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  • 51. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Tempero, Ewan
    Angelis, Lefteris
    A large-scale empirical study of practitioners' use of object-oriented concepts2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first results from a survey carried out over the second quarter of 2009 examining how theories in object-oriented design are understood and used by software developers. We collected 3785 responses from software developers world-wide, which we believe is the largest survey of its kind. We targeted the use of encapsulation, class size as measured by number of methods, and depth of a class in the inheritance hierarchy. We found that, while overall practitioners followed advice on encapsulation, there was some variation of adherence to it. For class size and depth there was substantially less agreement with expert advice. In addition, inconsistencies were found within the use and perception of object-oriented concepts within the investigated group of developers. The results of this survey has deep reaching consequences for both practitioners and researchers as they highlight and confirm central issues.

  • 52.
    Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Tempero, Ewan
    Lefteris, Angelis
    On the use of software design models in software development practice: An empirical investigation2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 95, p. 176-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into software design models in general, and into the UML in particular, focuses on answering the question how design models are used, completely ignoring the question if they are used. There is an assumption in the literature that the UML is the de facto standard, and that use of design models has had a profound and substantial effect on how software is designed by virtue of models giving the ability to do model-checking, code generation, or automated test generation. However for this assumption to be true, there has to be significant use of design models in practice by developers. This paper presents the results of a survey summarizing the answers of 3785 developers answering the simple question on the extent to which design models are used before coding. We relate their use of models with (i) total years of programming experience, (ii) open or closed development, (iii) educational level, (iv) programming language used, and (v) development type. The answer to our question was that design models are not used very extensively in industry, and where they are used, the use is informal and without tool support, and the notation is often not UML. The use of models decreased with an increase in experience and increased with higher level of qualification. Overall we found that models are used primarily as a communication and collaboration mechanism where there is a need to solve problems and/or get a joint understanding of the overall design in a group. We also conclude that models are seldom updated after initially created and are usually drawn on a whiteboard or on paper.

  • 53. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Identification of Improvement Issues Using a Lightweight Triangulation Approach2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges in requirements engineering is the ability to improve the process and establish one that is “good-enough”. The objective of this paper is to present a lightweight approach to identify process improvement issues. The approach is developed to capture both the views of different stakeholders and different sources of information. An industrial investigation from a small company is presented. In the investigation both projects and the line organization have been interviewed and documentation from them has been studied to capture key issues for improvement. The issues identified from one source are checked against other sources. The dependencies between the issues have been studied. In total nine issues for improvement of the requirements engineering work at the company were identified. It is concluded that the approach is effective in capturing issues, and that the approach helps different stakeholders to get their view represented in the process improvement work.

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  • 54. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Packaging Software Process Improvement Issues: a Method and a Case Study2004In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 34, no 14, p. 1311-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software process improvement is a challenge in general and in particular for small- and medium-sized companies. Assessment is one important step in improvement. However, given that a list of improvement issues has been derived, it is often very important to be able to prioritize the improvement proposals and also look at the potential dependencies between them. This paper comes from an industrial need to enable prioritization of improvement proposals and to identify their dependencies. The need was identified in a small- and medium-sized software development company. Based on the need, a method for prioritization and identification of dependencies of improvement proposals was developed. The prioritization part of the method is based on a multi-decision criteria method and the dependencies are identified using a dependency graph. The developed method has been successfully applied in the company, where people with different roles applied the method. The paper presents both the method as such and the successful application of it. It is concluded that the method worked as a means for prioritization and identification of dependencies. Moreover, the method also allowed the employees to discuss and reason about the improvement actions to be taken in a structured and systematic way.

  • 55. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Requirements Abstraction Model2006In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 79-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software requirements arrive in different shapes and forms to development organizations. This is particularly the case in market-driven requirements engineering, where the requirements are on products rather than directed towards projects. This results in challenges related to making different requirements comparable. In particular, this situation was identified in a collaborative effort between academia and industry. A model, with four abstraction levels, was developed as a response to the industrial need. The model allows for placement of requirements on different levels and supports abstraction or break down of requirements to make them comparable to each other. The model was successfully validated in several steps at a company. The results from the industrial validation point to the usefulness of the model. The model will allow companies to ensure comparability between requirements, and hence it generates important input to activities such as prioritization and packaging of requirements before launching a development project.

  • 56.
    Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Åsfält, Pär
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Success Evaluation and Measures in Software Process Improvement2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Investigate and examine industry practice with regards to evaluation of process improvement, identification of measures and methods for success evaluations. The main reasoning is to use empirical data from industry, data from academia and research as input for suggesting proposals for improvement and discussion new avenues for future research in a field not addressed by e.g. traditional investment theory or marketing research. Method: Interviews were used and several data sources were elicited to gather empirical data. Literature surveys complemented this. Ultimately a triangulation approach was adopted to gradually and continuously compare and identify the chasms between academia and the reality and needs of industry. Results: The results can be described in three parts. First, there is a empirical investigation showing what measures and models are used in industry. These are discussed and put against literature (the academic view) in both the software engineering field, but relevant research is also scrutinized in business management field, e.g. investment theory. The second contribution is the concrete proposal of three methods for evaluating process improvement success. The first two of these are actually useable and take notice of the limitations identified in industry through the empirical investigation, i.e. no assumptions and theoretical models are presented in the first part of the proposal. The second part of the proposal is designed to present an outlook of the overall potential, provoking a discussion and ultimately leading out to a conclusion of future research needed in the field.

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  • 57.
    Hyrynsalmi, Sami
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, FIN.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Tripathi, Nirnaya
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    Pompermaier, Leandro Bento
    PUCRS—Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Prikladnicki, Rafæl
    PUCRS—Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    What is a minimum viable (video) game?: Towards a research agenda2018In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11195, p. 217-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ‘Minimum Viable Product’ (MVP) is largely adapted in the software industry as well as in academia. Minimum viable products are used to test hypotheses regarding the target audience, save resources from unnecessary development work and guide a company towards a stable business model. As the game industry is becoming an important business domain, it is not surprise that the concept has been adopted also in the game development. This study surveys how a Minimum Viable Game (MVG) is defined, what is reported in extant literature as well as present results from a small case study survey done to nine game development companies. The study shows that despite popularity of minimum viable games in the industrial fora, the presented views on the concept are diverged and there is lack of practical guidelines and research supporting game companies. This study points out research gaps in the area as well as calls for actions to further develop the concept and to define guidelines. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018.

