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  • 51. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Search-based prediction of fault count data2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbolic regression, an application domain of genetic programming (GP), aims to find a function whose output has some desired property, like matching target values of a particular data set. While typical regression involves finding the coefficients of a pre-defined function, symbolic regression finds a general function, with coefficients, fitting the given set of data points. The concepts of symbolic regression using genetic programming can be used to evolve a model for fault count predictions. Such a model has the advantages that the evolution is not dependent on a particular structure of the model and is also independent of any assumptions, which are common in traditional time-domain parametric software reliability growth models. This research aims at applying experiments targeting fault predictions using genetic programming and comparing the results with traditional approaches to compare efficiency gains.

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  • 52. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Genetic programming for cross-release fault count predictions in large and complex software projects2010In: Evolutionary Computation and Optimization Algorithms in Software Engineering: Applications and Techniques / [ed] Chis, Monica, Hershey: IGI Global, Hershey, USA , 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software fault prediction can play an important role in ensuring software quality through efficient resource allocation. This could, in turn, reduce the potentially high consequential costs due to faults. Predicting faults might be even more important with the emergence of short-timed and multiple software releases aimed at quick delivery of functionality. Previous research in software fault prediction has indicated that there is a need i) to improve the validity of results by having comparisons among number of data sets from a variety of software, ii) to use appropriate model evaluation measures and iii) to use statistical testing procedures. Moreover, cross-release prediction of faults has not yet achieved sufficient attention in the literature. In an attempt to address these concerns, this paper compares the quantitative and qualitative attributes of 7 traditional and machine-learning techniques for modeling the cross-release prediction of fault count data. The comparison is done using extensive data sets gathered from a total of 7 multi-release open-source and industrial software projects. These software projects together have several years of development and are from diverse application areas, ranging from a web browser to a robotic controller software. Our quantitative analysis suggests that genetic programming (GP) tends to have better consistency in terms of goodness of fit and accuracy across majority of data sets. It also has comparatively less model bias. Qualitatively, ease of configuration and complexity are less strong points for GP even though it shows generality and gives transparent models. Artificial neural networks did not perform as well as expected while linear regression gave average predictions in terms of goodness of fit and accuracy. Support vector machine regression and traditional software reliability growth models performed below average on most of the quantitative evaluation criteria while remained on average for most of the qualitative measures.

  • 53. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Prediction of faults-slip-through in large software projects: an empirical evaluation2014In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 51-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by finding more faults earlier in a software test process. Therefore, determination of which software test phases to focus improvement work on has considerable industrial interest. We evaluate a number of prediction techniques for predicting the number of faults slipping through to unit, function, integration, and system test phases of a large industrial project. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different test phases by striving toward finding the faults in the right phase. The results show that a range of techniques are found to be useful in predicting the number of faults slipping through to the four test phases; however, the group of search-based techniques (genetic programming, gene expression programming, artificial immune recognition system, and particle swarm optimization-based artificial neural network) consistently give better predictions, having a representation at all of the test phases. Human predictions are consistently better at two of the four test phases. We conclude that the human predictions regarding the number of faults slipping through to various test phases can be well supported by the use of search-based techniques. A combination of human and an automated search mechanism (such as any of the search-based techniques) has the potential to provide improved prediction results.

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  • 54. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Wikstrand, Greger
    Search-based prediction of fault-slip-through in large software projects2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by finding more faults earlier in a software testing process. Therefore, determination of which software testing phases to focus improvements work on, has considerable industrial interest. This paper evaluates the use of five different techniques, namely particle swarm optimization based artificial neural networks (PSO-ANN), artificial immune recognition systems (AIRS), gene expression programming (GEP), genetic programming (GP) and multiple regression (MR), for predicting the number of faults slipping through unit, function, integration and system testing phases. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different testing phases by striving towards finding the right faults in the right phase. We have conducted an empirical study of two large projects from a telecommunication company developing mobile platforms and wireless semiconductors. The results are compared using simple residuals, goodness of fit and absolute relative error measures. They indicate that the four search-based techniques (PSO-ANN, AIRS, GEP, GP) perform better than multiple regression for predicting the fault-slip-through for each of the four testing phases. At the unit and function testing phases, AIRS and PSO-ANN performed better while GP performed better at integration and system testing phases. The study concludes that a variety of search-based techniques are applicable for predicting the improvement potential in different testing phases with GP showing more consistent performance across two of the four test phases.

  • 55.
    Agardh, Johannes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Johansson, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Pettersson, Mårten
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Designing Future Interaction with Today's Technology1999Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information Technology has an increasing part of our lives. In this thesis we will discuss how technology can relate to humans and human activity. We take our standing point in concepts like Calm Technology and Tacit Interaction and examine how these visions and concepts can be used in the process of designing an artifact for a real work practice. We have done work-place studies of truck-drivers and traffic leaders regarding how they find their way to the right addresses and design a truck navigation system that aims to suit the truck drivers work practice.

  • 56. Agbesi, Collinson Colin Mawunyo
    Promoting Accountable Governance Through Electronic Government2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic government (e-Government) is a purposeful system of organized delegation of power, control, management and resource allocation in a harmonized centralized or decentralized way via networks assuring efficiency, effectiveness and transparency of processes and transactions. This new phenomenon is changing the way of business and service of governments all over the world. The betterment of service to citizens as well as other groups and the efficient management of scarce resources have meant that governments seek alternatives to rendering services and efficient management processes. Analog and mechanical processes of governing and management have proved inefficient and unproductive in recent times. The search for alternative and better ways of governing and control have revealed that digital and electronic ways of governing is the best alternative and beneficial more than the mechanical process of governing. The internet, information and communication technology (ICT/IT) have registered a significant change in governments. There has also been an increased research in the area of electronic government but the field still lacks sound theoretical framework which is necessary for a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of electronic government systems, and the integration of various electronic government applications.

    Also the efficient and effective allocation and distribution of scarce resources has become an issue and there has been a concerted effort globally to improve the use and management of scarce resources in the last decade. The purpose of this research is to gain an in depth and better understanding of how electronic government can be used to provide accountability, security and transparency in government decision making processes in allocation and distribution of resources in the educational sector of Ghana. Research questions have been developed to help achieve the aim. The study has also provided detailed literature review, which helped to answer research questions and guide to data collection. A quantitative and qualitative research method was chosen to collect vital information and better understand the study area issue. Both self administered questionnaire as well as interviews were used to collect data relevant to the study. Also a thorough analysis of related works was conducted.

    Finally, the research concluded by addressing research questions, discussing results and providing some vital recommendations.  It was also found that electronic government is the best faster, reliable, accountable and transparent means of communication and interaction between governments, public institutions and citizens. Thus electronic government is crucial in transforming the educational sector of Ghana for better management of resources. It has also been noted that information and communication technology (ICT) is the enabling force that helps electronic government to communicate with its citizens, support e-government operation and provide efficiency, effectiveness and better services within the educational sector of Ghana.

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  • 57.
    Agushi, Camrie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Innovation inom Digital Rights Management2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with the topic of Digital Rights Management (DRM), more specifically the innovation trends within DRM. It is focused on three driving forces of DRM. Firstly, DRM technologies, secondly, DRM standards and thirdly, DRM interoperability. These driving forces are discussed and analyzed in order to explore innovation trends within DRM. In the end, a multi-facetted overview of today’s DRM context is formed. One conclusion is that the aspect of Intellectual Property Rights is considered to be an important indicator of the direction DRM innovation is heading.

