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  • 51.
    Frid Kastrati, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Goswami, Prashant
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Selective rasterized ray-traced reflections on the GPU2016In: Eurographics Proceedings STAG 2016 / [ed] Andrea Giachetti and Silvia Biasotti and Marco Tarini, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ray-tracing achieves impressive effects such as realistic reflections on complex surfaces but is also more computationally expensive than classic rasterization. Rasterized ray-tracing methods can accelerate ray-tracing by taking advantage of the massive parallelization available in the rasterization pipeline on the GPU. In this paper, we propose a selective rasterized raytracing method that optimizes the rasterized ray-tracing by selectively allocating computational resources to reflective regions in the image. Our experiments suggest that the method can speed-up the computation by up to 4 times and also reduce the memory footprint by almost 66% without affecting the image quality. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method using complex scenes and animations.

  • 52.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Weir, Charlene
    A Modified User-Oriented Heuristic Evaluation of a Mobile Health System for Diabetes Self-management Support2016In: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, ISSN 1538-2931, E-ISSN 1538-9774, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile health platforms offer significant opportunities for improving diabetic self-care, but only if adequate usability exists. Expert evaluations such as heuristic evaluation can provide distinct usability information about systems. The purpose of this study was to complete a usability evaluation of a mobile health system for diabetes patients using a modified heuristic evaluation technique of (1) dual-domain experts (healthcare professionals, usability experts), (2) validated scenarios and user tasks related to patients' self-care, and (3) in-depth severity factor ratings. Experts identified 129 usability problems with 274 heuristic violations for the system. The categories Consistency and Standards dominated at 24.1% (n = 66), followed by Match Between System and Real World at 22.3% (n = 61). Average severity ratings across system views were 2.8 (of 4), with 9.3% (n = 12) rated as catastrophic and 53.5% (n = 69) as major. The large volume of violations with severe ratings indicated clear priorities for redesign. The modified heuristic approach allowed evaluators to identify unique and important issues, including ones related to self-management and patient safety. This article provides a template for one type of expert evaluation adding to the informaticists' toolbox when needing to conduct a fast, resource-efficient and user-oriented heuristic evaluation. 

  • 53.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Quantifying usability: an evaluation of a diabetes mHealth system on effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction metrics with associated user characteristics2016In: JAMIA Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, ISSN 1067-5027, E-ISSN 1527-974X, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Mobile health (mHealth) systems are becoming more common for chronic disease management, but usability studies are still needed on patients' perspectives and mHealth interaction performance. This deficiency is addressed by our quantitative usability study of a mHealth diabetes system evaluating patients' task performance, satisfaction, and the relationship of these measures to user characteristics. Materials and Methods We used metrics in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9241-11 standard. After standardized training, 10 patients performed representative tasks and were assessed on individual task success, errors, efficiency (time on task), satisfaction (System Usability Scale [SUS]) and user characteristics. Results Tasks of exporting and correcting values proved the most difficult, had the most errors, the lowest task success rates, and consumed the longest times on task. The average SUS satisfaction score was 80.5, indicating good but not excellent system usability. Data trends showed males were more successful in task completion, and younger participants had higher performance scores. Educational level did not influence performance, but a more recent diabetes diagnosis did. Patients with more experience in information technology (IT) also had higher performance rates. Discussion Difficult task performance indicated areas for redesign. Our methods can assist others in identifying areas in need of improvement. Data about user background and IT skills also showed how user characteristics influence performance and can provide future considerations for targeted mHealth designs. Conclusion Using the ISO 9241-11 usability standard, the SUS instrument for satisfaction and measuring user characteristics provided objective measures of patients' experienced usability. These could serve as an exemplar for standardized, quantitative methods for usability studies on mHealth systems.

  • 54.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Toward Patient-centered, Standardized, and Reproducible Approaches of Evaluating the Usability of mHealth Chronic Disease Self-management Systems for Diabetes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes is a chronic disease affecting 422 million patients worldwide according to World Health Organization data with 30.3 million in the United States and 64 million in Europe. The prevalence speaks to the need for improved ways to support patients in disease self-management. mHealth solutions are increasingly used for this; however, usability is a current challenge affecting patients’ mHealth use. Recent literature emphasizes an increased focus on patient-centeredness in diabetes care, user-centeredness in chronic disease mHealth system design and standardized, systematic approaches for usability evaluation. The aim of this thesis and its individual studies was to incorporate these foci into the evaluation of two mobile health self-management systems for diabetes.

    Study I used ISO standard 9241-11 to examine the relationship between selected group characteristics of diabetes patients on specific interaction outcomes to quantitatively identify needed system modifications. Study II utilized a multi-method design to assess diabetes patients’ mHealth usage and combined two novel analytic methods to structure and analyze results. Study III used a modified, user-oriented heuristic evaluation (HE) method, validated tasks and in-depth severity factor ratings to identify critical problems from patients’ point of view. By developing and employing a modified, user-centered cognitive walkthrough method (UC-CW), study IV assessed its effectiveness and efficiency in finding relevant usability problems for users as well as patients’ acceptance. The modified CW was validated against the golden-standard user test with Think Aloud.

    Study I emphasized the importance of considering user characteristics in mHealth performance as these influenced interaction outcomes. All patients had difficulties with multiple-step tasks. Patients more recently diagnosed were able to perform tasks more successfully, with fewer errors and at faster times and had higher satisfaction scores; similar outcomes to the more experienced users. Educational level did not, however, seem to influence performance. In study II, the usability test with Think-Aloud (TA), in-depth interviews and questionnaires contributed to 19 consolidated issues, and triangulated on 5 critical usability problems for users. The combined analysis methods resulted in structured, categorized descriptions to aid in problem-solving. In Study III, the disease-related, critical information deficiencies found by expert evaluators using the modified, structured method also converged on and highlighted potentially adverse user concerns. Study IV demonstrated that the UC-CW found more critical user problems compared to the user test with TA despite both methods producing similar major average severity ratings and violations of heuristic categories. The modified method was more efficient per detected problem and experienced as less cognitively demanding and with a higher ease of use.

    These studies offer different approaches that include patient-centered, efficient and user-acceptable methods and method modifications to detect critical usability issues for users. Importantly, improved mHealth designs for users could mean improvement in interactions, interaction performance, increased adoption, and long-term perhaps even increased adherence to interventions for chronic conditions.