  • 58. Ivarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    A Method for Evaluating Rigor and Industrial Relevance of Technology Evaluations2011In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256 , Vol. 16, no 3, p. 365-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main goals of an applied research field such as software engineering is the transfer and widespread use of research results in industry. To impact industry, researchers developing technologies in academia need to provide tangible evidence of the advantages of using them. This can be done trough step-wise validation, enabling researchers to gradually test and evaluate technologies to finally try them in real settings with real users and applications. The evidence obtained, together with detailed information on how the validation was conducted, offers rich decision support material for industry practitioners seeking to adopt new technologies and researchers looking for an empirical basis on which to build new or refined technologies. This paper presents model for evaluating the rigor and industrial relevance of technology evaluations in software engineering. The model is applied and validated in a comprehensive systematic literature review of evaluations of requirements engineering technologies published in software engineering journals. The aim is to show the applicability of the model and to characterize how evaluations are carried out and reported to evaluate the state-of-research. The review shows that the model can be applied to characterize evaluations in requirements engineering. The findings from applying the model also show that the majority of technology evaluations in requirements engineering lack both industrial relevance and rigor. In addition, the research field does not show any improvements in terms of industrial relevance over time.

  • 59. Ivarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Practice Selection Framework2012In: International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0218-1940 , Vol. 22, no 1, p. 17-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management (KM) in software engineering and software process improvement (SPI) are challenging. Most existing KM and SPI frameworks are too expensive to deploy or do not take an organization’s specific needs or knowledge into consideration. There is thus a need for scalable improvement approaches that leverage knowledge already residing in the organizations. This paper presents the Practice Selection Framework (PSF), an Experience Factory approach, enabling lightweight experience capture and use by utilizing postmortem reviews. Experiences gathered concern performance and applicability of practices used in the organization, gained from concluded projects. Project managers use these as decision support for selecting practices to use in future projects, enabling explicit knowledge transfer across projects and the development organization as a whole. Process managers use the experiences to determine if there is potential for improvement of practices used in the organization. This framework was developed and subsequently validated in industry to get feedback on usability and usefulness from practitioners. The validation consisted of tailoring and testing the framework using real data from the organization and comparing it to current practices used in the organization to ensure that the approach meets industry needs. The results from the validation are encouraging and the participants’ assessment of PSF and particularly the tailoring developed was positive.

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  • 60. Ivarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Technology Transfer Decision Support in Requirements Engineering Research: A Systematic Review of REj2009In: Requirements Engineering Journal, ISSN 0947-3602 (Print) 1432-010X (Online), Vol. 14, no 3, p. 155-175Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main goals of an applied research field such as requirements engineering is the transfer of research results to industrial use. To promote industrial adoption of technologies developed in academia, researchers need to provide tangible evidence of the advantages of using them. This can be done through industry validation, enabling researchers to test and validate technologies in a real setting with real users and applications. The evidence obtained, together with detailed information on how the validation was conducted, offers rich decision support material for industrial practitioners seeking to adopt new technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive systematic literature review of all papers published in the Requirements Engineering journal containing any type of technology evaluation. The aim is to gauge the support for technology transfer, i.e., to what degree industrial practitioners can use the reporting of technology evaluations in the journal as decision support for adopting the technologies in industrial practice. Findings show that very few evaluations offer full technology transfer support, i.e., have a realistic scale, application or subjects. The major improvement potential concerning support for technology transfer is found to be the subjects used in the evaluations. Attaining company support, including support for using practitioners as subjects, is vital for technology transfer and for researchers seeking to validate technologies.

  • 61. Ivarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Tool support for disseminating and improving development practices2012In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 20, p. 173-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management in software engineering and software process improvement activities pose challenges as initiatives are deployed. Most existing approaches are either too expensive to deploy or do not take an organization's specific needs into consideration. There is thus a need for scalable improvement approaches that leverage knowledge already residing in the organizations. This paper presents tool support for an Experience Factory approach for disseminating and improving practices used in an organization. Experiences from using practices in development projects are captured in postmortems and provide iteratively improved decision support for identifying what practices work well and what needs improvement. An initial evaluation of using the tool for organizational improvement has been performed utilizing both academia and industry. The results from the evaluation indicate that organizational characteristics influence how practices and experiences can be used. Experiences collected in postmortems are estimated to have little effect on improvements to practices used throughout the organization. However, in organizations where different practices are used in different parts of the organization, making practices available together with experiences from use, as well as having context information, can influence decisions on what practices to use in projects.

  • 62. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Aslam, Khurum
    Gorschek, Tony
    A Method for Early Requirements Triage and Selection Utilizing Product Strategies2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In market-driven product development large numbers of requirements threaten to overload the development organization. It is critical for product management to select the requirements aligned with the overall business goals and discard others as early as possible. This paper presents a method that utilizes strategies for early requirements triage. The method presented is based on good practices from management literature customized for technical product strategy formulation. The creation of the method was also inspired by industry needs through exploratory interviews covering requirements triage and selection processes as well as strategy formulation. After creation, the method was subsequently validated in industry where the aspects of usability and usefulness were investigated, yielding promising initial results.

  • 63. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Barney, Sebastian
    Dzamashvili-Fogelström, Nina
    Gorschek, Tony
    Requirements Management for Continuous Software Product Development2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Continuous software product development is increasingly becoming the norm. New requirements come in a constant stream and need to be assigned to projects to make it into a release. However, in the literature requirements management practices are project based and no longer naturally fit to this new setting. Aim: Thus, it is of interest to understand the industrial practices for the identification of requirements and associated artifacts put under configuration control. Method: An industrial survey with five companies was conducted to find out these industrial practices. Results: The results of this survey show that with the need to manage more requirements also comes the need for greater control. Large companies, however, often place similar control on products of all size. Moreover, regardless of size and requirements management practices, companies face the same problems. Conclusions: All companies should keep requirements associated material under some form of control and updates to them should be communicated to the involved stakeholders and should be easy to access. The type of associated artifacts kept under control can be decided by the criteria given.