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  • 58.
    Ahl, Viggo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    An experimental comparison of five prioritization methods: Investigating ease of use, accuracy and scalability2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements prioritization is an important part of developing the right product in the right time. There are different ideas about which method is the best to use when prioritizing requirements. This thesis takes a closer look at five different methods and then put them into an controlled experiment, in order to find out which of the methods that would be the best method to use. The experiment was designed to find out which method yields the most accurate result, the method’s ability to scale up to many more requirements, what time it took to prioritize with the method, and finally how easy the method was to use. These four criteria combined will indicate which method is more suitable, i.e. be the best method, to use in prioritizing of requirements. The chosen methods are the well-known analytic hierarchy process, the computer algorithm binary search tree, and from the ideas of extreme programming come planning game. The fourth method is an old but well used method, the 100 points method. The last method is a new method, which combines planning game with the analytic hierarchy process. Analysis of the data from the experiment indicates that the planning game combined with analytic hierarchy process could be a good candidate. However, the result from the experiment clearly indicates that the binary search tree yields accurate result, is able to scale up and was the easiest method to use. For these three reasons the binary search tree clearly is the better method to use for prioritizing requirements

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  • 59.
    Ahlberg, Mårten
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Liedstrand, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    24-timmarsmyndighetens användbarhet2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Kommunikationen med myndigheter och förvaltningar via Internet har ökat under de senaste åren. Därför har vi valt att fokusera vårt kandidatarbete på detta områ-de, samt på behovet av användbara webbtjänster för medborgarna. I detta kandi-datarbete studerar vi en växande grupp användare, denna grupp är äldre medbor-gare. Under studien har vi analyserat 24-timmarsmyndighetens användbarhet ge-nom användartester. Kombinationen av samtal och möten med individer, iaktta-gelser av interaktioner och litteraturstudier ger oss möjligheten att utforska använ-darnas behov. Behovet hos användarna är det som är centralt i hur de uppfattar och interagerar med 24-timmarsmyndigheten. Webbplatserna vi har använt oss av vid våra användartester har anknytning till 24-timmarsmyndigheten. Genom att analytiskt studera informationen har vi kommit fram till fem viktiga designförslag och riktlinjer, som vi anser behövs när e-tjänster inom 24-timmarsmyndigheten utvecklas.

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  • 60.
    Ahlgren, Filip
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Local And Network Ransomware Detection Comparison2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Ransomware is a malicious application encrypting important files on a victim's computer. The ransomware will ask the victim for a ransom to be paid through cryptocurrency. After the system is encrypted there is virtually no way to decrypt the files other than using the encryption key that is bought from the attacker.

    Objectives. In this practical experiment, we will examine how machine learning can be used to detect ransomware on a local and network level. The results will be compared to see which one has a better performance.

    Methods. Data is collected through malware and goodware databases and then analyzed in a virtual environment to extract system information and network logs. Different machine learning classifiers will be built from the extracted features in order to detect the ransomware. The classifiers will go through a performance evaluation and be compared with each other to find which one has the best performance.

    Results. According to the tests, local detection was both more accurate and stable than network detection. The local classifiers had an average accuracy of 96% while the best network classifier had an average accuracy of 89.6%.

    Conclusions. In this case the results show that local detection has better performance than network detection. However, this can be because the network features were not specific enough for a network classifier. The network performance could have been better if the ransomware samples consisted of fewer families so better features could have been selected.

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    BTH2019Ahlgren
  • 61.
    Ahlgren, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    En studie av inbyggda brandväggar: Microsoft XP och Red Hat Linux2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kandidatarbete utreder hur väl två operativsystems inbyggda brandväggar fungerar i symbios med en användares vanligaste tjänsteutnyttjande på Internet, samt att se hur likartade de är i sitt skydd från hot. De två operativsystemen som vi utgick ifrån var Microsoft Windows XP samt Red Hat Linux 8.0. Den hypotes vi arbetat kring lyder enligt följande: De två inbyggda brandväggarna är i stort likartade rörande skydd från hot på Internet och uppfyller användarnas tjänsteutnyttjande. De metoder vi använt, för att svara på vår frågeställning, har delats upp i ett funktionalitetstest och ett säkerhetstest. I funktionalitetstestet provades de vanligaste Internettjänsterna med den inbyggda brandväggen och ifall det uppstod några komplikationer eller ej. De två inbyggda brandväggarna genom gick i säkerhetstestet skannings- och svaghetskontroll via ett flertal verktyg. Genom resultatet kan vi konstatera att de inbyggda brandväggarna klarar av de vanligaste tjänsterna på Internet, men att en skillnad föreligger hos dem vad gäller exponeringen ut mot Internet. Windows XP ligger helt osynligt utåt, medan Red Hats inbyggda brandvägg avslöjar en mängd information om värddatorn, som kan komma att användas i illvilliga syften. Slutsatsen blev att vi avslutningsvis falsifierade vår hypotes då de två inbyggda brandväggarna ej var jämlika i sitt skydd mot yttre hot på Internet.

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  • 62.
    Ahlström, Catharina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Fridensköld, Kristina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    How to support and enhance communication: in a student software development project2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report, in which we have put an emphasis on the word communication, is based on a student software development project conducted during spring 2002. We describe how the use of design tools plays a key role in supporting communication in group activities and to what extent communication can be supported and enhanced by tools such as mock-ups and metaphors in a group project. We also describe a design progress from initial sketches to a final mock-up of a GUI for a postcard demo application.

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  • 63.
    Ahlström, Eric
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Holmqvist, Lucas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Goswami, Prashant
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Comparing Traditional Key Frame and Hybrid Animation2017In: SCA '17 Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH / Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, ACM Digital Library, 2017, article id nr. a20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research the authors explore a hybrid approach which usesthe basic concept of key frame animation together with proceduralanimation to reduce the number of key frames needed for an animationclip. The two approaches are compared by conducting anexperiment where the participating subjects were asked to ratethem based on their visual appeal.

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  • 64. Ahmad, A
    et al.
    Shahzad, Aamir
    Padmanabhuni, Kumar
    Mansoor, Ali
    Joseph, Sushma
    Arshad, Zaki
    Requirements prioritization with respect to Geographically Distributed Stakeholders2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements selection for software releases can play a vital role in the success of software product. This selection of requirements is done by different requirements prioritization techniques. This paper discusses limitations of these Requirements Prioritization Techniques (100$ Method and Binary Search Tree) with respect to Geographical Distribution of Stakeholders. We conducted two experiments, in this paper, in order to analyze the variations among the results of these Requirements Prioritization Techniques. This paper also discusses attributes that can affect the requirements prioritization when dealing with Geographically Distributed Stakeholders. We conducted first experiment with 100$ Dollar method and Binary Search Tree technique and second experiment has been conducted with modified 100$ Dollar method and Binary search tree technique. Results of these experiments have been discussed in this paper. This paper provides a framework that can be used to identify those requirements that can play an important role in a product success during distributed development.

