful in moving consumers, business, and society in a transition toward sustainability.

  • 87.
    McNeil, Jenna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Propfe, Dirk
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schwarzin, Oskar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Teal Organizations and Strategic Sustainable Development: A promising apprach to transition businesses towards sustainability2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 88.
    Michel, Caroline
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Kamalaldin, Anmar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sweet, Kelly
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Cultivating the Future: Sustainability Education and the International Baccalaureate Programme2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an introduction to the Sustainability Challenge and Sustainable Development this paper discusses the role of education as an important strategy in the transition towards sustainability. It argues that Sustainability Education (SE) should be infused into the curricula, especially at the adolescence stage. The research uses the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development as an approach for backcasting from the envisioned future: the ideal secondary school graduate equipped to meet the Sustainability Challenge.By conducting a meta-analysis of literature, the research develops the Criteria for Analysing Sustainability Education (CASE). In terms of Knowledge, it advises developing awareness of Sustainable Development, Economy, Environment and Society. With regard to Skills, it includes Cognitive Thinking Skills, Practical and Functional Skills, and Interpersonal Skills. In relation to Attitudes, it comprises Attitudes about Self and Attitudes about People and Planet.The paper then evaluates the International Baccalaureate (IB) Programme, using the CASE and interviews with practitioners, with focus on curriculum design of the Middle Years Programme, Diploma Programme, and Learner Profile. It concludes that the IB generally aligns with the criteria for quality SE, but some gaps exist. The paper suggests recommendations that can further improve the IB with regard to SE.

  • 89.
    Milletorp, Eva
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. eva@blevant.se.
    Busiku, Christopher
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Candiotti Bustamente, Jean Pierre
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Fostering Sustainable Entrepreneurship by Governmental Entrepreneurship Agencies: The Case of Almi Blekinge2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of entrepreneurship for economic growth has long been recognized. It is also widely agreed that we are facing a sustainability challenge, which, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, is largely created by the economic activities of the industrialized society. Corporate social responsibility and other global initiatives have not been sufficient in changing industry processes to more sustainable activities. Governments regulate activities in society through laws and guidelines, thus there is a clear role of governments in regulating the quality and outcomes of entrepreneurial initiatives in order to advance a sustainable development of society. The researchers´purpose was to understand how the governmental entrepreneurship promotion agency, Almi is fostering sustainable entrepreneurship and to recommend improvements. With a qualitative research method, the case of Almi Blekinge was studied. The research shows that Almi has the possibility to shape the entrepreneurial outcomes by adjusting the current mechanism with planetary socio-eco boundaries of sustainability. The recommendation is that Almi should steer their advising services towards a coaching dynamic where contributions to the socio-ecological system are assessed with the ultimate goal for companies to contribute to sustainable growth.

  • 90.
    Missimer, Merlina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Social Sustainability within the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common criticism of the sustainability field is that definitions are vague and that the vast amount of different tools, methods and concepts leads to confusion. In response to this challenge, for the past 25 years a group of scientists has explored the possibility to develop an overarching and unifying framework that would allow for a structured overview of other concepts, methods and tools and therefore allow for concrete, strategic planning for sustainability. Over this 25-year period the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) has been tested in learning loops between scientists and practitioners and has continuously been developed. The aim of this research is to contribute specifically to the social sustainability definition of this framework, which has been found lacking both in theory and practice.

    The research first establishes exactly in which ways the social dimension is underdeveloped, both from a theoretical and from a practitioner’s perspective. In addition, the research explores the general field of social sustainability in order to understand the larger field, but also to gather inspiration and understand similar approaches. This exploration leads to the conclusion that also the larger field of social sustainability is also under-developed and underscores the importance of this research.

    Based on this conclusion, a new approach to social sustainability within the FSSD is created based on a systems approach to the social system. Various aspects of the social system are identified to be essential for sustainability, namely trust, common meaning, diversity, capacity for learning and capacity for self-organization. Then, overriding mechanisms by which these aspects of the social system can be degraded are identified. Based on the understanding of the essential aspects of the social system and the identified overriding mechanisms of degradation of these, a hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability by basic principles is presented. The proposed principles are, that in a socially sustainable society, people are not subject to structural obstacles to: (1) health, (2) influence, (3) competence, (4) impartiality and (5) meaning-making. These aim to function as exclusion criteria for re-design for social sustainability. The research then presents two evaluations of this new approach, one based on workshops and interviews with FSSD practitioners and one via an FSSD-analysis of ISO 26000. Both evaluations support this new approach as useful and workable, and also contribute to suggestions for further improvement. 

