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  • 551.
    Wilson, Magnus
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Ericsson AB.
    Towards Effective and Efficient Business Model change: Opportunities and challenges for software-intensive product development companies2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization initiates and drives significant changes to the process level, organization level, and business level of software-intensive product development (SIPD) companies and their customers. Digitalization creates new opportunities through digital transformation strategies of the business environment. Digitalization also significantly reduces the turnaround-time on a transaction, driving new challenges for the alignment of business and technology changes. For a successful business model realization, a company must understand what capabilities the organization has (in staff and products), what is required, and more importantly, how to turn these capabilities into good-enough abilities without disturbing the effectiveness and efficiency of the daily operations. Integrating the product and service development and the value delivery with a learning organization is critical for efficient business model change (BMCh).

    This thesis seeks to develop conceptual models for how BMCh is linked to value, learning organization design, and the transformation of capabilities into abilities derived from business model activities and actor interactions. Such conceptual models facilitate to investigate and identify critical mechanisms and capabilities needed to effectively and efficiently manage BMCh at full scale for SIPD companies, allowing them to exploit the on-going digitalization, may it be through (disruptive) business model innovation, technology innovation, or by continuously adapting and evolving the business operations.  

    I use the SIPD company as the unit of analysis, with the dual-lens of value and knowledge, set in the context of a business model and how the value creation and capture are influenced by the interaction between two actors performing a business model activity. I build on the business model literature and infuse theories for knowledge creation, learning organizations, and contractual promises to create value. Conducting a cross-disciplinary literature review, followed by a synthesis of related literature, industry best-practices, and an associated design science study, my propositions were validated in a longitudinal case study exploring a service industrialization program in the telecommunication industry.

    I have produced five conceptual models and seven propositions as a start to be able to support the design of a governance mechanism, as the critical engine for both the learning organization and effective and efficient BMCh. The industry now explores the models found during the case study.

    My synthesis shows a need for further research into BMCh regarding early detection and measurements of gaps in value, gaps in knowledge, ambiguity, equivocality, and abilities. Flexible role-based governance views present the measurements, as part of the governance mechanisms for full-scale, effective, and efficient BMCh. Further, I also aim to implement such governance mechanisms in software, by using the associated research in intent-driven systems. In the meantime, I propose industry to build knowledge and experience related to the seven propositions.

  • 552.
    Wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Business Modeling and Flexibility in Software-Intensive Product Development - A Systematic Literature Review2018Inngår i: 17th IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society, I3E 2018, Kuwait City, Kuwait, October 30 – November 1, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Springer, Springer, 2018, s. 292-304Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuously achieving and maintaining competitive advantage is the critical survival factor for software-intensive product development companies undergoing digitalization transformation. These companies remain uncertain if investments in business modeling is sufficient to cope with rapidly changing business models, technology, and customer demands. We conducted a Systematic Literature Review using the snowballing methodology to explore the effects of business modeling on business flexibility and variability in the realization. Our results confirm a research gap regarding translating desired strategic flexibility into business options that can efficiently and effectively be implemented using software-based variability in the realization. We conclude that more research is needed consolidating business model innovation, experimentation, and operationalization. Building on theories for learning and knowledge creation, we propose a framework for describing change and analyzing strategic, tactical and operational choices in business model experimentation.

  • 553.
    Wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Business modeling and flexibility in software-intensive product development: A systematic literature review2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11195, s. 292-304Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuously achieving and maintaining competitive advantage is the critical survival factor for software-intensive product development companies undergoing digitalization transformation. These companies remain uncertain if investments in business modeling is sufficient to cope with rapidly changing business models, technology, and customer demands. We conducted a Systematic Literature Review using the snowballing methodology to explore the effects of business modeling on business flexibility and variability in the realization. Our results confirm a research gap regarding translating desired strategic flexibility into business options that can efficiently and effectively be implemented using software-based variability in the realization. We conclude that more research is needed consolidating business model innovation, experimentation, and operationalization. Building on theories for learning and knowledge creation, we propose a framework for describing change and analyzing strategic, tactical and operational choices in business model experimentation. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018.

  • 554.
    Wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Ericsson AB.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The implications of digitalization on business model changeInngår i: Business & Information Systems Engineering, ISSN 1867-0202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many software-intensive product development companies are still struggling with the alignment of business and technology changes to find an optimal balance between products and services while remaining agile, effective, and efficient. Business model alignment is highlighted as a new business model research area for understanding the relationships between the dynamic nature of business models, organization design, and the value creation in the business model activities.