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  • 64. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The Contextual Nature of Innovation: An Empirical Investigation of Three Software Intensive Products2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 57, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: New products create significant opportunities for differentiation and competitive advantage. To increase the chances of new product success, a universal set of critical activities and determinants have been recommended. Some researchers believe, however, that these factors are not universal, but are contextual. Objective: This paper reports innovation processes followed to develop three software intensive products for understanding how and why innovation practice is dependent on innovation context. Method: This paper reports innovation processes and practices with an in-depth multi-case study of three software product innovations from Ericsson, IBM, and Rorotika. It describes the actual innovation processes followed in the three cases and discusses the observed innovation practice and relates it to state-of-the-art. Results: The cases point to a set of contextual factors that influence the choice of innovation activities and determinants for developing successful product innovations. The cases provide evidence that innovation practice cannot be standardized, but is contextual in nature. Conclusion: The rich description of the interaction between context and innovation practice enables future investigations into contextual elements that influence innovation practice, and calls for the creation of frameworks enabling activity and determinant selection for a given context – since one size does not fit all.

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  • 65. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    A method for alignment evaluation of product strategies among stakeholders (MASS) in software intensive product development2011In: Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, ISSN 1532-060X, E-ISSN 1532-0618, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 494-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current practices in the industry are moving towards the market-driven development of software intensive products compared to customer-specific system development. Consequently, product management is faced with several challenges that have to be addressed as a part of the market-driven requirements engineering process. One of the important challenges is how to select the right mix of requirements, balancing short-term and long-term gains. One way to address this challenge is to utilize product strategies for selecting requirements. However, in order to do this the internal success-critical stakeholders (SCS) involved in strategies creation and requirements selection need to be aligned with respect to a product's strategic goals and objectives. This paper presents a method to enable the evaluation of degree of alignment between SCS with respect to the understanding and interpretation of a product's strategy. Further, the method not only enables the evaluation of alignment, but also specifically shows misalignment, and enables the identification of leading causes. The method has been developed in collaboration with the industry and its application is shown through a case study at Ericsson AB

  • 66. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    A Systematic Review of Domain Analysis Solutions for Product Lines2009In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 82, no 12, p. 1982-2003Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domain analysis is crucial and central to software product line engineering (SPLE) as it is one of the main instruments to decide what to include in a product and how it should fit in to the overall software product line. For this reason many domain analysis solutions have been proposed both by researchers and industry practitioners. Domain analysis comprises various modeling and scoping activities. This paper presents a systematic review of all the domain analysis solutions presented until 2007. The goal of the review is to analyze the level of industrial application and/or empirical validation of the proposed solutions with the purpose of mapping maturity in terms of industrial application, as well as to what extent proposed solutions might have been evaluated in terms of usability and usefulness. The finding of this review indicates that, although many new domain analysis solutions for software product lines have been proposed over the years, the absence of qualitative and quantitative results from empirical application and/or validation makes it hard to evaluate the potential of proposed solutions with respect to their usability and/or usefulness for industry adoption. The detailed results of the systematic review can be used by individual researchers to see large gaps in research that give opportunities for future work, and from a general research perspective lessons can be learned from the absence of validation as well as from good examples presented. From an industry practitioner view, the results can be used to gauge as to what extent solutions have been applied and/or validated and in what manner, both valuable as input prior to industry adoption of a domain analysis solution.

  • 67. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Feldt, Robert
    A Controlled Experiment of a Method for Early Requirements Triage Utilizing Product Strategies2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] In market-driven product development of software intensive products large numbers of requirements threaten to overload the development organization. It is critical for product management to select the requirements aligned with the overall business goals, product strategies and discard others as early as possible. Thus, there is a need for an effective and efficient method that deals with this challenge and supports product managers in the continuous effort of early requirements triage [1, 2] based on product strategies. This paper evaluates such a method - A Method for Early Requirements Triage Utilizing Product Strategies (MERTS), which is built based on the needs identified in literature and industry. [Question/problem] The research question answered in this paper is "If two groups of subjects have a product strategy, one group in NL format and one in MERTS format, will there be a difference between the two groups with regards to effectiveness and efficiency of requirements triage?" The effectiveness and efficiency of the MERTS were evaluated through controlled experiment in a lab environment with 50 software engineering graduate students as subjects. [Principal ideas/results] It was found through results that MERTS method is highly effective and efficient. [Contribution] The contribution of this paper is validation of effectiveness and efficiency of the product strategies created through MERTS method for requirements triage, prior to industry trials. A major limitation of the results is that the experiment was performed with the graduate students and not the product managers. However, the results showed that MERTS is ready for industry trials.

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  • 68. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Pettersson, Kent
    Systematic Review of Solutions Proposed for Product Line Economics2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a systematic review of all the solutions addressing different economic aspect of software product lines (SPL), e.g. SPL adoption cost-benefits, PL architecture decisions, SPL test strategies project cost overrun and so on, presented for the years 2000 to 2007. The goal of the review is to analyze the level of empirical application and/or validation of the proposed solutions with the purpose of mapping maturity as well as to what extent proposed solutions might be proven in terms of usability and usefulness. The important finding of this review is that although many economic solutions for SPL have been proposed over the years, the absence of qualitative and quantitative results from empirical application and/or validation makes it difficult to evaluate the potential of proposed solutions with respect to their usability and/or usefulness in relation to industry adoption. Suggestions have been presented to improve the existing situation.