    Overall, the research contributes with a hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability, which is general enough to be applied irrespective of spatial and temporal constraints, but concrete enough to guide decision-making and monitoring. This is a contribution to systems science in the sustainability field, and it is a step towards creating an enhanced support for strategic planning and innovation for sustainability.

  • 91.
    Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A Strategic Approach to Social Sustainability - Part 2: A Principle-based Definition2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 42-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast and growing array of concepts, methods and tools in the sustainability field imply a need for a structuring and coordinating framework, including a unifying and operational definition of sustainability. One attempt at such framework began over 25 years ago and is now widely known as the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. However, as with the larger sustainability field, the social dimension of this framework has been found to not be sufficiently science-based and operational and thus in need of further development. In this two-part series an attempt at a science-based, operational definition of social sustainability is presented. In part 1 a systems-based approach to the social system was presented, based on extensive literature studies as well as conceptual modelling sessions using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development as the guiding structure. The focus of that study was on the essential aspects of the social system that need to be sustained, namely trust, common meaning, diversity, capacity for learning and capacity for self-organization. The aim of this second paper is to identify and present overriding mechanisms by which these aspects of the social system can be degraded, thereby finding exclusion criteria for re-design for sustainability. Further literature studies, conceptual modelling sessions and initial testing of this prototype with partners in academia, business and NGOs were performed. Based on the understanding of the essential aspects of the social system and the identified overriding mechanisms of degradation of these, a hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability by basic principles is presented. The proposed principles are that in a socially sustainable society, people are not subject to structural obstacles to: (1) health, (2) influence, (3) competence, (4) impartiality and (5) meaning-making. Overall, the two papers aim to provide a hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability, which is general enough to be applied irrespective of spatial and temporal constraints, but concrete enough to guide decision-making and monitoring. It is also a further development of the social dimension of the FSSD, which practitioners and researchers have requested for some time and can act as a support towards better integration of social sustainability in many other fields, e.g., sustainable product innovation, sustainable supply chain management, sustainable transport system development, and others.

  • 92.
    Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A Strategic Approach to Social Sustainability -Part 1: Exploring the Social System2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 32-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast and growing array of concepts, methods and tools in the sustainability field imply a need for a structuring and coordinating framework, including a unifying and operational definition of sustainability. One attempt at such framework began over 25 years ago and is now widely known as the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. However, as with the larger sustainability field, the social dimension of this framework has been found to not be sufficiently science-based and operational and thus in need of further development. In this two-part series an attempt at a science-based, operational definition of social sustainability is presented. In this paper (part one), a systems-based approach to the social system is presented, as a basis for presenting a zero-hypothesis of principles for social sustainability in part two. Extensive literature studies as well as conceptual modeling sessions were performed and the social system was examined from various angles – complex adaptive system studies, human needs theory and other social sciences, and insights from these fields were woven together. The whole work was structured and guided by the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. The focus of the study was on the essential aspects of the social system that need to be sustained (that cannot be systematically degraded) for it to be possible for people to meet their needs. These essential aspects were found to be trust, common meaning, diversity, capacity for learning and capacity for self-organization. Trust seems to be generally acknowledged to be the overriding aspect of a vital social system. A sense of common meaning is also stated by several authors as an important part of social capital and something that helps to keep a group or society together. Diversity is acknowledged as essential for resilience; in the human social system this can be interpreted as, e.g., diversity of personalities, ages, gender, skills. Capacity for learning and self-organization are also motivated from a resilience point of view by several authors. These results form a basis for the hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability presented in paper 2, which in turn is a step towards creating an enhanced support for strategic planning and innovation for sustainability.