    In this paper, we synthesize the impact of digitalization on business model change for the software-intensive product development industry. Based on established theories, we link effectiveness and efficiency, to value creation in business model activities and organizational learning, in a step towards conceptualizing business model change as a significant part of developing software architectural support for a business model change in a learning organization.  

    Our unit of analysis is the value created in a transaction between two actors in a business model activity, and how that value is supporting transforming a capability into an efficient ability. Based on our results and to facilitate the cross-disciplinary analysis of business model dynamics, we present seven propositions and a conceptual model linking effectiveness, efficiency, value, transaction, and organizational learning to business model change via the \textit{value membrane}. 

  • 555.
    wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Towards Multi-context Goal Modeling and Analysis with the Help of Intents2018Inngår i: Proceedings - 2018 8th International Model-Driven Requirements Engineering Workshop, MoDRE 2018 / [ed] Moreira A.,Mussbacher G.,Sanchez P.,Araujo J., IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2018, s. 68-72, artikkel-id 8501496Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This vision paper discusses the need for enriching goal modeling with intents and context frame to provide much richer contextual information over goals and realization strategies. Based on the extensive experience of business modeling at Ericsson and a review of current goal modeling approaches, we suggest possible research directions towards enriching goal modeling.

  • 556.
    Wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Silvander, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Literature Review on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Business Modeling2018Inngår i: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 265-302Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Achieving and maintaining a strategic competitive advantage through business and technology innovation via continually improving effectiveness and efficiency of the operations are the critical survival factors for software-intensive product development companies. These companies invest in business modeling and tool support for integrating business models into their product development, but remain uncertain, if such investments generate desired results. Aim: This study explores the effects of business modeling on effectiveness and efficiency for companies developing software-intensive products. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review using the snowballing methodology, followed by thematic and narrative analysis. 57 papers were selected for analysis and synthesis, after screening 16 320 papers from multiple research fields. Results: We analyzed the literature based on purpose, benefit, challenge, effectiveness, and efficiency with software and software-intensive products as the unit of analysis. The alignment between strategy and execution is the primary challenge, and we found no evidence that business modeling increases effectiveness and efficiency for a company. Any outcome variations may simply be a result of fluctuating contextual or environmental factors rather than the application of a specific business modeling method. Therefore, we argue that governance is the fundamental challenge needed for business modeling, as it must efficiently support simultaneous experimentation with products and business models while turning experiences into knowledge. Conclusion: We propose a conceptual governance model for exploring the effectiveness and efficiency of business modeling to occupy the missing link between business strategy, processes and software tools. We also recommend managers to introduce a systematic approach for experimentation and organizational learning, collaboration, and value co-creation.

  • 557.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Involving relevant stakeholders into the decision process about software components2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 129-132Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This papers surveys current stakeholder identification methods and techniques from the Requirements Engineering (RE) discipline. Upon critical analysis of available models and techniques, we identify the techniques that should be prioritized when identifying stakeholders that should be involved in the decision making processes about software components or assets. Next, we analyzed industrial decision scenarios and match the most prominent issues with stakeholder identification against the perceived benefits that the identified techniques offer. We conclude this paper with a research agenda in stakeholder identification for decision making about software components. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 558.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Towards new ways of evaluating methods of supporting requirements management and traceability using signal-to-noise ratio2019Inngår i: ENASE 2019 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, SciTePress , 2019, s. 330-339Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing contemporary software solutions requires many processes and people working in synergy to achieve a common goal. Any misalignment between parts of the software production cycle can severely impede the quality of the development process and its resulting products. In this paper, we focus on improving means for measuring the quality of methods used to support finding similarities between software product artifacts, especially requirements. We propose a new set of measures, Signal-to-Noise ratios which extends the commonly used precision and recall measures. We test the applicability of all three types of SNR on two methods for finding similar requirements: the normalized compression distance (NCD) originating from the domain of information theory, and the Vector Space Model originating from computer linguistics. The results obtained present an interesting property of all types of SNR, all the values are centered around 1 which confirms our hypothesis that the analyzed methods can only limit the search space for the analysis. The analyst may still have difficulties in manually assessing the correct links among the incorrect ones. Copyright © 2019 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved

  • 559.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Borg, Markus
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Sulaman, Sardar Muhammad
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    An industrial case study on measuring the quality of the requirements scoping process2016Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science / [ed] Amasaki S.,Mikkonen T.,Felderer M.,Abrahamsson P.,Duc A.N.,Jedlitschka A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 10027, s. 487-494Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision making and requirements scoping occupy central roles in helping to develop products that are demanded by the customers and ensuring company strategies are accurately realized in product scope. Many companies experience continuous and frequent scope changes and fluctuations but struggle to measure the phenomena and correlate the measurement to the quality of the requirements process. We present the results from an exploratory interview study among 22 participants working with requirements management processes at a large company that develops embedded systems for a global market. Our respondents shared their opinions about the current set of requirements management process metrics as well as what additional metrics they envisioned as useful. We present a set of metrics that describe the quality of the requirements scoping process. The findings provide practical insights that can be used as input when introducing new measurement programs for requirements management and decision making.

  • 560.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Garrepalli, Thrinay
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Knowledge management in software testing: A systematic snowball literature review2018Inngår i: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 51-78Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software testing benefits from the usage of Knowledge Management (KM) methods and principles. Thus, there is a need to adopt KM to the software testing core processes and attain the benefits that it provides in terms of cost, quality, etc. Aim: To investigate the usage and implementation of KM for software testing. The major objectives include 1. To identify various software testing aspects that receive more attention while applying KM. 2. To analyse multiple software testing techniques, i.e. test design, test execution and test result analysis and highlight KM involvement in these. 3. To gather challenges faced by industry due to the lack of KM initiatives in software testing. Method: A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted utilizing the guidelines for snowballing reviews by Wohlin. The identified studies were analysed in relation to their rigor and relevance to assess the quality of the results. Results: The initial resulting set provided 4832 studies. From these, 35 peer-reviewed papers were chosen among which 31 are primary, and 4 are secondary studies. The literature review results indicated nine testing aspects being in focus when applying KM within various adaptation contexts and some benefits from KM application. Several challenges were identified, e.g., improper selection and application of better-suited techniques, a low reuse rate of software testing knowledge, barriers in software testing knowledge transfer, no possibility to quickly achieve the most optimum distribution of human resources during testing, etc. Conclusions: The study brings supporting evidence that the application of KM in software testing is necessary, e.g., to increase test effectiveness, select and apply testing techniques. The study outlines the testing aspects and testing techniques that benefit their users.

  • 561.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Supporting Scope Tracking and Visualization for Very Large-Scale Requirements Engineering-Utilizing FSC+, Decision Patterns, and Atomic Decision Visualization2016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 47-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding the optimal project scope that fulfills the needs of the most important stakeholders is challenging due to a plethora of aspects that may impact decisions. Large companies that operate in rapidly changing environments experience frequently changing customer needs which force decision makers to continuously adjust the scope of their projects. Change intensity is further fueled by fierce market competition and hard time-to-market deadlines. Staying in control of the changes in thousands of features becomes a major issue as information overload hinders decision makers from rapidly extracting relevant information. This paper presents a visual technique, called Feature Survival Charts+ (FSC+), designed to give a quick and effective overview of the requirements scoping process for Very Large-Scale Requirements Engineering (VLSRE). FSC+ were applied at a large company with thousands of features in the database and supported the transition from plan-driven to a more dynamic and change-tolerant release scope management process. FSC+ provides multiple views, filtering, zooming, state-change intensity views, and support for variable time spans. Moreover, this paper introduces five decision archetypes deduced from the dataset and subsequently analyzed and the atomic decision visualization that shows the frequency of various decisions in the process. The capabilities and usefulness of FSC+, decision patterns (state changes that features undergo) and atomic decision visualizations are evaluated through interviews with practitioners who found utility in all techniques and indicated that their inherent flexibility was necessary to meet the varying needs of the stakeholders.