  • 65.
    Ahmad, Arshad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Khan, Hashim
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    The Importance of Knowledge Management Practices in Overcoming the Global Software Engineering Challenges in Requirements Understanding2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Going offshore has become a norm in current software organizations due to several benefits like availability of competent people, cost, proximity to market and customers, time and so on. Despite the fact that Global Software Engineering (GSE) offers many benefits to software organizations but it has also created several challenges/issues for practitioners and researchers like culture, communication, co-ordination and collaboration, team building and so on. As Requirements Engineering (RE) is more human intensive activity and is one of the most challenging and important phase in software development. Therefore, RE becomes even more challenging when comes to GSE context because of culture, communication, coordination, collaboration and so on. Due to the fore mentioned GSE factors, requirements’ understanding has become a challenge for software organizations involved in GSE. Furthermore, Knowledge Management (KM) is considered to be the most important asset of an organization because it not only enables organizations to efficiently share and create knowledge but also helps in resolving culture, communication and co-ordination issues especially in GSE. The aim of this study is to present how KM practices helps globally dispersed software organizations in requirements understanding. For this purpose a thorough literature study is performed along with interviews in two industries with the intent to identify useful KM practices and challenges of requirements understanding in GSE. Then based on the analysis of identified challenges of requirements understanding in GSE both from literature review and industrial interviews, useful KM practices are shown and discussed to reduce requirements understanding issues faced in GSE.

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  • 66. Ahmad, Azeem
    et al.
    Göransson, Magnus
    Shahzad, Aamir
    Limitations of the analytic hierarchy process technique with respect to geographically distributed stakeholders2010In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 70, no Sept., p. 111-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of appropriate requirements for product releases can make a big difference in a product success. The selection of requirements is done by different requirements prioritization techniques. These techniques are based on pre-defined and systematic steps to calculate the requirements relative weight. Prioritization is complicated by new development settings, shifting from traditional co-located development to geographically distributed development. Stakeholders, connected to a project, are distributed all over the world. These geographically distributions of stakeholders make it hard to prioritize requirements as each stakeholder have their own perception and expectations of the requirements in a software project. This paper discusses limitations of the Analytical Hierarchy Process with respect to geographically distributed stakeholders' (GDS) prioritization of requirements. This paper also provides a solution, in the form of a modified AHP, in order to prioritize requirements for GDS. We will conduct two experiments in this paper and will analyze the results in order to discuss AHP limitations with respect to GDS. The modified AHP variant is also validated in this paper.

  • 67.
    Ahmad, Azeem
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Kolla, Sushma Joseph
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Effective Distribution of Roles and Responsibilities in Global Software Development Teams2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Industry is moving from co-located form of development to a distributed development in order to achieve different benefits such as cost reduction, access to skillful labor and around the clock working etc. This transfer requires industry to face different challenges such as communication, coordination and monitoring problems. Risk of project failure can be increased, if industry does not address these problems. This thesis is about providing the solutions of these problems in term of effective roles and responsibilities that may have positive impact on GSD team. Objectives. In this study we have developed framework for suggesting roles and responsibilities for GSD team. This framework consists of problems and casual dependencies between them which are related to team’s ineffectiveness, then suggestions in terms of roles and responsibilities have been presented in order to have an effective team in GSD. This framework, further, has been validated in industry through a survey that determines which are the effective roles and responsibilities in GSD. Methods. We have two research methods in this study 1) systematic literature review and 2) survey. Complete protocol for planning, conducting and reporting the review as well as survey has been described in their respective sections in this thesis. A systematic review is used to develop the framework whereas survey is used for framework validation. We have done static validation of framework. Results. Through SLR, we have identified 30 problems, 33 chains of problems. We have identified 4 different roles and 40 different responsibilities to address these chains of problems. During the validation of the framework, we have validated the links between suggested roles and responsibilities and chains of problems. Addition to this, through survey, we have identified 20 suggestions that represents strong positive impact on chains of problems in GSD in relation to team’s effectiveness. Conclusions. We conclude that implementation of effective roles and responsibilities in GSD team to avoid different problems require considerable attention from researchers and practitioners which can guarantee team’s effectiveness. Implementation of proper roles and responsibilities has been mentioned as one of the successful strategies for increasing team’s effectiveness in the literature, but which particular roles and responsibilities should be implemented still need to be addressed. We also conclude that there must be basic responsibilities associated with any particular role. Moreover, we conclude that there is a need for further development and empirical validation of different frameworks for suggesting roles and responsibilities in full scale industry trials.

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  • 68.
    Ahmad, Ehsan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Raza, Bilal
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Towards Optimization of Software V&V Activities in the Space Industry [Two Industrial Case Studies]2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Developing software for high-dependable space applications and systems is a formidable task. With new political and market pressures on the space industry to deliver more software at a lower cost, optimization of their methods and standards need to be investigated. The industry has to follow standards that strictly sets quality goals and prescribes engineering processes and methods to fulfill them. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate if current use of ECSS standards is cost efficient and if there are ways to make the process leaner while still maintaining the quality and to analyze if their V&V activities can be optimized. This paper presents results from two industrial case studies of companies in the European space industry that are following ECSS standards and have various V&V activities. The case studies reported here focused on how the ECSS standards were used by the companies and how that affected their processes and how their V&V activities can be optimized.

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  • 69. Ahmad, Ehsan
    et al.
    Raza, Bilal
    Feldt, Robert
    Assessment and support for software capstone projects at the undergraduate level: A survey and rubrics2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering and computer science students conduct a capstone project during the final year of their degree programs. These projects are essential in validating that students have gained required knowledge and they can synthesize and use that knowledge to solve real world problems. However, the external requirements on educational programs often do not provide detailed guidelines for how to conduct or support these capstone projects, which may lead to variations among universities. This paper presents the results from a survey conducted at 19 different Pakistani universities of the current management practices and assessment criteria used for the capstone project courses at Undergraduate level. Based upon the results of this survey and similar work on Master Thesis capstone projects in Sweden, we present assessment rubrics for software-related undergraduate capstone projects. We also present recommendations for the continuous improvement of capstone projects.

  • 70.
    AHMAD, MUHAMMAD ZEESHAN
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Comparative Analysis of Iptables and Shorewall2012Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of internet has increased over the past years. Many users may not have good intentions. Some people use the internet to gain access to the unauthorized information. Although absolute security of information is not possible for any network connected to the Internet however, firewalls make an important contribution to the network security. A firewall is a barrier placed between the network and the outside world to prevent the unwanted and potentially damaging intrusion of the network. This thesis compares the performance of Linux packet filtering firewalls, i.e. iptables and shorewall. The firewall performance testing helps in selecting the right firewall as needed. In addition, it highlights the strength and weakness of each firewall. Both firewalls were tested by using the identical parameters. During the experiments, recommended benchmarking methodology for firewall performance testing is taken into account as described in RFC 3511. The comparison process includes experiments which are performed by using different tools. To validate the effectiveness of firewalls, several performance metrics such as throughput, latency, connection establishment and teardown rate, HTTP transfer rate and system resource consumption are used. The experimental results indicate that the performance of Iptables firewall decreases as compared to shorewall in all the aspects taken into account. All the selected metrics show that large numbers of filtering rules have a negative impact on the performance of both firewalls. However, UDP throughput is not affected by the number of filtering rules. The experimental results also indicate that traffic sent with different packet sizes do not affect the performance of firewalls.

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  • 71.
    Ahmad, Nadeem
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Habib, M. Kashif
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Analysis of Network Security Threats and Vulnerabilities by Development & Implementation of a Security Network Monitoring Solution2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Communication of confidential data over the internet is becoming more frequent every day. Individuals and organizations are sending their confidential data electronically. It is also common that hackers target these networks. In current times, protecting the data, software and hardware from viruses is, now more than ever, a need and not just a concern. What you need to know about networks these days? How security is implemented to ensure a network? How is security managed? In this paper we will try to address the above questions and give an idea of where we are now standing with the security of the network.