  • 55.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Using activity theory as a framework for the usability evaluation process and task determination in mhealth self-management systems for diabetes2018In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, IOS Press , 2018, Vol. 249, p. 158-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    mHealth systems can be used for patients in their diabetes selfmanagement, but usability evaluations are often needed to determine how to make them more useful for the diabetes patient user in the monitoring and managing of their disease. Activity Theory (AT) was developed within Russian psychology to define the work and activity process in an activity system. AT was here considered to also be a particularly suitable framework for inspiration in usability evaluation both for the whole evaluation process and also for the usability task determination in this process for diabetes patient users. In the following paper, examples are provided from four usability studies using both user-based and expert usability methods in evaluation showing how AT was applied to guide the thoughts in evaluating the usability of two mHealth self-management systems for diabetes. Experiences and insights are provided from this process. © 2018 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 56.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Kushniruk, A.
    School of Health Information Science, University of Victoria, VIC, Canada.
    Mediating the cognitive walkthrough with patient groups to achieve personalized health in chronic disease self-management system evaluation2016In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, IOS Press, 2016, Vol. 224, p. 146-151Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cognitive walkthrough (CW) is a task-based, expert inspection usability evaluation method involving benefits such as cost effectiveness and efficiency. A drawback of the method is that it doesn’t involve the user perspective from real users but instead is based on experts’ predictions about the usability of the system and how users interact. In this paper, we propose a way of involving the user in an expert evaluation method by modifying the CW with patient groups as mediators. This along with other modifications include a dual domain session facilitator, specific patient groups and three different phases: 1) a preparation phase where suitable tasks are developed by a panel of experts and patients, validated through the content validity index 2) a patient user evaluation phase including an individual and collaborative process part 3) an analysis and coding phase where all data is digitalized and synthesized making use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software (QDAS) to determine usability deficiencies. We predict that this way of evaluating will utilize the benefits of the expert methods, also providing a way of including the patient user of these self-management systems. Results from this prospective study should provide evidence of the usefulness of this method modification. © 2016 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 57.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Nancy, Staggers
    An evaluation of patients' experienced usability of a diabetes mHealth system using a multi-method approach2016In: Journal of Biomedical Informatics, ISSN 1532-0464, E-ISSN 1532-0480, Vol. 59, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Staggers, N.
    Heuristic evaluation of a mhealth diabetes self-management system using disease specific patient profiles2016In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, IOS Press, 2016, Vol. 225, p. 530-534Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient-centeredness is an important concept in diabetes treatment. We modified Nielsen’s expert heuristic evaluation method addressing common gaps: a patient perspective and variability in findings. Two expert, dual-domain evaluators referred to validated patient profiles (mild, moderate, severe diabetes) when conducting uniform evaluation processes on a diabetes mHealth system. Evaluators found 103 usability problems and 224 heuristic violations. For 69 % of the problems, the profiles had an effect on severity ratings. "Consistency and Standards" (n=57) and "Match between the System and Real World" (n=55) violations dominated at 50%. The overall system severity rating was major. Severity was highest for a severe diabetic profile due to likely visual issues (crowded elements), cognitive concerns (remembering many steps) and for insufficient medication information. Interrater reliability was respectable at Kappa =0.67. Our novel evaluation method represents one way of improving on a usability expert technique making it more patient-centered with less individual evaluator variability. © 2016 IMIA and IOS Press.

  • 59.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Staggers, Nancy
    University of Utah, USA.
    Patients' Perceptions and Experiences of a mHealth Diabetes Self-management System2017In: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, ISSN 1538-2931, E-ISSN 1538-9774, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic diseases, including diabetes, constitute a substantial disease burden around the world. Mobile self-management systems now play a significant and increasingly important role in patients' disease management. Yet, patients' perceptions of these systems after longer-term use are largely unexplored. A random sample of 10 diabetes patients was assessed immediately after they exited a larger, 6-month randomized controlled trial on the use of a mHealth system called Care4Life. This descriptive, exploratory study assessed patients' perceptions and experiences of mHealth using a questionnaire and semistructured interview whose development was guided by the Technology Acceptance Model. Results indicated that patients saw clear benefits in using the technology and had favorable behavioral disease outcomes after using Care4Life. Suggestions for improving the system were highly individual despite the apparent homogeneity of the patient group. The study begins to fill the gap about the longer-term use of mHealth systems in chronic disease management and reflects the significance of individual needs for mHealth systems.

  • 60.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Staggers, Nancy
    University of Utah, Department of Biomedical Informatics, USA.
    Årsand, Eirik
    The Norwegian Centre for E-health Research, University Hospital of North Norway, NOR.
    Kushniruk, Andre
    University of Victoria, School of Health Information Science, CAN.
    Using a User-centered Cognitive Walkthrough to Evaluate a mHealth Diabetes Self-management System Including a Case Study and External Validity TestManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-management of chronic diseases with mHealth systems is becoming common. With the move toward patient-centered care, it is vital to incorporate patients in the development and evaluation of these systems. Current methods for usability evaluation such as formal usability testing can be very costly and time-consuming. Other methods may be more efficient but lack a user focus (e.g., Heuristic Evaluation (HE) and Cognitive Walkthrough (CW)). We propose a modified method to address identified deficiencies in the original CW technique and then assess its effectiveness efficiency and user acceptance. In this case study we use the modified, user-centered CW (UC-CW) method with diabetes patient users of a mHealth self-management system and validate it against the “golden-standard” user test with Think Aloud (TA) on the number, types and severity of usability problems, as well as the consumed time, and user experience of the cognitive load.

    Materials and methods: A total of 12 diabetes patients were included: 6 in the UC-CW group evaluation session, and 6 in the individual user tests with TA. The setting for the assessments was the Diabetes and Endocrinology Center in Salt Lake City, Utah.  The modified UC-CW method consisted of: making the user the main evaluation contributor in finding the usability problems, a dual domain facilitator with the role of guiding the evaluation session and in rating found usability problems, a task development process resulting in validated tasks, a focus on higher level tasks in evaluation and in streamlining the evaluation in terms of time and resources. Users interacted with the mHealth application for both the modified method and user test with TA. Participants also filled in a pre-test questionnaire of demographic questions and one on their experience, knowledge and perception about information technology. Post-evaluation assessments included the NASA RTLX instrument and a set of brief interview questions about the different methods.

    Results: Participants in both methods were a similar mix of males and females with similar types of diabetes. They were equally knowledgeable and experienced in using mobile phones. A total of 26 usability problems were found with the UC-CW and 20 problems with the TA. Participants in both methods gave the application similar severity ratings for all views (UC-CW= 2.7 and TA= 2.6) and a similarly high number of  problems in similar views (Main view [UC-CW=11, TA=10], Carbohydrate Entry view [UC-CW=4, TA= 3] and List view [UC-CW=3, TA=3] and with  similar heuristic violations (Match Between the System and Real World [UC-CW=19, TA=16], Consistency and Standards [UC-CW= 17, TA=15], and Recognition Rather than Recall [UC-CW=13, TA=10]). Both methods converged on 8 usability problems. When comparing the severity of the problems, the UC-CW detected 5 critical issues (severity level 4) while the TA detected two. The distinct issues in the UC-CW compared to the TA were personalized features required for patients’ individual disease needs. In terms of efficiency, the whole evaluation procedure took less time to perform for the TA than the UC-CW. However, when the number of usability problems is considered, the UC-CW was faster. The UC-CW was also faster for the evaluation process. The NASA RTLX scores indicated that participants experienced the UC-CW as half as demanding in terms of cognitive load. Common themes were that the UC-CW was perceived as easy to perform and enjoyable while the TA was considered somewhat awkward and more cognitively demanding.