  • 69.
    Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wilson, Magnus
    The software value map—an exhaustive collection of value aspects for the development of software intensive products2013In: Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, ISSN 1532-060X, E-ISSN 1532-0618, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 711-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In software intensive products such as cars or telecom systems, software has traditionally been associated with cost, and there has been no real perception of its value in relation to the entire product offering. However, because software is becoming a larger part of the main competitive advantage, driving innovation and product differentiation, hardware is becoming more standardized, thus the valuation of software is becoming critical. In existing literature, several value constructs and corresponding valuation/measurement solutions needed for making decisions about software product development are presented. However, the contributions are often isolated with respect to a certain perspective such as focusing on product's internal or external quality aspects only. Consequently, a complete view of value constructs relevant from different perspectives required for making decisions about software product development is missing. This paper presents a consolidated view of the software value concept utilizing the major perspectives and introduces a software value map. The created value map was evaluated through an industry case study through the development of impact evaluation patterns, which were subsequently used by professionals in industry, and experiences gathered. During industry evaluation, practitioners found substantial benefits of having a consolidated, vastly improved, and extended value aspect's view of software. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 70. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Extending value stream mapping through waste definition beyond customer perspective2014In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 1074-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value Stream Mapping is one of the several Lean practices, which has recently attracted interest in the software engineering community. In other contexts (such as military, health, production), Value Stream Mapping has achieved considerable improvements in processes and products. The goal is to also leverage on these benefits in the software intensive product development context. The primary contribution is that we are extending the definition of waste to fit in the software intensive product development context. As traditionally in Value Stream Mapping everything that is not considered valuable is waste, we do this practically by looking at value beyond the customer perspective, and using the Software Value Map. A detailed illustration, via application in an industrial case at Ericsson AB, demonstrates usability and usefulness of the proposed extension. The case study results consist of two parts. First, the instantiation and motivations for selecting certain strategies have been provided. Second, the outcome of the value stream map is described in detail. Overall, the conclusion is that this case study indicates that Value Stream Mapping and the integration with the Software Value Map is useful in a software intensive product development context. In a retrospective the value stream approach was perceived positively by the practitioners with respect to process and outcome.

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  • 71.
    Klotins, Erik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software engineering knowledge areas in startup companies: A mapping study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background – Startup companies are becoming important suppliers of innovative and software intensive products. The failure rate among startups is high due to lack of resources, immaturity, multiple influences and dynamic technologies. However, software product engineering is the core activity in startups, therefore inadequacies in applied engineering practices might be a significant contributing factor for high failure rates. Aim – This study identifies and categorizes software engineering knowledge areas utilized in startups to map out the state-of-art, identifying gaps for further research. Method – We perform a systematic literature mapping study, applying snowball sampling to identify relevant primary studies. Results – We have identified 54 practices from 14 studies. Although 11 of 15 main knowledge areas from SWEBOK are covered, a large part of categories is not. Conclusions – Existing research does not provide reliable support for software engineering in any phase of a startup life cycle. Transfer of results to other startups is difficult due to low rigor in current studies. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  • 72.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A collaborative method for identification and prioritization of data sources in MDREManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering (RE) literature acknowledges the importance of stakeholder identification early in the software engineering activities. However, literature overlooks the challenge of identifying and selecting the right stakeholders and the potential of using other inanimate requirements sources for RE activities for market-driven products.

    Market-driven products are influenced by a large number of stakeholders. Consulting all stakeholders directly is impractical, and companies utilize indirect data sources, e.g. documents and representatives of larger groups of stakeholders. However, without a systematic approach, companies often use easy to access or hard to ignore data sources for RE activities. As a consequence, companies waste resources on collecting irrelevant data or develop the product based on the input from a few sources, thus missing market opportunities.

    We propose a collaborative and structured method to support analysts in the identification and selection of the most relevant data sources for market-driven product engineering. The method consists of four steps and aims to build consensus between different perspectives in an organization and facilitates the identification of most relevant data sources. We demonstrate the use of the method with two industrial case studies.

    Our results show that the method can support market-driven requirements engineering in two ways: (1) by providing systematic steps to identify and prioritize data sources for RE, and (2) by highlighting and resolving discrepancies between different perspectives in an organization.

  • 73.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Tripathi, Nirnaya
    Bento Pompermaier, Leandro
    Use of Agile Practices in Start-upsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Software start-ups have shown their ability to develop and launch in- novative software products and services. Small, motivated teams and uncertain project scope makes start-ups good candidates for adopting Agile practices.

    Objective. We explore how start-ups use Agile practices and what effects can be associated with the use of those practices.

    Method. We use a case survey to analyze 84 start-up cases and 56 Agile prac- tices. We apply statistical methods to test for statistically significant associa- tions between the use of Agile practices, team, and product factors.

    Results. Our results suggest that backlog, version control, refactoring, and user stories are the most frequently reported practices. We identify 22 associations between the use of Agile practices, team, and product factors. The use of Agile practices is associated with effects on source code and overall product quality. A teams’ positive or negative attitude towards best engineering practices is a significant indicator for either adoption or rejection of certain Agile practices. To explore the relationships in our findings, we set forth a number of propositions that can be investigated by future research.

    Conclusions. We conclude that start-ups use Agile practices, however without following any specific methodology. We identify the opportunity for more fine- grained studies into the adoption and effects of individual Agile practices. Start- up practitioners could benefit from Agile practices in terms of better overall quality, tighter control over team performance and resource utilization.

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  • 74.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Tripathi, Nirnaya
    Oulun Yliopisto, Oulu, FIN.
    Pompermaier, Leandro Bento
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Exploration of technical debt in start-ups2018In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society , 2018, p. 75-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software start-ups are young companies aiming to build and market software-intensive products fast with little resources. Aiming to accelerate time-to-market, start-ups often opt for ad-hoc engineering practices, make shortcuts in product engineering, and accumulate technical debt. Objective: In this paper we explore to what extent precedents, dimensions and outcomes associated with technical debt are prevalent in start-ups. Method: We apply a case survey method to identify aspects of technical debt and contextual information characterizing the engineering context in start-ups. Results: By analyzing responses from 86 start-up cases we found that start-ups accumulate most technical debt in the testing dimension, despite attempts to automate testing. Furthermore, we found that start-up team size and experience is a leading precedent for accumulating technical debt: larger teams face more challenges in keeping the debt under control. Conclusions: This study highlights the necessity to monitor levels of technical debt and to preemptively introduce practices to keep the debt under control. Adding more people to an already difficult to maintain product could amplify other precedents, such as resource shortages, communication issues and negatively affect decisions pertaining to the use of good engineering practices. © 2018 ACM.