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  • 72.
    Ahmad, Naseer
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Security Issues in Wireless Systems2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ireless Communication is one of the fields of Telecommunications which is growing with the tremendous speed. With the passage of time wireless communication devices are becoming more and more common. It is not only the technology of business but now people are using it to perform their daily tasks, be it for calling, shopping, checking their emails or transfer their money. Wireless communication devices include cellular phones, cordless phones and satellite phones, smart phones like Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), two way pagers, and lots of their devices are on their way to improve this wireless world. In order to establish two way communications, a wireless link may be using radio waves or Infrared light. The Wireless communication technologies have become increasingly popular in our everyday life. The hand held devices like Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) allow the users to access calendars, mails, addresses, phone number lists and the internet. Personal digital assistants (PDA) and smart phones can store large amounts of data and connect to a broad spectrum of networks, making them as important and sensitive computing platforms as laptop PCs when it comes to an organization’s security plan. Today’s mobile devices offer many benefits to enterprises. Mobile phones, hand held computers and other wireless systems are becoming a tempting target for virus writers. Mobile devices are the new frontier for viruses, spam and other potential security threats. Most viruses, Trojans and worms have already been created that exploit vulnerabilities. With an increasing amount of information being sent through wireless channels, new threats are opening up. Viruses have been growing fast as handsets increasingly resemble small computers that connect with each other and the internet. Hackers have also discovered that many corporate wireless local area networks (WLAN) in major cities were not properly secured. Mobile phone operators say that it is only a matter of time before the wireless world is hit by the same sorts of viruses and worms that attack computer software.

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  • 73.
    Ahmad, Raheel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    On the Scalability of Four Multi-Agent Architectures for Load Control Management in Intelligent Networks2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Paralleling the rapid advancement in the network evolution is the need for advanced network traffic management surveillance. The increasing number and variety of services being offered by communication networks has fuelled the demand for optimized load management strategies. The problem of Load Control Management in Intelligent Networks has been studied previously and four Multi-Agent architectures have been proposed. The objective of this thesis is to investigate one of the quality attributes namely, scalability of the four Multi-Agent architectures. The focus of this research would be to resize the network and study the performance of the different architectures in terms of Load Control Management through different scalability attributes. The analysis has been based on experimentation through simulations. It has been revealed through the results that different architectures exhibit different performance behaviors for various scalability attributes at different network sizes. It has been observed that there exists a trade-off in different scalability attributes as the network grows. The factors affecting the network performance at different network settings have been observed. Based on the results from this study it would be easier to design similar networks for optimal performance by controlling the influencing factors and considering the trade-offs involved.

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  • 74.
    Ahmad, Saleem Zubair
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Analyzing Suitability of SysML for System Engineering Applications2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During last decade UML have to face different tricky challenges. For instance as a single unified, general purpose modeling language it should offer simple and explicit semantic which can be applicable to wide range of domains. Due to significant shift of focus from software to system “software-centric” attitude of UML has been exposed. So need of certain domain specific language is always there which can address problems of system rather then software only i.e. motivation for SysML. In this thesis SysML is evaluated to analyze its suitability for system engineering applications. A evaluation criteria is established, through which appropriateness of SysML is observed over system development life cycle. The study is conducted by taking case example of real life i.e. automobile product. Results of research not only provide an opportunity to get inside into SysML architecture but also offer an idea of SysML appropriateness for multidisciplinary product development

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  • 75.
    Ahmad, Waqar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Riaz, Asim
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Predicting Friendship Levels in Online Social Networks2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Context: Online social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace have become the preferred interaction, entertainment and socializing facility on the Internet. However, these social network services also bring privacy issues in more limelight than ever. Several privacy leakage problems are highlighted in the literature with a variety of suggested countermeasures. Most of these measures further add complexity and management overhead for the user. One ignored aspect with the architecture of online social networks is that they do not offer any mechanism to calculate the strength of relationship between individuals. This information is quite useful to identify possible privacy threats. Objectives: In this study, we identify users’ privacy concerns and their satisfaction regarding privacy control measures provided by online social networks. Furthermore, this study explores data mining techniques to predict the levels/intensity of friendship in online social networks. This study also proposes a technique to utilize predicted friendship levels for privacy preservation in a semi-automatic privacy framework. Methods: An online survey is conducted to analyze Facebook users’ concerns as well as their interaction behavior with their good friends. On the basis of survey results, an experiment is performed to justify practical demonstration of data mining phases. Results: We found that users are concerned to save their private data. As a precautionary measure, they restrain to show their private information on Facebook due to privacy leakage fears. Additionally, individuals also perform some actions which they also feel as privacy vulnerability. This study further identifies that the importance of interaction type varies while communication. This research also discovered, “mutual friends” and “profile visits”, the two non-interaction based estimation metrics. Finally, this study also found an excellent performance of J48 and Naïve Bayes algorithms to classify friendship levels. Conclusions: The users are not satisfied with the privacy measures provided by the online social networks. We establish that the online social networks should offer a privacy mechanism which does not require a lot of privacy control effort from the users. This study also concludes that factors such as current status, interaction type need to be considered with the interaction count method in order to improve its performance. Furthermore, data mining classification algorithms are tailor-made for the prediction of friendship levels.

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  • 76.
    Ahmed, Abdifatah
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Lindhe, Magnus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Efficient And Maintainable Test Automation2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more companies experience problems with maintainability and time-consuming development of automated testing tools. The MPC department at Ericsson Software Technology AB use methods and tools often developed during time pressure that results in time-consuming testing and requires more effort and resources than planned. The tools are also such nature that they are hard to expand, maintain and in some cases they have been thrown out between releases. For this reason, we could identify two major objectives that MPC want to achieve; efficient and maintainable test automation. Efficient test automation is related to mainly how to perform tests with less effort, or in a shorter time. Maintainable test automation aims to keep tests up to date with the software. In order to decide how to achieve these objectives, we decided to investigate which test to automate, what should be improved in the testing process, what techniques to use, and finally whether or not the use of automated testing can reduce the cost of testing. These issues will be discussed in this paper.

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  • 77.
    Ahmed, Adnan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Hussain, Syed Shahram
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Meta-Model of Resilient information System2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role of information systems has become very important in today’s world. It is not only the business organizations who use information systems but the governments also posses’ very critical information systems. The need is to make information systems available at all times under any situation. Information systems must have the capabilities to resist against the dangers to its services,performance & existence, and recover to its normal working state with the available resources in catastrophic situations. The information systems with such a capability can be called resilient information systems. This thesis is written to define resilient information systems, suggest its meta-model and to explain how existing technologies can be utilized for the development of resilient information system.

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  • 78.
    Ahmed, Israr
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nadeem, Shahid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Minimizing Defects Originating from Elicitation, Analysis and Negotiation (E and A&N) Phase in Bespoke Requirements Engineering2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Defect prevention (DP) in early stages of software development life cycle (SDLC) is very cost effective than in later stages. The requirements elicitation and analysis & negotiation (E and A&N) phases in requirements engineering (RE) process are very critical and are major source of requirements defects. A poor E and A&N process may lead to a software requirements specifications (SRS) full of defects like missing, ambiguous, inconsistent, misunderstood, and incomplete requirements. If these defects are identified and fixed in later stages of SDLC then they could cause major rework by spending extra cost and effort. Organizations are spending about half of their total project budget on avoidable rework and majority of defects originate from RE activities. This study is an attempt to prevent requirements level defects from penetrates into later stages of SDLC. For this purpose empirical and literature studies are presented in this thesis. The empirical study is carried out with the help of six companies from Pakistan & Sweden by conducting interviews and literature study is done by using literature reviews. This study explores the most common requirements defect types, their reasons, severity level of defects (i.e. major or minor), DP techniques (DPTs) & methods, defect identification techniques that have been using in software development industry and problems in these DPTs. This study also describes possible major differences between Swedish and Pakistani software companies in terms of defect types and rate of defects originating from E and A&N phases. On the bases of study results, some solutions have been proposed to prevent requirements defects during the RE process. In this way we can minimize defects originating from E and A&N phases of RE in the bespoke requirements engineering (BESRE).