    Conclusions: The modified method proved useful for finding severe and recurring usability issues for users and highlighted the need for personalized user features. The UC-CW also proved efficient with a high user acceptance. These results indicate that the UC-CW can be a useful method to evaluate a mHealth self-management system for diabetes. The external validation that compared the method outcomes provided beginning evidence of the UC-CW’s utility as an effective, as well as efficient and acceptable method.

  • 61.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Staggers, Nancy
    Summit Health Informatics, USA.
    Årsand, Eirik
    University Hospital of North Norway, NOR.
    Kushniruk, André
    University of Victoria, CAN.
    Employing a user-centered cognitive walkthrough to evaluate a mHealth diabetes self-management application: A case study and beginning method validation2019In: Journal of Biomedical Informatics, ISSN 1532-0464, E-ISSN 1532-0480, Vol. 91, article id 103110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Self-management of chronic diseases using mobile health (mHealth) systems and applications is becoming common. Current evaluation methods such as formal usability testing can be very costly and time-consuming; others may be more efficient but lack a user focus. We propose an enhanced cognitive walkthrough (CW) method, the user-centered CW (UC-CW), to address identified deficiencies in the original technique and perform a beginning validation with think aloud protocol (TA) to assess its effectiveness, efficiency and user acceptance in a case study with diabetes patient users on a mHealth self-management application. Materials and methods: A total of 12 diabetes patients at University of Utah Health, USA, were divided into UC-CW and think aloud (TA) groups. The UC-CW method included: making the user the main evaluator for detecting usability problems, having a dual domain facilitator, and using three other improved processes: validated task development, higher level tasks and a streamlined evaluation process. Users interacted with the same mHealth application for both methods. Post-evaluation assessments included the NASA RTLX instrument and a set of brief interview questions. Results: Participants had similar demographic characteristics. A total of 26 usability problems were identified with the UC-CW and 20 with TA. Both methods produced similar ratings: severity across all views (UC-CW = 2.7 and TA = 2.6), numbers of problems in the same views (Main View [UC-CW = 11, TA = 10], Carbohydrate Entry View [UC-CW = 4, TA = 3] and List View [UC-CW = 3, TA = 3]) with similar heuristic violations (Match Between the System and Real World [UC-CW = 19, TA = 16], Consistency and Standards [UC-CW = 17, TA = 15], and Recognition Rather than Recall [UC-CW = 13, TA = 10]). Both methods converged on eight usability problems, but the UC-CW group detected five critical issues while the TA group identified two. The UC-CW group identified needed personalized features for patients’ disease needs not identified with TA. UC-CW was more efficient on average time per identified usability problem and on the total evaluation process with patients. NASA RTLX scores indicated that participants experienced the UC-CW half as cognitively demanding. Common themes from interviews indicated the UC-CW as enjoyable and easy to perform while TA was considered somewhat awkward and more cognitively challenging. Conclusions: UC-CW was effective for finding severe, recurring usability problems and it highlighted the need for personalized user features. The method was also efficient and had high user acceptance. These results indicate UC-CW's utility and user acceptance in evaluating a mHealth self-management application. It provides an additional usability evaluation technique for researchers. © 2019

  • 62.
    Georgsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Weir, Charlene
    Staggers, Nancy
    Revisiting Heuristic Evaluation Methods to Improve the Reliability of Findings2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heuristic evaluation (HE) method is one of the most common in the suite of tools for usability evaluations because it is a fast, inexpensive and resource-efficient process in relation to the many usability issues it generates. The method emphasizes completely independent initial expert evaluations. Inter-rater reliability and agreement coefficients are not calculated. The variability across evaluators, even dual domain experts, can be significant as is seen in the case study here. The implications of this wide variability mean that results are unique to each HE, results are not readily reproducible and HE research on usability is not yet creating a uniform body of knowledge. We offer recommendations to improve the science by incorporating selected techniques from qualitative research: calculating inter-rater reliability and agreement scores, creating a codebook to define concepts/categories and offering crucial information about raters' backgrounds, agreement techniques and the evaluation setting.

  • 63.
    Gislén, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Achieving Agile Quality: An Action Research Study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 64.
    Goswami, Prashant
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies. BTH.
    Real-time landscape-size convective clouds simulation2015In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, ACM, 2015, p. 135-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Goswami, Prashant
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Eliasson, André
    Franzén, Pontus
    Implicit Incompressible SPH on the GPU2015In: Proceedings of Workshop on Virtual Reality Interaction and Physical Simulation (VRIPHYS), Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents CUDA-based parallelization of implicit incompressible SPH (IISPH) on the GPU. Along with the detailed exposition of our implementation, we analyze various components involved for their costs. We show that our CUDA version achieves near linear scaling with the number of particles and is faster than the multi-core parallelized IISPH on the CPU. We also present a basic comparison of IISPH with the standard SPH on GPU.

  • 66.
    Goswami, Prashant
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Neyret, Fabrice
    Univ. Grenoble, FRA.
    Real-time landscape-size convective clouds simulation and rendering2017In: Proceedings of Workshop on Virtual Reality Interaction and Physical Simulation, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an efficient, physics-based procedural model for the real-time animation and visualization of cumulusclouds at landscape size. We couple a coarse Lagrangian model ofair parcelswith a procedural amplification using volumetricnoise. Our Lagrangian model draws an aerologyi.e.,the atmospheric physics of hydrostatic atmosphere with thermodynamicstransforms, augmented by a model of mixing between parcels and environment. In addition to the particle-particle interactions,we introduce particle-implicit environment interactions. In contrast to the usual fluid simulation, we thus do not need to samplethe transparent environment, a key property for real-time efficiency and scalability to large domains. Inheriting from the high-level physics of aerology, we also validate our simulation by comparing it to predictive diagrams, and we show how the user caneasily control key aspects of the result such as the cloud base and top altitude. Our model is thus fast, physical and controllable.

  • 67.
    Grahn, Alexander
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    An Image and Processing Comparison Study of Antialiasing Methods2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Aliasing is a long standing problem in computer graphics. It occurs as the graphics card is unable to sample with an infinite accuracy to render the scene which causes the application to lose colour information for the pixels. This gives the objects and the textures unwanted jagged edges. Post-processing antialiasing methods is one way to reduce or remove these issues for real-time applications.

    Objectives. This study will compare two popular post-processing antialiasing methods that are used in modern games today, i.e., Fast approximate antialiasing (FXAA) and Submorphological antialiasing (SMAA). The main aim is to understand how both method work and how they perform compared to the other.

    Methods. The two methods are implemented in a real-time application using DirectX 11.0. Images and processing data is collected, where the processing data consists of the updating frequency of the rendering of screen known as frames per second (FPS), and the elapsed time on the graphics processing unit(GPU).

    Conclusions. FXAA shows difficulties in handling diagonal edges well but show only minor graphical artefacts in vertical and horizontal edges. The method can produce unwanted blur along edges. The edge pattern detection in SMAA makes it able to handle all directions well. The performance results conclude that FXAA do not lose a lot of FPS and is quick. FXAA is at least three times faster than SMAA on the GPU.