  • 75.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Prikladniki, Rafael
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Tripathi, Nirnaya
    Oulun Yliopisto, FIN.
    Pompermaier, Leandro Bento
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups2019In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software start-ups are emerging as suppliers of innovation and software-intensive products. However, traditional software engineering practices are not evaluated in the context, nor adopted to goals and challenges of start-ups. As a result, there is insufficient support for software engineering in the start-up context. IEEE

  • 76.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Engineering Anti-Patterns in Start-Ups2019In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software start-up failures are often explained with a poor business model, market issues, insufficient funding, or simply a bad product idea. However, inadequacies in software engineering are relatively unexplored and could be a significant contributing factor to the high start-up failure rate. In this paper we present the analysis of 88 start-up experience reports, revealing three anti-patterns associated with start-up progression phases. The anti-patterns address challenges of releasing the first version of the product, attracting customers, and expanding the product into new markets. The anti-patterns show that challenges and failure scenarios that appear to be business or market related are, at least partially, rooted in engineering inadequacies.

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  • 77.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software engineering in start-up companies: An analysis of 88 experience reports2019In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 68-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Start-up companies have become an important supplier of innovation and software-intensive products. The flexibility and reactiveness of start-ups enables fast development and launch of innovative products. However, a majority of software start-up companies fail before achieving any success. Among other factors, poor software engineering could be a significant contributor to the challenges experienced by start-ups. However, the state-of-practice of software engineering in start-ups, as well as the utilization of state-of-the-art is largely an unexplored area. Objective: In this study we investigate how software engineering is applied in start-up context with a focus to identify key knowledge areas and opportunities for further research. Method: We perform a multi-vocal exploratory study of 88 start-up experience reports. We develop a custom taxonomy to categorize the reported software engineering practices and their interrelation with business aspects, and apply qualitative data analysis to explore influences and dependencies between the knowledge areas. Results: We identify the most frequently reported software engineering (requirements engineering, software design and quality) and business aspect (vision and strategy development) knowledge areas, and illustrate their relationships. We also present a summary of how relevant software engineering knowledge areas are implemented in start-ups and identify potentially useful practices for adoption in start-ups. Conclusions: The results enable a more focused research on engineering practices in start-ups. We conclude that most engineering challenges in start-ups stem from inadequacies in requirements engineering. Many promising practices to address specific engineering challenges exists, however more research on adaptation of established practices, and validation of new start-up specific practices is needed. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 78.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software-intensive product engineering in start-ups: a taxonomy2018In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 44-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software start-ups are new companies aiming to launch an innovative product to mass markets fast with minimal resources. However a majority of start-ups fail before realizing their potential. Poor software engineering, among other factors, could be a significant contributor to the challenges experienced by start-ups.

    Very little is known about the engineering context in start-up companies. On the surface, start-ups are characterized by uncertainty, high risk and minimal resources. However, such characterization is not granular enough to support identification of specific engineering challenges and to devise start-up specific engineering practices.

    The first step towards understanding on software engineering in start-ups is definition of the Start-up Context Map - a taxonomy of engineering practices, environment factors and goals influencing the engineering process. Goal of the Start-up Context Map is to support further research on the field and to serve as an engineering decision support tool for start-ups. 

  • 79.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo G.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    AN AGENDA FOR THE COMING YEARS2017In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 56-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 80. Martins, Luiz Eduardo G.
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements engineering for safety-critical systems: A systematic literature review2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 75, p. 71-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) are becoming increasingly present in our society. A considerable amount of research effort has been invested into improving the SCS requirements engineering process as it is critical to the successful development of SCS and, in particular, the engineering of safety aspects. Objective: This article aims to investigate which approaches have been proposed to elicit, model, specify and validate safety requirements in the context of SCS, as well as to what extent such approaches have been validated in industrial settings. The paper will also investigate how the usability and usefulness of the reported approaches have been explored, and to what extent they enable requirements communication among the development project/team actors in the development of SCS. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review by selecting 151 papers published between 1983 and 2014. The research methodology to conduct the SLR was based on the guidelines proposed by Kitchenham and Biolchini. Results: The results of this systematic review should encourage further research into the design of studies to improve the requirements engineering for SCS, particularly to enable the communication of the safety requirements among the project team actors, and the adoption of other models for hazard and accident models. The presented results point to the need for more industry-oriented studies, particularly with more participation of practitioners in the validation of new approaches. Conclusion: The most relevant findings from this review and their implications for further research are as follows: integration between requirements engineering and safety engineering areas; dominance of the traditional approaches; early mortality of new approaches; need for industry validation; lack of evidence for the usefulness and usability of most approaches; and the lack of studies that investigate how to improve the communication process throughout the lifecycle. Based on the findings, we suggest a research agenda to the community of researchers and advices to SCS practitioners. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 81.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements Engineering for Safety-Critical Systems: An Interview Study with Industry Practitioners2020In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 346-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have conducted in-depth interviews with experienced practitioners in the Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) domain in order to investigate several aspects related to requirements specification and safety analysis for SCS. We interviewed 19 practitioners from eleven SCS companies in different domains with the intention of verifying which approaches they use day-today, and what their perceptions are in relation to the approaches used to elicit, analyze, specify and validate safety requirements. The aim of this study is to obtain an in-depth understanding of how requirements engineering is carried out in companies that develop SCS. IEEE