  • 93.
    Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    A Systems Perspective on ISO 260002014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its publication in 2010, ISO 26000 has become the de-facto standard of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). While not a certifiable standard in ISO terms, but rather a guidance document, it has become the document many corporations use as their basis for CSR work. ISO 26000 claims that the objective of social responsibility is to contribute to sustainable development, using the Brundtland definition – development, which meets the needs the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs – as the basis for sustainable development. However, the Brundtland definition, while commonly referred to, is not sufficiently concrete to give guidance for strategic planning and action in businesses, municipalities and society at large. Therefore it is helpful to supplement the Brundtland definition with a framework that allows for this concrete and strategic planning, e.g. the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). The FSSD is based on a principled definition of sustainability, defining social and ecological sustainability in more operational terms, and includes guidelines for how to contribute systematically and strategically to fulfillment of this definition. It is a transdisciplinary framework built on insights from systems thinking and has been continuously developed as well as used and improved in organizations all over the world for the last two decades. A particular recent development focus has been the social dimension of sustainability, with new insights based on the application of systems thinking to social systems having been recently presented. In this paper, these new insights are used to analyze and evaluate ISO 26000´s contribution to sustainability, highlighting both benefits and shortcomings of ISO 26000 from a social systems and strategic sustainable development perspective. Main points include that, while ISO 26000 is comprehensive in it´s scope and provides a vast achievement in terms of international consensus building around the essential issues in CSR, it is not based on a scientific understanding of social and ecological systems and is therefore a document highlighting current societal expectations rather than a document allowing organizations to innovate, plan, act and monitor long-term for sustainability. The paper further points out examples of aspects of sustainability that are likely to become issues in the future, but that are currently not covered by the ISO guidance. Finally, the paper points at research needed to explore more in detail in which ways ISO 26000 can support strategic working towards sustainability, and in which areas other tools are necessary.

  • 94.
    Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lessons from the field:A first evaluation of working with the elaborated social dimension of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development2014In: Relating Systems Thinking and Design 2014 Symposium Proceedings / [ed] Birger Sevaldson and Peter Jones, Oslo, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arguably, sustainability is the most complex challenge humanity has faced to date. Not only are the impacts of our behavior resulting in more and more sever repercussions, but we are also realizing that the causes of unsustainability are deeply embedded in the design of many of the systems we rely on. This means, of course, also, that solutions to the problem cannot be one-off ideas, but that strategic and systematic transformation of many of our systems is needed. Because of the necessity of the re-design of our economic and other man-made systems, it has been suggested that sustainability science should be considered a “science of design” (Miller 2011). Perhaps it can be considered one of the most “wicked” cases of design, as it needs to aim both for significant impact and a participatory approach to solve the challenge.

     

    One framework that approaches the sustainability challenge from a design angle is the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). Specifically, it is based on the idea of strategically and step-wise designing sustainability out of the systems we currently rely on. The FSSD is a trans-disciplinary framework built on insights from systems thinking and has been continuously developed for the last two decades. Its core is built on backcasting from principles of re-design for sustainability, which allows for wide-spread agreement on what sustainability means and allows for creativity within these constraints, so that each group or organization can create their own path towards sustainability within these constraints. The FSSD has been used in organizations all over the world to create real transformation towards sustainability.

     

    A particular recent development focus has been the social dimension of sustainability. Following the idea of sustainability as a design science, the development was based on a design research methodology (e.g Blessing and Chakrabarti 2009), which included a suggested new ‘prototype’ for the approach to social sustainability within the FSSD. Based on a systems approach to the social system, five new principles of social sustainability have been proposed (Missimer 2013, Missimer et al. 2013a, 2013b). This paper aims to contribute to the evaluation stage of the prototype and presents preliminary results of an evaluation based on field-work with the new social sustainability principles. Overall, a clearer definition of social sustainability is not just for theoretical purposes, but because without a clear theoretical concept, it is hard to strategically work towards social sustainability in practice.

    The data for evaluation comes from workshops that were run with sustainability professionals (also called practitioners) who use the FSSD in their work. In three workshops, the authors, as well as groups of sustainability professionals, used the new social sustainability principles to assess projects on their contribution to social sustainability. The workshops were followed by reflections by and interviews with the professionals assessing the usability of the new principles.

     

    Preliminary results indicate that it is indeed possible to use the newly proposed social sustainability principles in the manner intended and that the approach yields results that are valuable to the professional and the potential clients of these professionals. Integration with existing tools commonly used by the practitioners was possible, although further refinement of the designed tool prototypes will be needed.

     

    Practitioners reflected that the earlier approach to social sustainability lacked in clarity and the ability to structure other tools and concepts in the field. They reported that most practitioners designed their own way of working with social sustainability, which lead to confusion and undermined a common approach. They appreciated the more thorough and scientific approach to the social aspects presented in the new approach, which allowed for a common language and a more thorough assessment of contributions to un-sustainability. The practitioners also reported new insights regarding the use and connection to other tools and concepts in the field of social sustainability.

     

    However, challenges were expressed as regards the somewhat more difficult nature of the science behind the new approach and how this impacted the ease of working with the framework for practitioners. The paper ends with some reflections by the authors. In further research this preliminary evaluation will be expanded and built upon to facilitate continuous improvement and applicability of the FSSD.