  • 68.
    Grelsson, David
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Tile Based Procedural Terrain Generation in Real-Time: A Study in Performance2014Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Procedural Terrain Generation refers to the algorithmical creation of terrains with limited or no user input. Terrains are an important piece of content in many video games and other forms of simulations. Objectives. In this study a tile-based approach to creating endless terrains is investigated. The aim is to find if real-time performance is possible using the proposed method and possible performance increases from utilization of the GPU. Methods. An application that allows the user to walk around on a seemingly endless terrain is created in two versions, one that exclusively utilizes the CPU and one that utilizes both CPU and GPU. An experiment is then conducted that measures performance of both versions of the application. Results. Results showed that real-time performance is indeed possible for smaller tile sizes on the CPU. They also showed that the application benefits significantly from utilizing the GPU. Conclusions. It is concluded that the tile-based approach works well and creates a functional terrain. However performance is too poor for the technique to be utilized in e.g. a video game.

  • 69.
    Guo, Yang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A General Architecture For Developing A Sustainable Elderly Care E-Health System2014In: International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management(JITBM) , ISSN 2304-0777, Vol. 027, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on some identified problems and challenges to the current healthcare system, this paper proposes architecture for developing e-health system to meet the challenges and resolve some problems. The architecture is based on a solid theoretical model of human activity, and it has properties such as sustainability, generality, and expandability. We demonstrate the properties of the architecture through an ongoing research project. We concluded that this architecture can be widely used to integrate various small scale applications of e-health systems and to resolve some current design problems such as interoperability and knowledge sharing.

  • 70.
    Guo, Yang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    An IOT Architecture For Home-based Elderly Healthcare2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of providing effective and appropriate healthcare to elderly and disable people home has been increasingly talked around. Information and communication technology (ICT) is believed to enable home healthcare management to mitigate some problems. This paper is to contribute IoT (Internet of things) architecture to achieve connectivity with the patient, sensors and everything around it. A four-level model including ‘personal-family-community-hospital’ is constructed in order to provide complete and intelligent health management services to elderly home, which provides sustainable healthcare service for elderly people. This new solution makes both the elderly life easier and the healthcare process more effective.

  • 71.
    Guo, Yang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies. Blekinge institute of Technology.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Activity Theory based Ontology Model for efficient Knowledge Sharing in eHealth2017In: E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks, ISSN 2167-9517, E-ISSN 2167-9525, Vol. 6, p. 31-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge sharing has become an important issue that challenges the efficient healthcare delivery in eHealth system. It also rises as one of the mostdemanding applications with reference to dynamic interactivities among various healthcare actors (e.g. doctors, nurses, patients, relatives of patients). Inthis paper, we suggest an activity theory based ontology model to represent various healthcare actors. The goal of the suggested model is to enhance inte-ractivities among these healthcare actors for conducting more efficient knowledge sharing, which helps to design eHealth system. To validate the feasibilityof suggested ontology model, three typical use cases are further studied. A questionnaire based survey is carried out and the corresponding survey resultsare reported, together with the detailed discussions.

  • 72.
    Guo, Yang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies. Blekinge institute of Technology.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies. Blekinge institute of Technology.
    Yao, Yong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge institute of Technology.
    A new Software Framework for Heterogeneous Knowledge Sharing in Healthcare system2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s demand for healthcare is dramatically increasing as the factor of the aging population and expectations growing during the past few years. This leads to the need of substantial healthcare services with innovative technologies developed from both industry and academia. Designing an efficient healthcare system is however a sophisticated process due to different research issues with the requirement for the provision of high-quality healthcare services. Connected to this requirement, the focus of many studies done so far is widely laid on a well-known problem called knowledge sharing. In recent years, knowledge sharing raises as one of the most demanding applications with references to the dynamic inter-activity among different healthcare actors and the complex data structures involved in this application. Suitable solution approach to knowledge sharing can enhance the efficiency of healthcare delivery, and thus improving the quality of healthcare services. The corresponding development tasks can be accomplished by using different methodologies such as analytical approaches, simulation experiments and practical measurements on the real healthcare system.In our work, the problem of heterogeneous knowledge sharing in the healthcare system is considered. Here, the heterogeneous aspect is expressed in terms ofdifferent healthcare actors and the associated characterizations. To do this, we suggest a new software framework, which mainly consists of three components. The first component is about the ontology based activity theory, which is used to scientifically represent the healthcare actors together with their relationships and interactions. The second component refers to an overlay decision maker, which is responsible for dealing with the decision-making activities such as appointment scheduling. Its advantage is to jointly consider various healthcare parameters and different algorithms for decision-making purposes. Based on these two components, the third component provides the theoretical models to conduct the numerical analysis and performance evaluation on the particular healthcare service.

  • 73.
    Guo, Yang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies. Blekinge institute of Technology.
    Yao, Yong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    On Performance of Prioritized Appointment Scheduling for Healthcare2017In: TRANSACTIONS ON EMERGING TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIESArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing the appointment scheduling is a challenging task for the development of healthcare system. The efficient solution approach can provide high quality of healthcare service between care providers (CP) s and care receivers (CR) s. In this paper, we consider the healthcare system with the heterogeneous CRs in terms of urgent and routine CRs. Our suggested model assumes that the system gives the service priority to the urgent CRs by allowing them to interrupt the ongoing routine appointments. An appointment handoff scheme is suggested for the interrupted routine appointments, and thus the routine CRs can attempt to re-establish the appointment scheduling with other available CPs. With these considerations, we study the scheduling performance of the system by using Markov chains based modeling approach. The numerical analysis is reported and the simulation experiment is conducted to validate the numerical results.

  • 74.
    Guo, Yang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies. Blekinge institute of Technology.
    Yao, Yong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    eHASS: A Smart Appointment Scheduling System for eHealth2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eHealth system, the appointment scheduling is an important task for the delivery of healthcare service among different healthcare actors. The key procedure is to do the decision making on the selection of suitable appointments between the care providers and the care receivers. The appointment decisionis a sophisticated problem in terms of how to efficiently deal with various parameters of involved healthcare actors. To solve this problem, we suggest a smart system called eHealth Appointment Scheduling System (eHASS). eHASS takes into account both heterogeneous aspects and interoperability requirements of eHealth system. As such, eHASS is capable of jointly considering various appointment characterizations and decision making algorithms for conducting appointment scheduling. The paper reports the eHASS architecture as well as the related work-in-progress.

  • 75.
    Guo, Yang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Yao, Yong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    On Enhancement of Inter-Activity for Knowledge Sharing in eHealth2016In: 2016 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS (COMM 2016), IEEE, 2016, p. 247-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, knowledge sharing raises as an important issue that challenges for the eHealth management system. It becomes one of the most demanding applications with references to the dynamic inter-activities among different health actors and the complex data structures involved in this application. In this paper, we suggest an activity theory based ontology model to scientifically represent various health actors in the eHealth system. The goal of the suggest model is to enhance the inter activities among these health actors for the efficient knowledge sharing purposes. We also develop a prototype software system based on the suggested ontology model. The survey results collected from the system users show the feasibility of the developed software system.

