The fuzzy technique revealed in this paper is a new attempt of solving the problem of appreciating the effectiveness level of a medicine when using it against the symptoms typical of a morbid unit. To obtain a satisfactory result, a fuzzy relation with elements equal to fuzzy numbers in L-R representation is introduced. The fuzzy numbers that appear in the relation replace the verbal expressions decided by physicians in accordance with the definition of the relation. The fuzzy relation filled with the fuzzy numbers, which is a counterpart of the average fuzzy relation with the real numbers, also has its eigen fuzzy set with membership degrees as fuzzy numbers. These, after taking appropriate places in the eigen fuzzy set, appreciate the levels of the drug influence on the clinical symptoms.
The paper refers to earlier results obtained by authors and constitutes their essential complement by introducing to a diagnostic model the assumption that a decision concerning the diagnosis is based on observations of symptoms in some stages at an individual patient. To fix the optimal diagnosis we introduce the normalized Euclidean distance between fuzzy sets representing the ideal decision and a possible real decision stated by studying clinical symptoms.
The classical crisp version of Factor Analysis is seldom used in the case of qualitative factors by reason of the lack of appropriate level criteria referring to these factors. We now propose a fuzzy interpretation of the method, which gives a possibility to investigate the strength of the factor influence on a tested variable. By assuming that fuzzy numbers in L-R form represent both the variable and the factors, as the qualitative parameters, we are capable of performing all the operations that follow the Factor Analysis algorithm. Even the introduction of the conception proposing a new fuzzy space with particularly defined operations on fuzzy numbers helps to obtain satisfactory results.
The book presents different algorithms of diagnosing on the base of clinical symptoms. Some modern techniques as computing with words and the use of non-conventional operations on fuzzy membership degrees and fuzzy numbers are proposed as a new approach to the diagnostic problem. A large part of the work is devoted to differentiating the level of the drug action in the case of symptoms, which either disappear or still prevail after the treatment.
The German Enigma encoding machine and the contributions of famous cryptologists who broke it, are still topics, which fascinate both scientists and general public. After the monarchy of Kaiser Wilhelm II fell, the Weimar republic came into being, and the idea of equipping the armed forces with machine ciphers already found realization in 1926. The German cipher machine, called Enigma, alarmed the general staffs of neighbouring countries, especially Poland and France. This work intends to describe the efforts of cryptanalysts who solved the mystery of Enigma during the 30-ties before the beginning of the war.
Some medical and technical experiments lead to measures regarded as the coordinates of points in the plane. We can encounter vague or imprecise data as the values of the measurements. Even if the classical numerical methods cannot be applied to fuzzy data it is still desirable to find a function that interpolates the points. We thus test the Lagrange interpolation method when assuming that the entries of an algorithm will be fuzzy numbers in L-R representation, specially designed. The equation describing the fuzzy function, which goes through the points, is also used as a prognosis in the case of other points that have only one coordinate known.
All the solutions to the problems sketched below will be created on the basis of Fuzzy Set Theory. Fuzzy Set Theory is applied instead of the classical set theory when data involved in the problem to solve is imprecise, verbally described or cannot be measured exactly. The models, which are the contents of the project should contain some proposed solutions to such problems as: 1) the approximation of the mean value and the standard deviation for some imprecise data, 2) a probability distribution filled with fuzzy probability sets (Yager’s probabilities) that replace the probability values from the normal distribution, 3) the application of the last distribution to statistical tests with imprecise data, 4) the development of Factor Analysis for qualitative variables and factors provided that the data is collected by means of a questionnaire, 5) the interpolation of a set of points with imprecise coordinates by a fuzzy function.
It is typical of some medical experiments, leading to measures regarded as the coordinates of points in the plane, that imprecise data can occur. In spite of it we still would like to derive a formula of the function that interpolates these points. We thus test the Newton interpolation method with divided differences when supposing that the entries will be fuzzy numbers in the L-R form. The equation describing the fuzzy function, which goes through the points, can be used as a prognosis in the case of other points that have only one coordinate known.
The German Enigma encoding machine and the contributions of famous cryptologists who broke it, are still topics, which fascinate both scientists and general public. After the monarchy of Kaiser Wilhelm II fell, the Weimar republic came into being, and the idea of equipping the armed forces with machine ciphers already found realization in 1926. The German cipher machine, called Enigma, alarmed the general staffs of neighbouring countries, especially Poland and France. This work intends to describe the efforts of three Polish cryptanalysts who solved the mystery of Enigma during the 30-ties before the beginning of the war. At the end of the paper the cooperation between the Polish cryptologists and Alan Turing – the outstanding English cryptanalyst – is revealed.
This project is a continuation of the last one from 2002 with the supplement, which introduces the space of verbally defined fuzzy numbers in the L-R form. The space has its total order, and the numbers in it have borders from the interval [0, 1]. This gives a possibility of testing the fuzzy norms as the operations on fuzzy numbers from the space. The models discussed earlier can now be solved again by using this new technique.
Social networks may affect old people's health behaviours, such as their subjective health evaluations, health care utilization and symptom reporting. In the study, the relationships between social network characteristics and health behaviors were investigated for each gender separately. lt was assumed that the relationships differ between the genders and that female health behavior would be more strongly related to the social network. Social network characteristics, reported symptoms, subjective health and health care utilization were assessed for 107 men and 77 women that were 71 years of age. The results showed that, for women, a general satisfaction with the social network was associated with good subjective health. In addition, satisfaction with social participation and social anchorage were associated with a high frequency of health care utilization. For men, none of these health-related behaviors were bivariately associated with the social network. Furthermore, for women, the frequency of reported symptoms were more often associated with social network characteristics. Multivariate analyses showed that for women, dissatisfaction with social participation and support from the neighborhood predicted stomach symptoms. For men, dissatisfaction with instrumental support and contact with children predicted tension symptoms. This study suggests that health behaviour relates both to social network and gender.