  • 95.
    Missimer, Merlina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Valente, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Meisterheim, Tracy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Johnson, Pierre
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Creating a learning environment for transformation: A case study of a course in sustainability leadership2013In: Leading Transformative Higher Education / [ed] Hampson, Gary P; Rich-Tolsma, Matthew, Olomouc: Palacký University , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For over 50 years, scientists and other thought leaders have been trying to call attention to the degradation of the foundation of human civilization through unsustainable behaviour (Carson 1962, Meadows et al. 1972, IGBP. 2004, Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Stern 2007, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007, Rockström et al. 2009). The United Nations’ Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) has recently put renewed focus on not only what we need to learn and teach in the field of sustainable development, but also how we learn and teach about sustainable development. Pedagogical methods such as lifelong learning, social learning, problem-based learning, dialogue education, and transformational learning in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) have been put forward. Transformative or transformational learning seems especially relevant to ESD as deep transformational change on a personal level might be one of the key aspects needed to facilitate a larger societal transformation. The chapter presents research on transformational learning and the components necessary for it, and provides a case study of a course that works specifically with transformational learning for sustainability. The Advanced Societal Leadership course is a 10-week course of the 10-month Masters in Strategic Leadership towards Sustainability programme at the Blekinge Institute of Technology. This course aims at providing learners with critical insights into how large-scale societal transformation for sustainability might occur, and explores several topics for social transformation. The chapter discusses the pedagogical design of the course as well as some of the challenges and questions that the staff has experienced over the last 9 years in imbedding transformational learning and personal transformational change in a traditional university setting.

  • 96.
    Nekeman, Iris
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Straver, Roy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Tobón, Francisco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Strategic Leadership towards Sustainable Public Procurement2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the role of the contracting authority in public procurement is important to understand the underused potential of public procurement to contribute to the sustainable development of society. In particular, the concept of public-private cooperation was suggested to increase this potential, but not enough is known about how the interaction has to take place in order to address the behavioural factors that cause the barriers to sustainable public procurement. The results of this research showed that the leading role of the contracting authority could facilitate sustainable procurement by increasing engagement, interaction and collaboration. A strategic planning approach to support the public-private cooperation in the procurement process is needed. Based on the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, a support for the contracting authority was designed to guide the strategic planning of the procurement process. The suggested design of Support for Strategic Sustainable Procurement was evaluated and found likely to support the contracting authority in strategically leading the public procurement process to leverage the potential of public procurement on the transition towards a sustainable society.

  • 97.
    Nguyen, Trang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Dirks, Robin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Woolner, Robin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Looking in The Mirror - Social Labs and Evaluation in Complexity2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social Innovation Laboratories, or short, social labs, represent an emerging field of lab-based inquiry to sustainability transitions, which emphasize learning through experimentation to find new ways of addressing highly complex challenges. Yet, a key challenge for these initiatives is on one hand to know whether they are “on track”, on the other hand, to evaluate their contribution to addressing a complex challenge. Our hypothesis was that adaptive capacity could serve as a lens for the evaluation of a social labs impact to building social resilience and hence in building capacities necessary for a transition towards sustainability. The aim of this research was firstly to gain a better understanding of the evaluation practices of social labs and secondly to find out how the adaptive capacity of a social lab could be evaluated and might, more generally, point towards a novel approach of evaluating in complexity for strategic sustainable development.

    Our results suggest that adaptive capacity could support evaluations by providing a mirror for the essential features of a social lab to be resilient. We propose three key aspects to evaluate: systems thinking, trust and prototyping capacity. Yet, this is only a first stepping stone toward an evaluation framework, which will require field testing and further research.

  • 98.
    Nicolo, Francesca
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Cardoso, Elissa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ramos Puente, Julia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Strategic Sustainable Development for transparent, accountable and participatory governments2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last century, the world has faced unprecedented challenges relating to the degradation of the socio-ecological system. In light of this, governments play an important role to help tackle these issues. This thesis identifies the Open Government Partnership (OGP) organisation, as an initiative that can support governments in addressing these challenges. In particular, the potential to address these issues relates to OGP’s vision of strengthening governance by increasing transparency, accountability and participation.

    Therefore, the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) was used to analyse the results from the semi-structured interviews, literature review and document analysis, in order to identify the strengths and limitations of OGP’s planning approach. Based on these results, recommendations call for the utilisation of the ABCD strategic planning process to assist OGP member governments and stakeholders to develop a concrete definition of sustainability, and a strategic planning approach that can support society in moving towards sustainability.