  • 562.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kabbedijk, J.c
    Brinkkemper, S.c
    Regnell, B.b
    Callele, D.d
    Exploring factors affecting decision outcome and lead time in large-scale requirements engineering2015Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 27, nr 9, s. 647-673Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing decision lead time and outcome is important for successful product management. This work identifies decision lead time and outcome factors in large-scale requirements engineering. Our investigation brings supporting evidence that complex changes have longer lead time and that important customers more likely get what they request. The results provide input into the discussion of whether a large company should focus on only a few of its large customers and disregard its significantly larger group of small customers. Lead time, defined as the duration between the moment a request was filed and the moment the decision was made, is an important aspect of decision making in market-driven requirements engineering. Minimizing lead time allows software companies to focus their resources on the most profitable functionality and enables them to remain competitive within the quickly changing software market. Achieving and sustaining low decision lead time and the resulting high decision efficiency require a better understanding of factors that may affect both decision lead time and outcome. In order to identify possible factors, we conducted an exploratory two-stage case study that combines the statistical analysis of seven possible relationships among decision characteristics at a large company with a survey of industry participants. Our results show that the number of products affected by a decision increases the time needed to make a decision. Practitioners should take this aspect into consideration when planning for efficient decision making and possibly reducing the complexity of decisions. Our results also show that when a change request originates from an important customer, the request is more often accepted. The results provide input into the discussion of whether a large company should focus on only a few of its large customers and disregard its significantly larger group of small customers. The results provide valuable insights for researchers, who can use them to plan research of decision-making processes and methods, and for practitioners, who can use them to optimize their decision-making processes. In future work, we plan to investigate other decision characteristics, such as the number of stakeholders involved in the discussion about the potential change or the number of dependencies between software components. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 563.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kollu, R. K.
    A systematic mapping study on requirements scoping2016Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM Press, 2016, Vol. 01-03-June-2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirements scoping is one of the key activities in requirements management but also a major risk for project management. Continuously changing scope may create a congestion state in handling the requirements inflow which causes negative consequences, e.g. delays or scope creep. Objectives: In this paper, we look at requirements scoping literature outside Software Product Line (SPL) by exploring the current literature on the phenomenon, summarizing publication trends, performing thematic analysis and analyzing the strength of the evidence in the light of rigor and relevance assessment. Method: We run a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) using snowballing procedure, supported by a database search for the start set identification, and identified 21 primary studies and 2 secondary studies. Results: The research interest in this area steadily increases and includes mainly case studies, validation or evaluation studies. The results were categorized into four themes: definitions, negative effects associated with scoping, challenges and identified methods/tools. The identified scope management techniques are also matched against the identified requirements scoping challenges.

  • 564.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Maddila, K. Chakravarthy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Agile and lean metrics associated with requirements engineering2017Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2017, Vol. F131936, s. 33-40Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the continuously increasing importance of Agile and Lean in software development, the number of studies that investigate Requirements Engineering (RE) related aspects remains low. In this paper, we report the results from a literature review about Agile and Lean requirements engineering. By performing a systematic mapping literature review, we identified 22 metrics in 18 publications. We analyzed the identified papers based on research methodology, rigor and relevance and other external attributes. We also map the identified metrics on the abstracted model for Agile and Lean development. We conclude that requirements-associated metrics are underrepresented in the literature and most of the metrics focuses on the time aspect rather than the quality aspect. © 2017 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  • 565.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    The Project management perspective on Software Value: A Literature Review2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: To remain competitive, innovative and to grow, companies must change from cost-based decision-making to value-based decision-making where the decisions taken maximize software value and support company’s overall value creation. Objective: The objective of this paper is to complement and expand an existing classification of value aspects within the context of product management and development with additional aspects relating to value within the context of project management and development. Method: In this study, we present the results from a snowballing literature review that focuses on software value in software project management. In the research for relevance literature we focus on software value aspects different than cost. Results: We have identified nine primary studies in two snowball iterations. From these studies, we derived three categories of value aspects: financial, risk analysis and process improvement based on value identification.