  • 82.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements Engineering for Safety-Critical Systems: Overview and Challenges2017In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 49-57, article id 7974683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world that depends increasingly on complex, critical, and intertwined systems, requirements engineering is crucial to developing and maintaining safety-critical systems (SCSs). Researchers studied the state of the art (through the literature) and the state of the practice (through in-depth interviews with practitioners) to discover what approaches are available for capturing, specifying, and communicating safety requirements throughout the SCS lifecycle and to determine the remaining challenges. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 83.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Majeed, Asif
    UIIT, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, PAK.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    SWVP-A Requirements Prioritization Technique for Global Software Development2019In: Proceedings - 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements prioritization plays a vital role in software release planning, and the process requires good interaction between stakeholders. Requirement prioritization process is challenging in global software development (GSD) context, where communication and coordination are core bottlenecks. Based on the issues found in the literature and industry survey, this paper proposes a requirements prioritization technique for GSD settings based on stakeholders' weight, vote, and priority (SWVP). The technique has two phases: (1) a calculation of stakeholders' profile weights and setting up communication parameters and (2) a voting process supporting the actual prioritization, based on the weights from phase (1). The proposed technique was applied to three industrial projects. The feedback of the practitioners after using SWVP was encouraging, and the feedback results indicate that SWVP could be a practical solution for requirements prioritization in GSD contexts. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 84. Moe, NilsBrede
    et al.
    Barney, Sebastian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Aurum, Aybüe
    Khurum, Mahvish
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Barney, Hamish
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Winata, Martha
    Fostering and sustaining innovation in a Fast Growing Agile Company2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Madrid: Springer , 2012, Vol. 7343, p. 160-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustaining innovation in a fast growing software development company is difficult. As organisations grow, peoples' focus often changes from the big picture of the product being developed to the specific role they fill. This paper presents two complementary approaches that were successfully used to support continued developer-driven innovation in a rapidly growing Australian agile software development company. The method "FedEx TM Day" gives developers one day to showcase a proof of concept they believe should be part of the product, while the method "20% Time" allows more ambitious projects to be undertaken. Given the right setting and management support, the two approaches can support and improve bottom-up innovation in organizations.

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  • 85.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE SICS AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 86.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ouriques, João Felipe
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Method to Evaluate Knowledge Resources in Agile Software Development2019In: Proceeding of The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019, IEEE, 2019, article id 8870167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizations adopting Agile Software Development (ASD) use different Knowledge Management (KM) practices to retain and share knowledge. However, it is often the case that knowledge retention is carried out in an ad-hoc way.

    Aims: In this study, we report our experience from proposing the Knowledge Critically Evaluation Method (KCEM) to evaluate knowledge items (KIT). Our main goal with KCEMs is to support companies to systematically retain knowledge in ASD contexts.

    Method: We conducted an improvement case study to develop and evaluate KCEM. This research follows the guidelines for technology transfer between industry and academia. The case and unit of analysis is Ericsson, a Swedish company that develops telecommunication solutions.

    Results: In this paper, we provide initial results of both lab and static validation, enriched by the lessons learned.

    Conclusions: The preliminary results show that KCEM is easy to understand and use, provides a different perspective on the KIT by visualizing in the criticality chart, and reduces the level of abstraction associated to a knowledge subject area.

  • 87.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Thinking strategically about knowledge management in agile software development2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. Code 221089, p. 389-395Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile methodologies gave teams more autonomy regarding planning tasks and executing them. As a result, coordination gets more flexible, but much relevant knowledge remains undocumented and inside teams’ borders, due to informal communication and reduced development documentation. Since knowledge plays an essential role in software development, it is important to have effective knowledge management (KM) practices that contribute to a better knowledge resource allocation. Several KM practices have been reported in empirical studies in Agile Software Development (ASD). However, these practices are not evaluated regarding its effectiveness or how do they affect product quality. Besides, the studies do not demonstrate connections between the KM practices in the project level and the strategic level. The lack of connection between these levels can result in deviations from the company’s corporate strategy, wasted resources and irrelevant knowledge acquisition. This paper discusses how the strategic management can contribute to an integrated approach to KM in ASD; considering the organizational structure and the corporate strategy. Based on this discussion, we propose research areas that may help with planning KM strategies that can have their effectiveness measured and contribute to product quality. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

  • 88.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Continuous Assimilation of Change in Agile Software Development: An empirical study on the role of the knowledge-based resourcesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the software value chain is knowledge-based due to the high dependency on people, the lack of practice to manage knowledge as a resource might jeopardize its application in software development. The resource-based view of the firm provides a different perspective on the utilization of knowledge, assisting the identification of the Knowledge-Based Resources (KBRs) that allow a company to have a continuous readiness to quickly respond to the market changes. To understand how the KBRs support coordination in Agile Software Development (ASD), we applied a grounded theory approach, collecting data from 18 practitioners, coming from five companies. As results, we identified 44 KBRs that were grouped in the Continuous Assimilation Model (CHASM). They support coordination in ASD with continuous assimilation of change which is supported by people’s business analytic perspective and product systemic reasoning. The companies are able to utilize a certain level of their KBRs through social collaboration and team environment/settings. However, the inefficient utilization of these resources results in a significant knowledge loss. Furthermore, CHASM points out areas where practitioners can establish strategies based on the priorities that the companies give to the investigated KBRs, as well as a set of research opportunities for future investigation.

  • 89.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Knowledge Management Strategies and Processes in Agile Software Development: A Systematic Literature Review2019In: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 345-380Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge-intensive companies that adopt Agile Software Development (ASD) relay on efficient implementation of Knowledge Management (KM) strategies to promotes different Knowledge Processes (KPs) to gain competitive advantage. This study aims to explore how companies that adopt ASD implement KM strategies utilizing practices that promote the KPs in the different organizational layers. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed 32 primary studies, selected by automated search and snowballing in the extant literature. To analyze the data, we applied narrative synthesis. Most of the identified KM practices implement personalization strategies (81 %), supported by codification (19 %). Our review shows that the primary studies do not report KM practices in the strategic layer and two of them in the product portfolio layer; on the other hand, in the project layer, the studies report 33 practices that implement personalization strategy, and seven practices that implement codification. KM strategies in ASD promote mainly the knowledge transfer process with practices that stimulate social interaction to share tacit knowledge in the project layer. As a result of using informal communication, a significant amount of knowledge can be lost or not properly transferred to other individuals and, instead of propagating the knowledge, it remains inside a few individuals minds.