  • 99.
    Nikulina, Varvara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Need for speed: towards urban planning for rapid transitioning to sustainable personal mobility2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement, the recent Special Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the Sustainable Development Goals are examples of United Nation’s facilitated calls for urgent climate action and more generally for a rapid transition of society towards sustainability. Since urban personal mobility is a significant contributor to society’s current sustainability challenges, and considering current trends of population growth and urbanisation, there is a strong need to develop enhanced support for urban planning for rapid transitioning to sustainable personal mobility.

    This thesis is part of a wider effort to develop methodological support for such planning and action. The aim of the thesis is to provide a partial foundation for that wider effort by: (i) identifying and organising prominent research themes related to the above topic; and since previous research points to benefits of a transdisciplinary, multisectoral and multicultural approach, (ii) exploring and addressing the complexity of co-production processes in such contexts; and (iii) analysing the appropriateness of some prominent planning approaches for the desired planning support.

    The aim is pursued through a systematic literature review, including bibliometric analyses, and two empirical case studies, including workshops, interviews, field studies and feasibility studies. One of the case studies included participants from several countries in the Southern Baltic region and the other case study tested the usefulness of different planning approaches in the local context of Kisumu, Kenya and Gothenburg, Sweden, respectively.

    The thesis provides a map of some prominent research themes and discusses their relevance to the field of urban planning for rapid transitioning to sustainable personal mobility. The analysis of the identified themes and their development over the past ten years shows that there has been a shift in mobility planning from ’predict and provide’ towards participatory visionary approaches. This, in turn, has led to new challenges, related to, for example, epistemic communities, language and culture. Furthermore, it is seen that sustainability considerations have become increasingly pronounced in the urban mobility planning literature. However, different dimensions of sustainability are often considered individually (e.g. the ecological and social dimensions) and coordinated approaches to sustainable mobility planning are virtually lacking.

    At the methodological level, the thesis provides a preliminary conceptual framework for analysing complexity in co-production processes with regard to epistemic communities, language and culture, as well as a discussion of the usefulness of four specific planning approaches for the desired planning support, namely the backcasting, transdisciplinary co-production of knowledge, foresighting and SymbioCity approaches.

    The overall conclusion is that there is a need for research that would show how mobility actors can contribute to resolve pressing issues related to climate change fast enough without compromising other aspects of sustainability, including how temporary trade-offs can be addressed in a strategic way.

  • 100.
    Nikulina, Varvara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Simon, David
    Mistra Urban Futures, SWE.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Sustainable Transport Futures: Analysis of the Selected Methodologies Supporting the Planning Process Towards Achieving Goal 11 Sustainable Cities and Communities2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] W. Leal Filho, Springer, 2018, p. 473-488Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quarter of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) originate from the transportation sector. Continuously increasing demand for transportation services worldwide is one of the main urban challenges addressed by Sustainable Development Goal 11, target 2. One way to address this issue is to develop an integrated transportation system that can ensure confidence and comfort for the passengers. This will contribute not only to the customers’ experience but also to operators and authorities through sustainable, cost-effective, and profitable services. Conversely, the lack of such a system or a poorly managed system prevents the economy and society from realizing its potential. In the transition towards sustainability, the planning process of complex systems such as transportation often requires supportive tools and methods, such as futures methodologies that assist decision-making by providing information about possible futures. In today’s rapidly changing environment, forecasting tools do not always provide the expected outcomes since it is difficult to predict all the unexpected events. Therefore, there is a demand for alternative methods that not only grasp the constant changes but also create additional value (for example, meeting the needs of multisectoral collaboration and creation of common vision). The present article investigates the usefulness of three such methodologies, namely backcasting, foresighting, and SymbioCity, for the planning process of the bus park and railway station in Kisumu, Kenya, and Centralen in Gothenburg, Sweden. The paper’s contribution is a description of the Kenyan transportation system (which has not been studied in detail before), planning process, and pertinent issues related to the stations both in Kisumu and Gothenburg, located in the sharply contrasting contexts of global South and global North, respectively. On the basis of field research, interviews, and feasibility study of futures methodologies, the paper concludes that backcasting is the most suitable of the methodologies for both places, since it can be applied at a small scale, and provides creative solutions and has a high level of integration of stakeholders. Furthermore, the paper examines the application of the futures methodologies in multisectoral urban transitions apart from transportation and draws conclusion on what can be learnt from it.

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