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  • 79.
    Ahmed, Mamun
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Adaptive Sub band GSC Beam forming using Linear Microphone-Array for Noise Reduction/Speech Enhancement.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project presents the description, design and the implementation of a 4-channel microphone array that is an adaptive sub-band generalized side lobe canceller (GSC) beam former uses for video conferencing, hands-free telephony etc, in a noisy environment for speech enhancement as well as noise suppression. The side lobe canceller evaluated with both Least Mean Square (LMS) and Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) adaptation. A testing structure is presented; which involves a linear 4-microphone array connected to collect the data. Tests were done using one target signal source and one noise source. In each microphone’s, data were collected via fractional time delay filtering then it is divided into sub-bands and applied GSC to each of the subsequent sub-bands. The overall Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement is determined from the main signal and noise input and output powers, with signal-only and noise-only as the input to the GSC. The NLMS algorithm significantly improves the speech quality with noise suppression levels up to 13 dB while LMS algorithm is giving up to 10 dB. All of the processing for this thesis is implemented on a computer using MATLAB and validated by considering different SNR measure under various types of blocking matrix, different step sizes, different noise locations and variable SNR with noise.

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  • 80.
    Ahmed, Mohammad Abdur Razzak and Rajib
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Knowledge Management in Distributed Agile Projects2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management (KM) is essential for success in Global Soft- ware Development (GSD); Distributed Software Development (DSD); or Global Software Engineering (GSE). Software organizations are managing knowledge in innovative ways to increase productivity. One of the major objectives of KM is to improve productivity through effective knowledge sharing and transfer. Therefore, to maintain effective knowledge sharing in distributed agile projects, practitioners need to adopt different types of knowledge sharing techniques and strategies. Distributed projects introduce new challenges to KM. So, practices that are used in agile teams become difficult to put into action in distributed development. Though, informal communication is the key enabler for knowledge sharing, when an agile project is distributed, informal communication and knowledge sharing are challenged by the low communication bandwidth between distributed team members, as well as by social and cultural distance. In the work presented in this thesis, we have made an overview of empirical studies of knowledge management in distributed agile projects. Based on the main theme of this study, we have categorized and reported our findings on major concepts that need empirical investigation. We have classified the main research theme in this thesis within two sub-themes: • RT1: Knowledge sharing activities in distributed agile projects. • RT2: Spatial knowledge sharing in a distributed agile project. The main contributions are: • C1: Empirical observations regarding knowledge sharing activities in distributed agile projects. • C2: Empirical observations regarding spatial knowledge sharing in a distributed agile project. • C3: Process improvement scope and guidelines for the studied project.

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  • 81.
    Ahmed, Nisar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Yousaf, Shahid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    For Improved Energy Economy – How Can Extended Smart Metering Be Displayed?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A District Heating System (DHS) uses a central heating plant to produce and distribute hot water in a community. Such a plant is connected with consumers’ premises to provide them with hot water and space heating facilities. Variations in the consumption of heat energy depend upon different factors like difference in energy prices, living standards, environmental effects and economical conditions etc. These factors can manage intelligently by advanced tools of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) such as smart metering. That is a new and emerging technology; used normally for metering of District Heating (DH), district cooling, electricity and gas. Traditional meters measures overall consumption of energy, in contrast smart meters have the ability to frequently record and transmit energy consumption statistics to both energy providers and consumers by using their communication networks and network management systems. Objectives: First objective of conducted study was providing energy consumption/saving suggestions on smart metering display for accepted consumer behavior, proposed by the energy providers. Our second objective was analysis of financial benefits for the energy provides, which could be expected through better consumer behavior. Third objective was analysis of energy consumption behavior of the residential consumes that how we can support it. Moreover, forth objective of the study was to use extracted suggestions of consumer behaviors to propose Extended Smart Metering Display for improving energy economy. Methods: In this study a background study was conducted to develop basic understanding about District Heat Energy (DHE), smart meters and their existing display, consumer behaviors and its effects on energy consumption. Moreover, interviews were conducted with representatives of smart heat meters’ manufacturer, energy providers and residential consumers. Interviews’ findings enabled us to propose an Extended Smart Metering Display, that satisfies recommendations received from all the interviewees and background study. Further in this study, a workshop was conducted for the evaluation of the proposed Extended Smart Metering Display which involved representatives of smart heat meters’ manufacture and residential energy consumers. DHE providers also contributed in this workshop through their comments in online conversation, for which an evaluation request was sent to member companies of Swedish District Heating Association. Results: Informants in this research have different levels of experiences. Through a systematic procedure we have obtained and analyzed findings from all the informants. To fulfill the energy demands during peak hours, the informants emphasized on providing efficient energy consumption behavior to be displayed on smart heat meters. According to the informants, efficient energy consumption behavior can be presented through energy consumption/saving suggestions on display of smart meters. These suggestions are related to daily life activities like taking bath and shower, cleaning, washing and heating usage. We analyzed that efficient energy consumption behavior recommended by the energy providers can provide financial improvements both for the energy providers and the residential consumers. On the basis of these findings, we proposed Extended Smart Metering Display to present information in simple and interactive way. Furthermore, the proposed Extended Smart Metering Display can also be helpful in measuring consumers’ energy consumption behavior effectively. Conclusions: After obtaining answers of the research questions, we concluded that extension of existing smart heat meters’ display can effectively help the energy providers and the residential consumers to utilize the resources efficiently. That is, it will not only reduce energy bills for the residential consumers, but it will also help the energy provider to save scarce energy and enable them to serve the consumers better in peak hours. After deployment of the proposed Extended Smart Metering Display the energy providers will able to support the consumers’ behavior in a reliable way and the consumers will find/follow the energy consumption/saving guidelines easily.