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  • 90.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE SICS, SWE.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens University, SWE.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens University, SWE.
    Muhammad Ali Shah, Syed
    RISE SICS, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Decision support for choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems: The GRADE taxonomy2015In: ECSAW '15 Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops / [ed] Matthias Galster, ACM Digital Library, 2015, article id 48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering software-intensive systems is a complex process that typically involves making many critical decisions. A continuous challenge during system design, analysis and development is deciding on the reference architecture that could reduce risks and deliver the expected functionality and quality of a product or a service to its users. The lack of evidence in documenting strategies supporting decision-making in the selection of architectural assets in systems and software engineering creates an impediment in learning, improving and also reducing the risks involved. In order to fill this gap, ten experienced researchers in the field of decision support for the selection of architectural assets in engineering software-intensive systems conducted a workshop to reduce traceability of strategies and define a dedicated taxonomy. The result was the GRADE taxonomy, whose key elements can be used to support decision-making as exemplified through a real case instantiation for validation purposes. The overall aim is to support future work of researchers and practitioners in decision-making in the context of architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The taxonomy may be used in three ways: (i) identify new opportunities in structuring decisions; (ii) support the review of alternatives and enable informed decisions; and (iii) evaluate decisions by describing in a retrospective fashion decisions, factors impacting the decision and the outcome.

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  • 91.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Sentilles, Severine
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    The GRADE taxonomy for supporting decision making asset selection in software-intensive system development2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 100, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The development of software-intensive systems includes many decisions involving various stakeholders with often conflicting interests and viewpoints. Objective: Decisions are rarely systematically documented and sporadically explored. This limits the opportunity for learning and improving on important decisions made in the development of software-intensive systems. Method: In this work, we enable support for the systematic documentation of decisions, improve their traceability and contribute to potentially improved decision-making in strategic, tactical and operational contexts. Results: We constructed a taxonomy for documentation supporting decision-making, called GRADE. GRADE was developed in a research project that required composition of a common dedicated language to make feasible the identification of new opportunities for better decision support and evaluation of multiple decision alternatives. The use of the taxonomy has been validated through thirty three decision cases from industry. Conclusion: This paper occupies this important yet greatly unexplored research gap by developing the GRADE taxonomy that serves as a common vocabulary to describe and classify decision-making with respect to architectural assets. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 92. Paternoster, Nicolò
    et al.
    Giardino, Carmine
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Software Development in Startup Companies: A Systematic Mapping Study2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 1200-1218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software startups are newly created companies with no operating history and fast in producing cutting-edge technologies. These companies develop software under highly uncertain conditions, tackling fast-growing markets under severe lack of resources. Therefore, software startups present an unique combination of characteristics which pose several challenges to software development activities. Objective: This study aims to structure and analyze the literature on software development in startup companies, determining thereby the potential for technology transfer and identifying software development work practices reported by practitioners and researchers. Method: We conducted a systematic mapping study, developing a classification schema, ranking the selected primary studies according their rigor and relevance, and analyzing reported software development work practices in startups. Results: A total of 43 primary studies were identified and mapped, synthesizing the available evidence on software development in startups. Only 16 studies are entirely dedicated to software development in startups, of which 10 result in a weak contribution (advice and implications (6); lesson learned (3); tool (1)). Nineteen studies focus on managerial and organizational factors. Moreover, only 9 studies exhibit high scientific rigor and relevance. From the reviewed primary studies, 213 software engineering work practices were extracted, categorized and analyzed. Conclusion: This mapping study provides the first systematic exploration of the state-of-art on software startup research. The existing body of knowledge is limited to a few high quality studies. Furthermore, the results indicate that software engineering work practices are chosen opportunistically, adapted and configured to provide value under the constrains imposed by the startup context.

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  • 93.
    Peixoto, Mariana
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Ferreira, Dayse
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Cavalcanti, Mateus
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Silva, Cléber Costa
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Araújo, João
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PRT.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    On Understanding How Developers Perceive and Interpret Privacy Requirements Research Preview2020In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science / [ed] Madhavji N.,Pasquale L., Springer , 2020, Vol. 12045, p. 116-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] Ensuring privacy of users’ data has become a top concern in software development, either to satisfy users’ needs or to comply with privacy laws. The problem may increase by the time a new law is in the vacancy period, and companies are working to understand how to comply with it. In addition, research has shown that many developers do not have sufficient knowledge about how to develop privacy-sensitive software. [Question/problem] Motivated by this scenario, this research investigates the personal factors affecting the developers’ understanding of privacy requirements during the vacancy period of a data protection law. [Principal ideas/results] We conducted thirteen interviews in six different private companies. As a result, we found nine personal factors affecting how software developers perceive and interpret privacy requirements. [Contribution] The identification of the personal factors contributes to the elaboration of effective methods for promoting proper privacy-sensitive software development. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

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    On Understanding How Developers Perceive and Interpret Privacy Requirements Research Preview
  • 94.
    Pernstal, J.
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Chalmers, swe.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Software Engn, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Floren, D.
    Volvo Cars, SWE.
    FLEX-RCA: a lean-based method for root cause analysis in software process improvement2019In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 389-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software process improvement (SPI) is an instrument to increase the productivity of, and the quality of work, in software organizations. However, a majority of SPI frameworks are too extensive or provide guidance and potential improvement areas at a high level, indicating only the symptoms, not the causes. Motivated by the industrial need of two Swedish automotive companies to systematically uncover the underlying root causes of high-level improvement issues identified in an SPI project-assessing inter-departmental interactions in large-scale software systems development-this paper advances a root cause analysis (RCA) method building on Lean Six Sigma, called Flex-RCA. Flex-RCA is used to delve deeper into challenges identified to find root causes as a part of the evaluation and subsequent improvement activities. We also demonstrate and evaluate Flex-RCA's industrial applicability in a case study. An overall conclusion is that the use of Flex-RCA was successful, showing that it had the desired effect of both producing a broad base of causes on a high level and, more importantly, enabling an exploration of the underlying root causes.