  • 76.
    Gustav, During
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Evaluating game experience when using augment reality: In real time strategy games2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that uses the camera to display what is seen on the screen and adds digital informationover the picture. This study analyses how augmented reality mightaect game experience when applied to real time strategy games.

    Objectives. Evaluate the available development tools, to implementthe game prototype and the AR interaction. Then develop interactive methods for AR and traditional version. Create a basic articialintelligence, design the experiment to evaluate game experience, completion time and score.

    Methods. The experiment were executed after implementation of thegame, in this the participant played both the traditional and augmented reality version of the same game. Before starting to play participant lled out a pre inquiry about their previous experience withgames, tablets and computers. After playing they answered a postinquiry with questions about the game. The comparing experimentwas conducted with several participants in a controlled environment.

    Results. The results show that most participants thought that theAR version had an interesting mechanic and that the game experiencehad been enhanced when compared to the PC version. However theparticipants thought the controls where better on the PC.

    Conclusions. The results indicated that the game experience basedon player performance, decreased in the AR version and that the controls were better on the PC. The participants thought that the PCversion was a little easier to play. However about 71% of the participants thought the game experience on the AR version was interestingbecause they could move around while playing. The most enjoyableversion of the game varied a lot between participants, having a slightpreference for the PC version of the game. However, participantsmanifested an interest in playing a sequel of the game in the AR version.

  • 77.
    Gustavsson, David
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Interaction with a 3D modeling tool through a gestural interface: An Evaluation of Effectiveness and Quality2014Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Gestural interfaces involves the ability of technology identifying and recognizing human body language and then interpret this into commands. This is usually used to ease our everyday life, but also to increase usability in for example mobile phones. Objectives. In this study the use of a gestural interface is evaluated as an interaction method to facilitate the introduction of new and novice users to 3D modeling tools. A gestural interface might reduce the modeling time without making an impact on the quality of the result. Methods. A gestural interface is designed and implemented based on previous research regarding gestural interfaces. Time and quality results are gathered through an experiment where participants are to complete a set of tasks in the modeling tool Autodesk Maya that relates to modeling. These tasks are executed in both the implemented gestural interfaces as well as the standard interface of Autodesk Maya. User experience is also gathered through the use of a SUS questionnaire. Results. 17 participants took part in the experiment. Each participant generated time and quality results for each task of the experiment for each interface. For each interface the user experience was recorded through a SUS questionnaire. Conclusions. The results showed that the use of a gestural interface did increase the modeling time for the users, indicating that the use of a gestural interface was not preferable as an interaction medium. The results did show that the time difference between the interfaces was reduced for each completed task, indicating that the gestural interface might have an increase in learnability of the software. The same indication were given from the SUS questionnaire. Also, the results did not show any impact on the quality.

  • 78.
    Gustavsson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Zackrisson, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    VISIR work in progress2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VISIR (Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality) Open Lab Platform is an architecture that enable universities, secondary schools, and other organizations to open instructional laboratories for remote access with preserved context. VISIR emanates from a feasibility study made in 1999 at BTH (Blekinge Institute of Technology) in Sweden. Today, VISIR laboratories are online at seven universities globally where thousands of students can work and conduct most experiments that can be performed on a solderless breadboard remotely without any risk of being harmed. IAOE (International Association of Online Engineering has organized SIG VISIR a Special Interest Group for VISIR. Further development of the platform is carried out in this Community. This paper is about work in progress especially at BTH.

  • 79.
    Göransson, Jonas Alexander
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A TEMPORAL STABLE DISTANCE TO EDGE ANTI-ALIASING TECHNIQUE FOR GCN ARCHITECTURE2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Aliasing artifacts are a present problem in both the game industryand the movie industry. With the GCN (Graphics Core Next) architectureused on both new generation of consoles; Xbox One and Playstation 4, aunified Anti-Aliasing solution can be constructed with high performance,temporal stable edges and satisfying visual fidelity.

    Objective. This thesis aims to implement several prototypes which willbe utilizing GCN architecture to solve aliasing artifacts such as temporalstability.

    Method. By doing performance measurements, a survey and an experimenton the constructed prototypes and current state of the art solutionsthis thesis will create both a benchmark between given state of the art solutionsfor the industry and at the same time evaluate the new solutions givenin this thesis.

    Result. With having potential of being the fastest Anti-Aliasing solutionin the field it does not only bring high performance, but also very temporalstable edges and satisfying visual quality.

    Conclusion. If not used as a standalone solution, the prototype can be decoupledfrom GCN specific features and be a very suitable complement forMulti Sample Anti-Aliasing which can not handle alpha clipped edges.

  • 80.
    Hagelbäck, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Hilborn, Olle
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Jercic, Petar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Lindley, Craig
    Svensson, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Wen, Wei
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Psychophysiological Interaction and Empathic Cognition for Human-Robot Cooperative Work (PsyIntEC)2014In: Gearing Up and Accelerating Cross-Fertilization between Academic and Industrial Robotics Research in Europe: Technology Transfer Experiments from the ECHORD Project / [ed] Rohrbein, F.; Veiga, G.; Natale, C., Springer , 2014, p. 283-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the PsyIntEC project is to explore affective and cognitive modeling of humans in human-robot interaction (HRI) as a basis for behavioral adaptation. To achieve this we have explored human affective perception of relevant modalities in human-human and human-robot interaction on a collaborative problem-solving task using psychophysiological measurements. The experiments conducted have given us valuable insight into the communicational and affective queues interplaying in such interactions from the human perspective. The results indicate that there is an increase in both positive and negative emotions when interacting with robots compared to interacting with another human or solving the task alone, but detailed analysis on shorter time segments is required for the results from all sensors to be conclusive and significant.

  • 81.
    Hansson, Kim
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Hörlin, Erik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Active learning via Transduction in Regression Forests2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The amount of training data required to build accurate modelsis a common problem in machine learning. Active learning is a techniquethat tries to reduce the amount of required training data by making activechoices of which training data holds the greatest value.Objectives. This thesis aims to design, implement and evaluate the Ran-dom Forests algorithm combined with active learning that is suitable forpredictive tasks with real-value data outcomes where the amount of train-ing data is small. machine learning algorithms traditionally requires largeamounts of training data to create a general model, and training data is inmany cases sparse and expensive or difficult to create.Methods.The research methods used for this thesis is implementation andscientific experiment. An approach to active learning was implementedbased on previous work for classification type problems. The approachuses the Mahalanobis distance to perform active learning via transduction.Evaluation was done using several data sets were the decrease in predictionerror was measured over several iterations. The results of the evaluationwas then analyzed using nonparametric statistical testing.Results. The statistical analysis of the evaluation results failed to detect adifference between our approach and a non active learning approach, eventhough the proposed algorithm showed irregular performance. The evalu-ation of our tree-based traversal method, and the evaluation of the Maha-lanobis distance for transduction both showed that these methods performedbetter than Euclidean distance and complete graph traversal.Conclusions. We conclude that the proposed solution did not decreasethe amount of required training data on a significant level. However, theapproach has potential and future work could lead to a working active learn-ing solution. Further work is needed on key areas of the implementation,such as the choice of instances for active learning through transduction un-certainty as well as choice of method for going from transduction model toinduction model.