Syftet med arbetet var att genom en litteraturstudie belysa den preoperativa informationens betydelse för patientens postoperativa välbefinnande. Studier har visat att preoperativ information kan ha betydelse då patienten visat mindre ångest, oro och smärta i det postoperativa skedet. Arbetet utgick ifrån en reviewartikel som belyste området. Resultatet visade studier från åren 1998 och framåt. I dessa studier framkom effekter såsom att information kunde förmedla kunskap till patienten som bidrog till att öka patientens välbefinnande genom att han/hon fick ökad kunskap om vårdförloppet. Även framkom att patientens oro och ångest kunde reduceras med ökad kunskap genom preoperativ information. Det påvisades också att patienter kunde i större utsträckning bemästra sin smärta då de erhöll preoperativ information. Studierna som använts i arbetet tar inte upp så mycket om betydelsen av relationen mellan sjuksköterska och patient. Dock ansåg vi att detta område hade en stor betydelse för patientens välbefinnande innan, under och efter vårdtiden. Den omvårdnadsteori som vi valde för studien visade sig vara alldeles för begränsad genom att Imogene King inriktade sig mer på samspelet mellan sjuksköterska och den sjuke. Vi fann därför en omvårdnadsteoretiker med ett vidare perspektiv, Joyce Travelbee.
Att bli inlagd på sjukhus är för de flesta barn en ny upplevelse. För barnet kan sjukhusmiljön orsaka smärtsamma upplevelser som kan vara mycket svåra att hantera. Innan barnet har fått ett fullt utvecklat språk använder de leken som kommunikationssätt. Barn använder informationen som ett intellektuellt stöd för att hjälpa sig själva att klara av cancersjukdomen. Att undersöka betydelsen av bemötande och information till barn i olika utvecklingsstadier samt deras föräldrar och syskon i samband med cancersjukdom var syftet med studien. En litteraturstudie har gjorts. Författarna till föreliggande arbete har bearbetat materialet genom en innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade att när barnen hade kunskaper om deras cancersjukdom och dess behandling blev det lättare för dem att klara av situationen. Det visade därmed att information till barnen var betydelsefull. Det var också av betydelse för barnen att bli bemötta som speciella istället för att bli bemötta som normala.
We study continuity properties for a family {s(p)} p greater than or equal to 1 of increasing Banach algebras under the twisted convolution, which also satisfies that a is an element of s(p), if and only if the Weyl operator a(w) (x, D) is a Schatten-von Neumann operator of order p on L-2. We discuss inclusion relations between the s(p)-spaces, Besov spaces and Sobolev spaces. We prove also a Young type result on sp for dilated convolution. As an application we prove that f (a) is an element of s(1), when a is an element of s(1) and f is an entire odd function. We finally apply the results on Toeplitz operators and prove that we may extend the definition for such operators. (C) 2002 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Den första delen av uppsatsen berör faltningsegenskaper mellan moduleringsrum och Lebesguerum. Detta tillämpas sedan för att få fram inbäddningsrelationer mellan moduleringsrum och Besovrum.
We discuss certain continuity properties for modulation spaces, and prove certain convolution relations. The results are then applied to get inclusions between modulation spaces, Besov spaces and Schatten classes in calculus of pseudo-differential operators, and to extend the definition of Toeplitz operators. We also discuss continuity of ambiguity functions and pseudo-differential operators in the framework of modulation spaces.
We prove that the most usual modulation spaces of non-standard type may be obtained in a canonical way from the corresponding modulation spaces of standard type. We use the results to get inclusions between certain modulation spaces and Besov spaces, and for proving continuity properties in pseudo-differential calculus.
We study Y'(+), of all a is an element of D' such that (a *sigma, phi, phi) greater than or equal to 0 for every phi is an element of C-0(infinity), where *phi denotes the twisted convolution. We prove that certain boundedness for a E Y' are completely determined of the behaviour for a at origin, for example that a is an element of Y'(+), and that if a(0) < &INFIN;, then a &ISIN; L-2 &AND; L-&INFIN;. We use the results in order to determine wether positive pseudo-differential operators belong to certain Schatten-casses or not. (C) 2002 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
In this paper we shall deal with some positivity questions arises in the Weyl calculus.
We study general continuous properties for an increasing family of Banach spaces of classes for pseudo-differential symbols, where the largest symbol space was introduced by J. Sjöstrand 1993. We prove that corresponding pseudo-differential operators are contained in the some certain sets of Schatten-von Neumann operators. We prove also that one obtains Hölder relations from the operator product and the usual multiplication, and that the convolution multiplication give rise to some Young type relations. Some further extensions are also discussed
We study general continuity properties for an increasing family of Banach spaces S-W(P) of classes for pseudo-differential symbols, where S-W(infinity) = S-w was introduced by J. Sjostrand in 1993. We prove that the operators in Op(S-W(P)) are Schattenvon Neumann operators of order p on L-2. We prove also that Op(S-w(p))Op(S-w(r)) subset of Op(S-w(r)) and S-w(p) . S-w(q) subset of S-w(r) provided 1/p+1q = 1/r. If instead 1/p + 1/q = 1+1/r, then S-w(p) w* S-w(q) subset of S-w(r). By modifying the definition of the S-w(p) -spaces, one also obtains symbol classes related to the S(m, g) spaces.
The most usual weighted modulation spaces is considered. It is proved that a lot of such spaces can be obtained in a canonical way from the corresponding standard modulation spaces. The results are used to get inclusions between certain modulation spaces and Besov spaces, and for proving continuity properties in pseudo-differential calculus.