  • 95. Pernstål, Joakim
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    The lean gap: A review of lean approaches to large-scale software systems development2013In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 86, no 11, p. 2797-2821Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean approaches to product development (LPD) have had a strong influence on many industries and in recent years there have been many proponents for lean in software development as it can support the increasing industry need of scaling agile software development. With it's roots in industrial manufacturing and, later, industrial product development, it would seem natural that LPD would adapt well to large-scale development projects of increasingly software-intensive products, such as in the automotive industry. However, it is not clear what kind of experience and results have been reported on the actual use of lean principles and practices in software development for such large-scale industrial contexts. This was the motivation for this study as the context was an ongoing industry process improvement project at Volvo Car Corporation and Volvo Truck Corporation. The objectives of this study are to identify and classify state of the art in large-scale software development influenced by LPD approaches and use this established knowledge to support industrial partners in decisions on a software process improvement (SPI) project, and to reveal research gaps and proposed extensions to LPD in relation to its well-known principles and practices. For locating relevant state of the art we conducted a systematic mapping study, and the industrial applicability and relevance of results and said extensions to LPD were further analyzed in the context of an actual, industrial case. A total of 10,230 papers were found in database searches, of which 38 papers were found relevant. Of these, only 42 percent clearly addressed large-scale development. Furthermore, a majority of papers (76 percent) were non-empirical and many lacked information about study design, context and/or limitations. Most of the identified results focused on eliminating waste and creating flow in the software development process, but there was a lack of results for other LPD principles and practices. Overall, it can be concluded that research in the much hyped field of lean software development is in its nascent state when it comes to large scale development. There is very little support available for practitioners who want to apply lean approaches for improving large-scale software development, especially when it comes to inter-departmental interactions during development. This paper explicitly maps the area, qualifies available research, and identifies gaps, as well as suggests extensions to lean principles relevant for large scale development of software intensive systems

  • 96.
    Pernstål, Joakim
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corporation, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Florén, Dan
    Volvo Car Corporation, SWE.
    Communication Problems in Software Development: A Model and Its Industrial Application2019In: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1497-1538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attaining effective communication within and across organizational units is among the most critical challenges for success in software development organizations. This paper presents a novel model, supporting analysis of problems in inter-departmental communication events. The model was developed and designed based on industrial needs emphasizing flexibility, applicability and scalability. The model covers central communication aspects in order to provide a useful approximation of communication problems rather than in-depth modeling on message-by message basis. Other event-specific information, such as costs, can then be attached to enrich analysis and understanding. To exemplify and evaluate the model and collect feedback from industry, it was applied to 16 events at a Swedish automotive manufacturer where communication between two departments had broken down during development of software-intensive systems. The evaluation showed that the model helped structure and conduct systematic data collection and analysis of dysfunctional communication patterns. We found that insufficient understanding of the matters being communicated was prevalent, but also more specifically, requirements were insufficiently balanced, detailed and specified over the full system development cycle. Besides, the long-term cost for the company was analyzed in depth for each event, yielding a total estimated cost for the analyzed communication events of 11.2MUS$. © 2019 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  • 97.
    Pernstål, Joakim
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corp, SE-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Florén, Dan
    Volvo Car Corp, SE-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Requirements communication and balancing in large-scale software-intensive product development2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 67, p. 44-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Several industries developing products on a large-scale are facing major challenges as their products are becoming more and more software-intensive. Whereas software was once considered a detail to be bundled, it has since become an intricate and interdependent part of most products. The advancement of software increases the uncertainty and the interdependencies between development tasks and artifacts. A key success factor is good requirements engineering (RE), and in particular, the challenges of effectively and efficiently coordinating and communicating requirements. Objective: In this work we present a lightweight RE framework and demonstrate and evaluate its industrial applicability in response to the needs of a Swedish automotive company for improving specific problems in inter-departmental requirements coordination and communication in large-scale development of software-intensive systems. Method: A case study approach and a dynamic validation were used to develop and evaluate the framework in close collaboration with our industrial partner, involving three real-life cases in an ongoing car project. Experience and feedback were collected through observations when applying the framework and from 10 senior industry professionals in a questionnaire and in-depth follow-up interviews. Results: The experience and feedback about using the framework revealed that it is relevant and applicable for the industry as well as a useful and efficient way to resolve real problems in coordinating and communicating requirements identified at the case company. However, other concerns, such as accessibility to necessary resources and competences in the early development phases, were identified when using the method, which allowed for earlier pre-emptive action to be taken. Conclusion: Overall, the experience from using the framework and the positive feedback from industry professionals indicated a feasible framework that is applicable in the industry for improving problems related to coordination and communication of requirements. Based on the promising results, our industrial partner has decided upon further validations of the framework in a large-scale pilot program. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 98. Pernstål, Joakim
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Florén, Dan
    Software Process Improvement in Inter-departmental Development of Software-Intensive Automotive Systems – A Case Study2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a software process improvement (SPI) initiative conducted at two automotive companies, focusing on the inter-departmental interplay between manufacturing and product development, which are central players in automotive development. In such a complex environment with multiple departments with varying challenges⎯the planning of improvement possibilities was considered as mission critical to get support for changes in the companies. This paper reports the results of the SPI efforts following the process assessment, namely specifically the improvement planning step, which is often overlooked in empirical reports. We also thoroughly describe and report on lessons learned from employing our tailored planning method involving 41 professionals. We found that requirements engineering, early manufacturing involvement and roles and responsibilities were prioritized as main challenges to address. Furthermore, our and the involved professionals' experiences of the used SPI (planning) method, showed that it was useful, giving valuable decision support for the planning of the improvement.

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  • 99. Pernstål, Joakim
    et al.
    Magazinius, Anna
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Study investigating Challenges in the Interface Between Product Development and Manufacturing in the Development of Software-Intensive Automotive Systems2012In: International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0218-1940 , Vol. 22, no 7, p. 965-1004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a tremendous growth in the engineering of software-intensive systems, giving rise to various challenges. To prevent problems related to the fit of new software technologies in vehicles and the manufacturing processes, a well functioning interaction between the functions for product development and manufacturing is crucial. This is complicated by the fact that the changeable nature of software development causes unprecedented needs for collaboration and coordination between these two functions. This paper reports on a process assessment that focuses on the interface between the functions for product development and manufacturing in the development and design of software-intensive automotive systems. The main purpose of the study was to identify the key issues for improvement in the area assessed. The assessment was performed at two Swedish automotive companies where data were collected from documents and in interviews with practitioners. Nine key improvement issues were established ranging from challenges in requirements engineering to the need for knowledge transfer between manufacturing and product development. In addition, to increase the understandability of the results and map possible avenues for solution and future research, the paper provides an extensive analysis of each improvement issue in relation to the state-of-the-art.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 100.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali Shah, Syed Muhammad
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers, Göteborg, SWE.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing?: A Case Survey2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 237-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

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    fulltext
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