  • 82.
    Hassan, Mostafa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Proposed workflow for UV mapping and texture painting2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. There are several workflows for texturing 3D models. 3D models will often have to be constructed and textured before they can be viewed in a game engine. Files would have to be exported and imported in order to view the result. This thesis will look at the usability of having the programs that are used to construct and texture assets connected with each other. In other words, a program would send and receive data in real-time which can be used to avoid the exporting and importing of assets.

    Objectives. Define a better workflow for texturing models that will be used for games. Compare the usability in terms of speed and the bother of managing asset files.

    Methods. This work utilizes a comparative experiment were subjects get to test and evaluate two workflows, the traditional workflow which the subjects should already be familiar with, and the prototype system that allows subjects texture painting in real-time.

    Results. Results showed that all participants conducted the experiment faster using the proposed workflow rather than using the traditional one. According to the questionnaire, participants preferred the proposed workflow and did not mind having multiple application windows open simultaneously.

    Conclusions. The results of both questionnaire and the time correlation data were positive, suggesting that using real-time viewing when texturing assets can enhance efficiency.

  • 83.
    Hermansson, Albin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    View-Dependent Collision Detection and Response Using Octrees2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Collision is a basic necessity in most simulated environments, especially video games, which demand user interaction. Octrees are a way to divide the simulated environments into smaller, more manageable parts,and is a hierarchical tree-structure, where each node has eight children. Octrees and similar tree-structural methods have been used frequently to optimize collision calculations and partition the objects in the 3D space.

    Objectives. The aim of this thesis is to find a way to further improve upon the octree structure, by using a two-level octree structure, and simplify the collision of objects that do not demand much complexity, due to their size or the geometric simplicity of their 3D models, this is done by calculating how many pixels the objects occupy on the screen, and use that as a factor when deciding the depth of their individual octrees.

    Methods. Each object in the 3D environment is divided using an octree. These octrees generated for the objects are then placed in a larger octree. This large octree use the smaller ones to check collision between the objects. The pixel area occupied on the screen by the objects’ octrees is used to determine what depth of the octrees will be check for intersection. Two test scenes were set up to test our model.

    Results. Our implementation could effectively reduce the depth of octrees belonging to objects occupying little space on the screen. The experiments also showed that the reduced depth could be used with only a slight loss in accuracy. The accuracy loss increased when more objects were used.

    Conclusions. The results gained in the thesis show that the pixel area can be used effectively, and the simplified octrees can still represent the objects adequately, resulting in a cheaper but slightly less accurate collision.

  • 84.
    Hevosmaa, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Olsson, Marcus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Experimentell jämförelse av Cassandra, MongoDB och MySQL2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Context. Performance and resource usage is often an important factor for database driven services. Depending on the purpose of the application, choosing the wrong type of database may require unnecessary hardware upgrades or replacements. Objectives. This study investigates the differences in performance and resource usage between different SQL- and NoSQL-databases. The study is a comparison that focuses on how the databases perform in different applications. The purpose is to give a hint of which database may be the most appropriate depending on the application. Methods. The different databases are compared using experiments, executed with the help of a testing tool developed to measure the performance and resource usage for the different databases. Results. Several tests have been executed on Cassandra, MongoDB and MySQL that are the databases used in this study. Where the performance is measured as operations per second and the resource usage is measured as the activity of CPU, RAM and harddrive. Conclusions. We conclude that the databases perform differently well dependning on the application. In some of the cases MongoDB performed the best, while MySQL performed best in others. The resource usage also differs a lot, like the performance, dependning on the application. As a conclusion it’s recommended to test what database may suit the specific situation depending on the application.

  • 85.
    Hilborn, Olle
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A Serious Game for Training in Emotion Regulation: From Design to Evaluation2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are often used as training devices in various tasks, but proper biofeedback is more seldom used. Within an EU project it was explored how biofeedback games can target emotion regulation and be evaluated meaningfully. While many use games and biofeedback separately, here the focus was to combine them. This was explored through how the games were perceived and played while players were punished in-game, based on their physiological activity. By implementing games and study the interaction patterns in experimental settings, primarily correlational data was acquired. The results suggest that targeting cognitive constructs has to be validated for each specific game, since game strategies can influence the activation of the cognitive constructs.

  • 86.
    Hildesson, Daniel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Hintze, Filip
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Implementation and Evaluation of a Different Way of Displaying Games in Virtual Reality2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the recent rise of virtual reality (VR) and head-mounted displays (HMDs), an increasing number of developers have started developing for this relatively new way of displaying content to the user. It is common to experience severe discomfort and symptoms much like Motion Sickness (MS) when using input methods that control the player’s position in the virtual world. Theatre mode (TM) uses a virtual display in a virtual room which helps the user to lessen the symptoms of MS. However, TM lowers the user experience since it is no longer as immersive. The main components of user experience looked upon in this study are flow and immersion. Understanding how this way of displaying content to the user can be enhanced to allow for higher immersion yet keeping its beneficial traits is essential. The objective of this study is to evaluate if additions added to theatre mode (which will be referred to as Enhanced Theatre Mode (ETM)) can enhance the user experience (according to the Game Experience Questionnaire and biometric data) yet keeping its ability to have a low level of discomfort. Confirming this theory would allow developers to use classic game design since the use of input methods such as mouse and keyboard or a gamepad can be utilised. This study only uses consumer grade hardware to give a fair representation of what developers can expect if they were to use this technique for their product. This study was conducted at the Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH). To be able to evaluate the two visualisation modes (TM and ETM) a VR game application prototype was implemented using the Unity game engine. An experiment was conducted which involved participants to play the application first using one of the modes and in another session play the application using the other. User experience and simulation sickness were measured using both qualitative (questionnaires) and quantitative (Galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR)) methods. The results from the experiment regarding answers from questionnaires and biometric data (GSR and HR) are presented. Statistical analysis tests were performed on both answers from questionnaires and biometric data to establish if there are any statistical significant differences between the modes. The results of the tests show that there is statistical significance in one subcategory of the game experience questionnaire, though no statistical in the other three subcategories can be found. This difference suggests that ETM lowers the experience in this specific category. Statistical significance also exists in on of the three subcategories of the simulation sickness questionnaire which shows a lower value for the version using ETM. There can also be seen a clear trend across all simulation sickness scores that participants experienced a lower level of simulation sickness using ETM. However, when looking at the results from the simulation sickness questionnaire and game experience questionnaire as a whole, no statical significance can be found. The participants’ answers regarding age, gender, gaming habits, and virtual reality are presented. Also, participants’ opinions relating to the difference between the modes are given. In this study, it is concluded that ETM does not increase the user experience. When it comes to simulation sickness, it is also concluded that there is no increase in the symptoms of simulation sickness compared to TM. There is, however, a trend where the ETM seem to lower the average simulation sickness symptoms.