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  • 82.
    Ahmed, Qutub Uddin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Mujib, Saifullah Bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Context Aware Reminder System: Activity Recognition Using Smartphone Accelerometer and Gyroscope Sensors Supporting Context-Based Reminder Systems2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Reminder system offers flexibility in daily life activities and assists to be independent. The reminder system not only helps reminding daily life activities, but also serves to a great extent for the people who deal with health care issues. For example, a health supervisor who monitors people with different health related problems like people with disabilities or mild dementia. Traditional reminders which are based on a set of defined activities are not enough to address the necessity in a wider context. To make the reminder more flexible, the user’s current activities or contexts are needed to be considered. To recognize user’s current activity, different types of sensors can be used. These sensors are available in Smartphone which can assist in building a more contextual reminder system. Objectives. To make a reminder context based, it is important to identify the context and also user’s activities are needed to be recognized in a particular moment. Keeping this notion in mind, this research aims to understand the relevant context and activities, identify an effective way to recognize user’s three different activities (drinking, walking and jogging) using Smartphone sensors (accelerometer and gyroscope) and propose a model to use the properties of the identification of the activity recognition. Methods. This research combined a survey and interview with an exploratory Smartphone sensor experiment to recognize user’s activity. An online survey was conducted with 29 participants and interviews were held in cooperation with the Karlskrona Municipality. Four elderly people participated in the interview. For the experiment, three different user activity data were collected using Smartphone sensors and analyzed to identify the pattern for different activities. Moreover, a model is proposed to exploit the properties of the activity pattern. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using machine learning tool, WEKA. Results. Survey and interviews helped to understand the important activities of daily living which can be considered to design the reminder system, how and when it should be used. For instance, most of the participants in the survey are used to using some sort of reminder system, most of them use a Smartphone, and one of the most important tasks they forget is to take their medicine. These findings helped in experiment. However, from the experiment, different patterns have been observed for three different activities. For walking and jogging, the pattern is discrete. On the other hand, for drinking activity, the pattern is complex and sometimes can overlap with other activities or can get noisy. Conclusions. Survey, interviews and the background study provided a set of evidences fostering reminder system based on users’ activity is essential in daily life. A large number of Smartphone users promoted this research to select a Smartphone based on sensors to identify users’ activity which aims to develop an activity based reminder system. The study was to identify the data pattern by applying some simple mathematical calculations in recorded Smartphone sensors (accelerometer and gyroscope) data. The approach evaluated with 99% accuracy in the experimental data. However, the study concluded by proposing a model to use the properties of the identification of the activities and developing a prototype of a reminder system. This study performed preliminary tests on the model, but there is a need for further empirical validation and verification of the model.

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  • 83.
    Ahmed, Sabbir
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Performance of Multi-Channel Medium Access Control Protocol incorporating Opportunistic Cooperative Diversity over Rayleigh Fading Channel2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis paper proposes a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for wireless networks, termed as CD-MMAC that utilizes multiple channels and incorporates opportunistic cooperative diversity dynamically to improve its performance. The IEEE 802.11b standard protocol allows the use of multiple channels available at the physical layer but its MAC protocol is designed only for a single channel. The proposed protocol utilizes multiple channels by using single interface and incorporates opportunistic cooperative diversity by using cross-layer MAC. The new protocol leverages the multi-rate capability of IEEE 802.11b and allows wireless nodes far away from destination node to transmit at a higher rate by using intermediate nodes as a relays. The protocol improves network throughput and packet delivery ratio significantly and reduces packet delay. The performance improvement is further evaluated by simulation and analysis.

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  • 84.
    Ahmed, Syed Rizwan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Secure Software Development: Identification of Security Activities and Their Integration in Software Development Lifecycle2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s software is more vulnerable to attacks due to increase in complexity, connectivity and extensibility. Securing software is usually considered as a post development activity and not much importance is given to it during the development of software. However the amount of loss that organizations have incurred over the years due to security flaws in software has invited researchers to find out better ways of securing software. In the light of research done by many researchers, this thesis presents how software can be secured by considering security in different phases of software development life cycle. A number of security activities have been identified that are needed to build secure software and it is shown that how these security activities are related with the software development activities of the software development lifecycle.

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  • 85.
    ahmed, Tanveer
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Raju, Madhu Sudhana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Integrating Exploratory Testing In Software Testing Life Cycle, A Controlled Experiment2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Software testing is one of the crucial phases in software development life cycle (SDLC). Among the different manual testing methods in software testing, Exploratory testing (ET) uses no predefined test cases to detect defects. Objectives. The main objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of ET in detecting defects at different software test levels. The objective is achieved by formulating hypotheses, which are later tested for acceptance or rejection. Methods. Methods used in this thesis are literature review and experiment. Literature review is conducted to get in-depth knowledge on the topic of ET and to collect data relevant to ET. Experiment was performed to test hypotheses specific to the three different testing levels : unit , integration and system. Results. The experimental results showed that using ET did not find all the seeded defects at the three levels of unit, integration and system testing. The results were analyzed using statistical tests and interpreted with the help of bar graphs. Conclusions. We conclude that more research is required in generalizing the benefits of ET at different test levels. Particularly, a qualitative study to highlight factors responsible for the success and failure of ET is desirable. Also we encourage a replication of this experiment with subjects having a sound technical and domain knowledge.

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  • 86.
    Ahmed, Usman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cybercrime: A case study of the Menace and Consequences Internet Manipulators2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 87.
    Ahmed, Uzair
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Saqib, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Optimal Solutions Of Fuzzy Relation Equations2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fuzzy relation equations are becoming extremely important in order to investigate the optimal solution of the inverse problem even though there is a restrictive condition for the availability of the solution of such inverse problems. We discussed the methods for finding the optimal (maximum and minimum) solution of inverse problem of fuzzy relation equation of the form $R \circ Q = T$ where for both cases R and Q are kept unknown interchangeably using different operators (e.g. alpha, sigma etc.). The aim of this study is to make an in-depth finding of best project among the host of projects, depending upon different factors (e.g. capital cost, risk management etc.) in the field of civil engineering. On the way to accomplish this aim, two linguistic variables are introduced to deal with the uncertainty factor which appears in civil engineering problems. Alpha-composition is used to compute the solution of fuzzy relation equation. Then the evaluation of the projects is orchestrated by defuzzifying the obtained results. The importance of adhering to such synopsis, in the field of civil engineering, is demonstrated by an example.

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  • 88.
    Ahmed, Zaheer
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Shahzad, Aamir
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Mobile Robot Navigation using Gaze Contingent Dynamic Interface2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using eyes as an input modality for different control environments is a great area of interest for enhancing the bandwidth of human machine interaction and providing interaction functions when the use of hands is not possible. Interface design requirements in such implementations are quite different from conventional application areas. Both command-execution and feedback observation tasks may be performed by human eyes simultaneously. In order to control the motion of a mobile robot by operator gaze interaction, gaze contingent regions in the operator interface are used to execute robot movement commands, with different screen areas controlling specific directions. Dwell time is one of the most established techniques to perform an eye-click analogous to a mouse click. But repeated dwell time while switching between gaze-contingent regions and feedback-regions decreases the performance of the application. We have developed a dynamic gaze-contingent interface in which we merge gaze-contingent regions with feedback-regions dynamically. This technique has two advantages: Firstly it improves the overall performance of the system by eliminating repeated dwell time. Secondly it reduces fatigue of the operator by providing a bigger area to fixate in. The operator can monitor feedback with more ease while sending commands at the same time.

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  • 89.
    Ahmed, Zaki
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Modeling and Simulation of Urea Dosing System2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To protect our health and environment from pollution, among others regulatory agencies in the European Union (EU) and legislation from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required that pollutants produced by diesel engines - such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter (PM) - be reduced. The key emission reduction and control technologies available for NOx control on Diesel engines are combination of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). SCR addresses emission reduction through the use of Diesel Exhuast Fluid (DEF), which has a trade-name AdBlue. Which is 32.5% high purity urea and 67.5% deionized water, Adblue in the hot exhaust gas decomposes into ammonia (NH3) which then reacts with surface of the catalyst to produce harmless nitrogen(N2) and water (H20). Highest NOx conversion ratios while avoiding ammonia slip is achieved by Efficient SCR and accurate Urea Dosing System it’s therefore critical we model and simulate the UDS in order to analyze and gain holistic understanding of the UDS dynamic behavior. The process of Modeling and Simulating of Urea Dosing System is a result of a compromise between two opposing trends. Firstly, one needs to use as much mathematical models as it takes to correctly describe the fundamental principles of fluid dynamics such as, (1) mass is conserved (2), Newton’s second law and (3) energy is conserved, secondly the model needs to be as simple as possible, in order to express a simple and useful picture of real systems. Numerical model for the simulation of Urea Dosing System is implemented in GT Suite® environment, it is complete UDS Model (Hydraulic circuit and Dosing Unit) and it stands out for its ease of use and simulation fastness, The UDS model has been developed and validated using as reference Hilite Airless Dosing System at the ATC Lab, results provided by the model allow to analyze the UDS pump operation, as well the complete system, showing the trend of some important parameters which are difficult to measure such as viscosity, density, Reynolds number and giving plenty of useful information to understand the influence of the main design parameters of the pump, such as volumetric efficiency, speed and flow relations.