  • 87.
    Hofflander, Malin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Borg, Christel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Video Conference as a Tool to Enable Participation in Discharge Planning – Experiences From Implementers about the Implementation Process2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problems and challenges that arise in the task of improving discharge planning have been an area of concern for many years, including problems related to the lack of time for professionals to participate. In a county council area in South East Sweden, video conferencing was implemented in discharge planning sessions to enable distance participation. As part of a larger research study of the implementation process, interviews were conducted with two of the implementers. The interviews were analysed qualitatively, using directed content analysis with a deductive approach to considering a framework developed by Nilsen et al. The results of this study are consistent with the actual framework but with the addition of time, i.e. time to prepare, time to understand, time to run through and time to reflect. Further research is proposed to focus more on leadership during the implementation process and its influence on the meaning of time.

  • 88.
    Hofflander, Malin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Borg, Christel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Framing the Implementation Process of Video Conferencing in Discharge Planning: According to Staff Experience2016In: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 192-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges of improving discharge planning have been an area of concern for many years, including problems related to lack of time for professionals to participate. In a county in South East Sweden, video conferencing was implemented in discharge planning sessions to enable distance participation of the professionals. To examine the implementation process, interviews were conducted with the implementers, who were project leaders, discharge planning coordinators in the hospital, and in home-care. The interviews were analysed qualitatively, using directed content analysis with a deductive approach to a theoretical framework that was composed from theories about implementation processes to be suitable for the healthcare sector, consisting of the factors: implementation objects; implementation actions; actors; users; inner context and outer context. The results of this study are consistent with the framework but with the addition of a new dimension – time, i.e. time to prepare; time to understand; time to run through and time to reflect. It is suggested that implementation frameworks are useful when IT is introduced in healthcare. Framing the implementation process supports the exposure of factors and highlights relationships and states of dependence between those factors which may affect implementation.

  • 89.
    Hofflander, Malin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Borg, Christel
    Healthcare managers’ experiences of leading the implementation of video conferencing in discharge planning sessions: An interview study2016In: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, ISSN 1538-2931, E-ISSN 1538-9774, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes healthcare managers’ experiences of leading the implementation of video conferencing in discharge planning sessions as a new tool in everyday practice. Data collection took place through individual interviews and the interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The results indicate that managers identified two distinct leadership perspectives when they reflected on the implementation process. They described a desired way of leading the implementation and communicating about the upcoming change, understanding and securing support for decisions, as well as ensuring that sufficient time is available throughout the change process. They also, however, described how they perceived that the implementation process was actually taking place, highlighting the lack of planning and preparation as well as the need for support and to be supportive, and having the courage to adopt and lead the implementation. It is suggested thatmanagers at all levels require more information and training in how to encourage staff to become involved in designing their everyday work and in the implementation process. Managers, too, need ongoing organizational support for good leadership throughout the implementation of video conferencing in discharge planning sessions, including planning, start-up, implementation, and evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 90.
    Holmqvist, Lucas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Ahlström, Eric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Comparing Traditional Key Frame Animation Approach and Hybrid Animation Approach of Humanoid Characters2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 91.
    Horvat, Marko
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, SRB.
    Dobrinic, Marko
    University of Zagreb, SRB.
    Novosel, Matej
    University of Zagreb, SRB.
    Jerčić, Petar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Assessing emotional responses induced in virtual reality using a consumer EEG headset: A preliminary report2018In: 2018 41st International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics, MIPRO 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 1006-1010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a pilot study involving emotion elicitation in virtual reality (VR) and assessment of emotional responses with a consumer-grade EEG device. The stimulation used HTC Vive VR system showing pictures from NAPS database within a specifically designed virtual environment. The stimulation consisted of two distinct sequences with 10 pictures of happiness and 10 pictures of fear. Each picture was contained in a separate virtual room that the participants traveled through along a preset path. The estimation employed EMOTIV EPOC+ 14-channel EEG headset and a custom-developed application. The software wirelessly received EEG signals from alpha, beta low, beta high, gamma and theta bands, time-stamped them and dynamically stored in a relational database for subsequent analysis. Our preliminary results show that statistically significant correlations between valence and arousal ratings of pictures and EEG bands are present but highly personalized. Simultaneous correct placement of VR and EEG headsets is demanding and precise localization of electrodes is difficult. In fact, if emotion estimation is not strictly necessary we recommend using devices with fewer electrodes. Nevertheless, we found the EEG to be effective. By acknowledging its limitations, and using the headset in the correct context, experiments involving emotions may be significantly amended. © 2018 Croatian Society MIPRO.

  • 92.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Cloud Computing for Achieving Interoperability in Home-based Healthcare2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The care of chronic disease has become the main challenge for healthcare institutions around the world. As the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases continue to increase, it is a big challenge for traditional hospital-based healthcare to meet requirements of patients. To meet the growing needs of patients, moving the front desk of healthcare from hospital to home is essential. Home-based healthcare for chronic disease involves many different organizations and healthcare providers. Therefore, there are interoperability problems for cooperation among the various organizations and healthcare providers to provide efficient and seamless home-based healthcare. 

    This thesis aims to point out an appropriate technical solution to interoperability problems in home-based healthcare. There are different levels of interoperability, such as pragmatic, semantic and syntactic. We explored alternative solutions specifically for syntactic interoperability. We started to identify the interoperability problems among different healthcare centers by interviews and online surveys. Based on this empirical study, we mainly used two current techniques, namely peer-to-peer (P2P) networks and cloud computing, to design prototypes for sharing healthcare data. Comparing these two techniques, we found the cloud-based solution figured out most of the problems encountered in healthcare interoperability. 

    To identify state of the art, and pinpoint the challenges and possible future directions for applying a cloud-based solution, a systematic literature review was carried out on cloud-based healthcare solutions. Based on the literature reviewed, we suggest a hybrid cloud model, with access controls and techniques for securing data, could be an acceptable solution for home-based healthcare in the future. This cloud model would work as a community for both healthcare providers and recipients, as well as other stakeholders, such as family members and other patients with similar symptoms. Then we conducted a questionnaire study with healthcare recipients and interviewed healthcare providers to gather the requirements for the design of the community. Based on the concept of ‘community’ from the activity theory model, we designed a prototype to demonstrate our proposed solution.   

    Finally, we proposed the conceptual hybrid cloud model. In our hybrid cloud model, hospitals and primary healthcare centers could continue using their own databases as private clouds. For home-based healthcare data, we argued, the best approach is to store and process the data in public clouds. Healthcare recipients, as the owners of their health data in public clouds, should then decide who can access their data and the conditions for sharing. To evaluate this model, we conducted a two-step case study of diabetes healthcare in Blekinge, Sweden. We found that our improved hybrid cloud model will be feasible in the future for home-based healthcare, and it will benefit both healthcare providers and recipients.

    To apply this model in practice, we suggest that a professional IT healthcare education team should be created to support both healthcare providers and recipients.