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  • 90.
    Ahmet, Zeynep
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    What Are You Doing And Feeling Right Now?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and capturing game play experiences of players have been of great interest for some time, both in academia and industry. Methods used for eliciting game play experiences have involved the use of observations, biometric data and post-game techniques such as surveys and interviews. This is true for games that are played in fixed settings, such as computer or video games. Pervasive games however, provide a greater challenge for evaluation, as they are games that typically engage players in outdoor environments, which might mean constant movement and a great deal of the players' motor skills engaged for several hours or days. In this project I explored a new method for eliciting different aspects of the game play experience of pervasive game players, specifically focusing on motional states and different qualities of immersion. I have centered this work on self-reporting as a means for reporting these aspects of the game play experiences. However, this required an approach to selfreporting as non-obtrusive, not taking too much of the players’ attention from the game activities as well as provide ease of use. To understand the challenges in introducing a new method into a gaming experience, I focused my research on understanding experience, which is a subjective concept. Even though there are methods aiming at capturing the physiological changes during game play, they don’t capture players’ interpretations of the gaming situation. By combining this with objective measurements, I was able to gain a comprehensive understanding of the context of use. The resulting designs were two tools, iteratively developed and pre-tested in a tabletop role-playing session before a test run in the pervasive game Interference. From my findings I was able to conclude that using self-reporting tools for players to use while playing was successful, especially as the data derived from the tools supported post-game interviews. There were however challenges regarding the design and functionality, in particular in outdoor environments, that suggests improvements, as well as considerations on the use of selfreporting as an additional method for data collection.

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  • 91.
    Ahnstedt, Linda
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Johansson, Susanna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Basmobilen2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dagens mobiltelefoner får fler och fler funktioner, det är inte längre ovanligt om det går att koppla upp sig mot Internet eller ta kort med mobiltelefonen. Men frågan som ställs i detta arbete är om mobiltelefonanvändarna är intresserade av dessa nya funktioner. Finns det de som är intresserade av vad som i detta arbete kallas basmobilen, vars funktioner är följande: telefonsamtal, SMS, telefonbok, samtalslista, alarm och möjligheten att kunna byta ringsignal. Efter en historisk inblick i mobiltelefonens utveckling ges en beskrivning av vad basmobilen motsvarar. Med hjälp av en enkätundersökning, intervjuer och insamlade dagböcker besvaras frågan vad mobiltelefonanvändarna är intresserade av. Resultatet visar att basmobilen inte är ointressant för enkätbesvararna, men det finns även en del som saknar funktioner. Detta tas sedan upp i diskussionsavsnittet, där det även finns ett förslag på hur mobiltelefoner ska byggas upp för att passa en så bred användargrupp som möjligt.

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  • 92.
    Ahrneteg, Jakob
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kulenovic, Dean
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Semantic Segmentation of Historical Document Images Using Recurrent Neural Networks2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. This thesis focuses on the task of historical document semantic segmentation with recurrent neural networks. Document semantic segmentation involves the segmentation of a page into different meaningful regions and is an important prerequisite step of automated document analysis and digitisation with optical character recognition. At the time of writing, convolutional neural network based solutions are the state-of-the-art for analyzing document images while the use of recurrent neural networks in document semantic segmentation has not yet been studied. Considering the nature of a recurrent neural network and the recent success of recurrent neural networks in document image binarization, it should be possible to employ a recurrent neural network for document semantic segmentation and further achieve high performance results.

    Objectives. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate if recurrent neural networks are a viable alternative to convolutional neural networks in document semantic segmentation. By using a combination of a convolutional neural network and a recurrent neural network, another objective is also to determine if the performance of the combination can improve upon the existing case of only using the recurrent neural network.

    Methods. To investigate the impact of recurrent neural networks in document semantic segmentation, three different recurrent neural network architectures are implemented and trained while their performance are further evaluated with Intersection over Union. Afterwards their segmentation result are compared to a convolutional neural network. By performing pre-processing on training images and multi-class labeling, prediction images are ultimately produced by the employed models.

    Results. The results from the gathered performance data shows a 2.7% performance difference between the best recurrent neural network model and the convolutional neural network. Notably, it can be observed that this recurrent neural network model has a more consistent performance than the convolutional neural network but comparable performance results overall. For the other recurrent neural network architectures lower performance results are observed which is connected to the complexity of these models. Furthermore, by analyzing the performance results of a model using a combination of a convolutional neural network and a recurrent neural network, it can be noticed that the combination performs significantly better with a 4.9% performance increase compared to the case with only using the recurrent neural network.

    Conclusions. This thesis concludes that recurrent neural networks are likely a viable alternative to convolutional neural networks in document semantic segmentation but that further investigation is required. Furthermore, by combining a convolutional neural network with a recurrent neural network it is concluded that the performance of a recurrent neural network model is significantly increased.

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  • 93.
    Aihara, Diogo Satoru
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Study About the Relationship Between the Model-View-Controller Pattern and Usabiltity2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Usability is one of the most important quality attributes in the new generation of software applications and computational devices. On the other hand, Model- View-Controller is a well known software architectural pattern and is widely used in its original form or its variations. The relationship between usability and the usage of Model-View-Controller, however, is still unknown. This thesis tries to contribute to this research question by providing the outcomes of a case study where a prototype has been developed in two different versions: one using Model-View-Controller and another using a widely known Object-Oriented guideline, the GRASP patterns. Those prototypes have been developed based on a non-functional prototype with a good level of usability. With the prototypes in hands, they were compared based on their design and based on the usability heuristics proposed by Nielsen. From this study, we discovered that the usage of MVC brings more advantages and disadvantages to the usability of the system than the ones that were found on the literature review. In general, the relationship between MVC and usability is beneficial, easing the implementation of usability features like validation of input data, evolutionary consistency, multiple views, inform the result of actions and skip steps in a process.

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  • 94.
    Aivars, Sablis
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Benefits of transactive memory systems in large-scale development2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Large-scale software development projects are those consisting of a large number of teams, maybe even spread across multiple locations, and working on large and complex software tasks. That means that neither a team member individually nor an entire team holds all the knowledge about the software being developed and teams have to communicate and coordinate their knowledge. Therefore, teams and team members in large-scale software development projects must acquire and manage expertise as one of the critical resources for high-quality work.

    Objectives. We aim at understanding whether software teams in different contexts develop transactive memory systems (TMS) and whether well-developed TMS leads to performance benefits as suggested by research conducted in other knowledge-intensive disciplines. Because multiple factors may influence the development of TMS, based on related TMS literature we also suggest to focus on task allocation strategies, task characteristics and management decisions regarding the project structure, team structure and team composition.

    Methods. We use the data from two large-scale distributed development companies and 9 teams, including quantitative data collected through a survey and qualitative data from interviews to measure transactive memory systems and their role in determining team performance. We measure teams’ TMS with a latent variable model. Finally, we use focus group interviews to analyze different organizational practices with respect to team management, as a set of decisions based on two aspects: team structure and composition, and task allocation.

    Results. Data from two companies and 9 teams are analyzed and the positive influence of well-developed TMS on team performance is found. We found that in large-scale software development, teams need not only well-developed team’s internal TMS, but also have well- developed and effective team’s external TMS. Furthermore, we identified practices that help of hinder development of TMS in large-scale projects.

    Conclusions. Our findings suggest that teams working in large-scale software development can achieve performance benefits if transactive memory practices within the team are supported with networking practices in the organization. 

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  • 95.
    Ajayi, Taiwo Seun
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Mobile Satellite Communications: Channel Characterization and Simulation2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The channel characterization of a mobile satellite communication which is an important and fast growing arm of wireless communication plays an important role in the transmission of information through a propagation medium from the transmitter to the receiver with minimum barest error rate putting into consideration the channel impairments of different geographical locations like urban, suburban, rural and hilly. The information transmitted from satellite to mobile terminals suffers amplitude attenuation and phase variation which is caused by multipath fading and signal shadowing effects of the environment. These channel impairments are commonly described by three fading phenomena which are Rayleigh fading, Racian fading and Log-normal fading which characterizes signal propagation in different environments. They are mixed in different proportions by different researchers to form a model to describe a particular channel. In the thesis, the general overview of mobile satellite is conducted including the classification of satellite by orbits, the channel impairments, the advantages of mobile satellite communication over terrestrial. Some of the major existing statistical models used in describing different type of channels are looked into and the best out of them which is Lutz model [6] is implemented. By simulating the Lutz model which described all possible type of environments into two states which represent non-shadowed or LOS and shadowed or NLOS conditions, shows that the BER is predominantly affected by shadowing factor.

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  • 96.
    Akbar, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Ali, Asar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Evaluation of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols of Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring Applications2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deployment of sensor networks are increasing either manually or randomly to monitor physical environments in different applications such as military, agriculture, medical transport, industry etc. In monitoring of physical environments, the most important application of wireless sensor network is monitoring of critical conditions. The most important in monitoring application like critical condition is the sensing of information during emergency state from the physical environment where the network of sensors is deployed. In order to respond within a fraction of seconds in case of critical conditions like explosions, fire and leaking of toxic gases, there must be a system which should be fast enough. A big challenge to sensor networks is a fast, reliable and fault tolerant channel during emergency conditions to sink (base station) that receives the events. The main focus of this thesis is to discuss and evaluate the performance of two different routing protocols like Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) for monitoring of critical conditions with the help of important metrics like throughput and end-to-end delay in different scenarios. On the basis of results derived from simulation a conclusion is drawn on the comparison between these two different routing protocols with parameters like end-to-end delay and throughput.

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  • 97.
    Akhlaq, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Smart-Dashboard: Augmenting safe & smooth driving2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Annually, road accidents cause more than 1.2 million deaths, 50 million injuries, and US$ 518 billion of economic cost globally. About 90% of the accidents occur due to human errors such as bad awareness, distraction, drowsiness, low training, fatigue etc. These human errors can be minimized by using advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) which actively monitors the driving environment and alerts a driver to the forthcoming danger, for example adaptive cruise control, blind spot detection, parking assistance, forward collision warning, lane departure warning, driver drowsiness detection, and traffic sign recognition etc. Unfortunately, these systems are provided only with modern luxury cars because they are very expensive due to numerous sensors employed. Therefore, camera-based ADAS are being seen as an alternative because a camera has much lower cost, higher availability, can be used for multiple applications and ability to integrate with other systems. Aiming at developing a camera-based ADAS, we have performed an ethnographic study of drivers in order to find what information about the surroundings could be helpful for drivers to avoid accidents. Our study shows that information on speed, distance, relative position, direction, and size & type of the nearby vehicles & other objects would be useful for drivers, and sufficient for implementing most of the ADAS functions. After considering available technologies such as radar, sonar, lidar, GPS, and video-based analysis, we conclude that video-based analysis is the fittest technology that provides all the essential support required for implementing ADAS functions at very low cost. Finally, we have proposed a Smart-Dashboard system that puts technologies – such as camera, digital image processor, and thin display – into a smart system to offer all advanced driver assistance functions. A basic prototype, demonstrating three functions only, is implemented in order to show that a full-fledged camera-based ADAS can be implemented using MATLAB.

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  • 98. Akhlaq, Muhammad
    et al.
    Sheltami, Tarek
    Helgeson, Bo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Shakshuki, Elhadi
    Designing an integrated driver assistance system using image sensors2012In: Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, ISSN 0956-5515, E-ISSN 1572-8145, Vol. January, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road accidents cause a great loss to human lives and assets. Most of the accidents occur due to human errors, such as bad awareness, distraction, drowsiness, low training, and fatigue. Advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) can reduce the human errors by keeping an eye on the driving environment and warning a driver to the upcoming danger. However, these systems come only with modern luxury cars because of their high cost and complexity due to several sensors employed. Therefore, camera-based ADAS are becoming an option due to their lower cost, higher availability, numerous applications and ability to combine with other systems. Targeting at designing a camera-based ADAS, we have conducted an ethnographic study of drivers to know what information about the driving environment would be useful in preventing accidents. It turned out that information on speed, distance, relative position, direction, and size and type of the nearby objects would be useful and enough for implementing most of the ADAS functions. Several camera-based techniques are available for capturing the required information. We propose a novel design of an integrated camera-based ADAS that puts technologies-such as five ordinary CMOS image sensors, a digital image processor, and a thin display-into a smart system to offer a dozen advanced driver assistance functions. A basic prototype is also implemented using MATLAB. Our design and the prototype testify that all the required technologies are now available for implementing a full-fledged camera-based ADAS.

  • 99.
    Akhlaq, Usman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Yousaf, Muhammad Usman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Impact of Software Comprehension in Software Maintenance and Evolution2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need of change is essential for a software system to reside longer in the market. Change implementation is only done through the maintenance and successful software maintenance gives birth to a new software release that is a refined form of the previous one. This phenomenon is known as the evolution of the software. To transfer software from lower to upper or better form, maintainers have to get familiar with the particular aspects of software i.e. source code and documentation. Due to the poor quality of documentation maintainers often have to rely on source code. So, thorough understanding of source code is necessary for effective change implementation. This study explores the code comprehension problems discussed in the literature and prioritizes them according to their severity level given by maintenance personnel in the industry. Along with prioritizing the problems, study also presents the maintenance personnel suggested methodologies for improving code comprehension. Consideration of these suggestions in development might help in shortening the maintenance and evolution time.

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  • 100.
    Akhtar, Jawad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Virtual reality: Effective surroundings, Enormous demonstration and mediator system in the games, industrial design and manufacturing2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the concept of virtual reality has been elaborated in the context of games, industrial design and manufacturing. The main purpose of this master’s thesis is to create a virtual environment for games that are near to the reality and according to the human nature through aspects like better interface, simulation, lights, shadow effects and their types. The importance of these aspects regarding realistic virtual environment is complemented through the comparison between two environments i.e. desktop and CAVE on a flight simulation program.

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