  • 93.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Cloud Computing for Interoperability in Home-Based Healthcare2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The care of chronic disease has become a main challenge for healthcare institutions around the world. As the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases continue to increase, traditional hospital-based healthcare is less able to meet the needs of every patient. Treating chronic disease heavily depends on the patient’s daily behaviors, so patient-centered healthcare is encouraged. To improve patients’ quality of life, moving the base of healthcare from hospital to home is imperative. Home-based chronic disease care involves many different healthcare organizations and healthcare providers. Therefore, interoperability is a key approach to provide efficient and convenient home-based healthcare services. This thesis aims to reveal the interoperability issues in the current healthcare system and to point out an appropriate technical solution to overcome them. We start with collecting perspectives from both healthcare providers and healthcare recipients through interviews and online surveys to understand the situations and problems they face. In our research study, we mainly use two current techniques―peer-to-peer (P2P) networks and cloud computing―to design prototypes for sharing healthcare data, developing both a P2P-based solution and a cloud-based solution. Comparing these two techniques, we found the cloud-based solution covered most of the deficiencies in healthcare interoperability. Although there are different types of interoperability, such as pragmatic, semantic and syntactic, we explored alternative solutions specifically for syntactic interoperability. To identify the state of the art and pinpoint the challenges and possible future directions for applying a cloud-based solution, we reviewed the literature on cloud-based eHealth solutions. We suggest that a hybrid cloud model, which contains access controls and techniques for securing data, would be a feasible solution for developing a citizen-centered, home-based healthcare system. Patients’ healthcare records in hospitals and other healthcare centers could be kept in private clouds, while patients’ daily self-management data could be published in a trusted public cloud. Patients, as the owners of their health data, should then decide who can access their data and the conditions for sharing. Finally, we propose an online virtual community for home-based chronic disease healthcare―a cloud-based, home healthcare platform. The requirements of the platform were mainly determined from the responses to an online questionnaire delivered to a target group of people. This platform integrates healthcare providers and recipients within the same platform. Through this shared platform, interoperability among different healthcare providers, as well as with healthcare recipients’ self-management regimens, could be achieved.

  • 94.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A Cloud Model for Interoperable Home-based Chronic Diseases Healthcare2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional hospital based care cannot meet all the needs of chronic diseases care in home, especially for elderly people. A new approach applying eHealth that supports interoperable health care is required. To find a way to meet the new needs, we firstly carried out a questionnaire to analyze current problems and needs in chronic disease care. Then we compared possible technical solutions and proposed a cloud model for the identified problems. This model would help chronic patients self-record and control their daily care data, communicate with other patients who have the similar situation. The proposed solution could be also used to integrate data from different healthcare providers for a cooperative work, namely in this paper as Home-based Chronic Diseases Healthcare (HCDH).

  • 95.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A systematic literature review of cloud computing in eHealth2014In: Health Informatics-An International Journal (HIIJ), ISSN 2319-2046, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing in eHealth is an emerging area for only few years. There needs to identify the state of the art and pinpoint challenges and possible directions for researchers and applications developers. Based on this need, we have conducted a systematic review of cloud computing in eHealth. We searched ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, Inspec, ISI Web of Science and Springer as well as relevant open-access journals for relevant articles. A total of 237 studies were first searched, of which 44 papers met the Include Criteria. The studies identified three types of studied areas about cloud computing in eHealth, namely (1) cloud-based eHealth framework design (n=13); (2) applications of cloud computing (n=17); and (3) security or privacy control mechanisms of healthcare data in the cloud (n=14). Most of the studies in the review were about designs and concept-proof. Only very few studies have evaluated their research in the real world, which may indicate that the application of cloud computing in eHealth is still very immature. However, our presented review could pinpoint that a hybrid cloud platform with mixed access control and security protection mechanisms will be a main research area for developing citizen centred home-based healthcare applications.

  • 96.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Building up a Virtual Community for Home-Based Chronic Diseases Healthcare2014In: 2014 IEEE 2nd International Workshop on Usability and Accessibility Focused Requirements Engineering, IEEE , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of Internet, social networks get more and more popular, it brings us an idea of designing a virtual community for home-based chronic diseases healthcare. In this paper, we conduct a questionnaire to gather the requirements of the community and describe them with user stories. Afterwards, a conceptual prototype is developed based on the requirements. The proposed virtual community involves healthcare providers, healthcare recipients and other people relevant to the home-based healthcare into one platform. It will solve the interoperability problems of current healthcare systems, as well as provide a technical solution of home-based healthcare.

  • 97.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    A hybrid cloud model for diabetes home-based care: a case study for perceived future feasibilityIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, SWE.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A Virtual Community Design for Home-Based Chronic Disease Healthcare2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science / [ed] Seyff N.,Ebert A.,Humayoun S.R.,Perini A.,Barbosa S.D.J.,Seyff N., Springer Publishing Company, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The internet based social network has been applied to serve many social functions, such as democratic decision making, knowledge sharing, educa‐ tion, and healthcare. In this paper, we provide a prototype of virtual community designed for home-based chronic diseases healthcare. We studied the concept “community” from the activity theory model in order to design the prototype with a solid theoretical base. Then we conducted a questionnaire from healthcare recipients and interviewed healthcare providers to gather the requirements for the design of the community. With some user stories we described the requirements as use cases for our design and a conceptual prototype is built based on the requirements. This virtual community servers as a shared platform for all the stakeholders who are engaged in the healthcare activity. With this shared community platform, the interoperability problems of current healthcare systems can be moderated

  • 99.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    Future Directions of Applying Healthcare Cloud for Home-based Chronic Disease Care2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The care of chronic disease has become the main challenge for healthcare institutions around the world. To meet the growing needs of patients, moving the front desk of healthcare from hospital to home is essential. Recently, cloud computing has been applied to healthcare domain; however, adapting to and using this technology effectively for home-based care is still in its initial phase. We have proposed a conceptual hybrid cloud model for home-based chronic disease care, and have evaluated its future feasibility by a case study of diabetes care in Blekinge, Sweden. In this paper, we discuss some possible future opportunities and challenges to apply this cloud model with the huge population for home-based chronic diseases care. To apply this model in practice, a professional IT healthcare education team is needed for both healthcare providers and healthcare recipients. For home-based healthcare, a monitoring system with an automatic alarm to healthcare providers is also necessary in some cases. Also, how to record and integrate excises data through wearable devices in a cloud should be considered. Given the high demand, sharing medical images through the cloud should be another research focus.

  • 100.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Peng, Cong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sharing Health Data Through Hybrid Cloud For Self-Management2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops (ICMEW), IEEE, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, patient self-management is encouraged in home-based healthcare, especially for chronic disease care. Sharing health information could improve the quality of patient self-management. In this paper, we introduce cloud computing as a potential technology to provide a more sustainable long-term solution compared with other technologies. A hybrid cloud is identified as a suitable way to enable patients to share health information for promoting the treatment of chronic diseases. And then a prototype on the case of type 2 diabetes is implemented to prove the feasibility of the proposed solution.

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