  • 566.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mudduluru, Pavan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Value-based requirements engineering: Challenges and opportunities2019Inngår i: ENGINEERING SOFTWARE SYSTEMS: RESEARCH AND PRAXIS / [ed] Kosiuczenko, P; Zielinski, Z, Springer Verlag , 2019, 830, s. 20-33Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the state of the literature and practice about Value-Based Requirements Engineering. We focus on identifying what models for VBRE were presented and what challenges were discussed. We triangulate our results with industrial practitioners by conducting an industrial survey with 59 respondents. We identified 26 primary and 3 secondary studies and synthesized the findings using content analysis. VBRE was identified to be having a positive impact among survey practitioners. However, challenges like aligning product, project and organization opinions, selecting a most valuable requirement for a particular release, and including time-dependent requirements were identified to be impacting the organizations. The results from the study also suggest that, value dimensions like stakeholder value and customer value were not so frequently discussed in RE processes in both literature and among our industry respondents. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 567.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Murari, B.
    The impact of internet of things on software business models2016Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Lamprecht A.-L.,Maglyas A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 240, s. 94-108Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Internet of Things (IoT) technology is significantly impacting software business. Several contributions were made in the literature regarding IoT. However, the importance of various business model elements for IoT and the impact of IoT on requirements engineering activities remains greatly unexplored. This paper focuses on the impact of IoT on software business models and requirements engineering. The objectives for this research include: (1) summarizing the current business models for IoT, (2) analyzing the impact of IoT on software business models (3) analyzing the impact of IoT on requirements engineering. We conducted a systematic snowballing literature review, followed by an industrial survey. We identified 21 peer reviewed papers which were analyzed in relation to their rigor and relevance and received 56 survey responses. The results of the literature review indicate 9 business model elements that IoT literature focus on. Morevoer, 4 business model aspects were described with respect to the business model structure, context and governance. The industrial survey results highlighted that value proposition, followed by customer segmentation and revenue streams were the most important business model elements for IoT. Moreover, the survey results suggest that requirement management, requirement prioritization and requirement modeling and analysis are highly impacted by IoT.

  • 568.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Guidelines for snowballing in systematic literature studies and a replication in software engineering2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systematic literature studies have become common in software engineering, and hence it is important to understand how to conduct them efficiently and reliably. Objective: This paper presents guidelines for conducting literature reviews using a snowballing approach, and they are illustrated and evaluated by replicating a published systematic literature review. Method: The guidelines are based on the experience from conducting several systematic literature reviews and experimenting with different approaches. Results: The guidelines for using snowballing as a way to search for relevant literature was successfully applied to a systematic literature review. Conclusions: It is concluded that using snowballing, as a first search strategy, may very well be a good alternative to the use of database searches.

  • 569.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Is there a Future for Empirical Software Engineering?2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ACM/IEEE , 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 570.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Second-generation systematic literature studies using snowballing2016Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM Press, 2016, Vol. 01-03-June-2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic literature studies have become standard practice in software engineering to synthesize evidence in different areas of the discipline. As more such studies are published, there is also a need to extend previously published systematic literature studies to cover new research papers. These first extensions become second-generation systematic literature studies. It has been asserted that snowballing would be a suitable search strategy for these types of second-generation studies, since newer studies ought to refer to previous research on a topic, and in particular to systematic literature studies published in an area. This paper compares using a snowballing search strategy with a published second-generation study using a database search strategy in the area of cross-company vs. within-company effort estimation. It is concluded that the approaches are comparable when it comes to which papers they find, although the snowballing approach is more efficient in this particular case. Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  • 571.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Writing for Synthesis of Evidence in Empirical Software Engineering2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Systematic literature reviews have become common in software engineering in the last decade, but challenges remain. Goal: Given the challenges, the objective is to describe improvement areas in writing primary studies, and hence provide a good basis for researchers aiming at synthesizing research evidence in a specific area. Method: The results presented are based on a literature review with respect to synthesis of research results in software engineering with a particular focus on empirical software engineering. The literature review is complemented and exemplified with experiences from conducting systematic literature reviews and working with research methodologies in empirical software engineering. Results: The paper presents three areas where improvements are needed to become more successful in synthesizing empirical evidence. These three areas are: terminology, paper content and reviewing. Conclusion: It is concluded that it must be possible to improve the primary studies, but it requires that researchers start having synthesis in mind when writing their research papers.

  • 572.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Towards a decision-making structure for selecting a research design in empirical software engineering2015Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 1427-1455Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several factors make empirical research in software engineering particularly challenging as it requires studying not only technology but its stakeholders' activities while drawing concepts and theories from social science. Researchers, in general, agree that selecting a research design in empirical software engineering research is challenging, because the implications of using individual research methods are not well recorded. The main objective of this article is to make researchers aware and support them in their research design, by providing a foundation of knowledge about empirical software engineering research decisions, in order to ensure that researchers make well-founded and informed decisions about their research designs. This article provides a decision-making structure containing a number of decision points, each one of them representing a specific aspect on empirical software engineering research. The article provides an introduction to each decision point and its constituents, as well as to the relationships between the different parts in the decision-making structure. The intention is the structure should act as a starting point for the research design before going into the details of the research design chosen. The article provides an in-depth discussion of decision points in relation to the research design when conducting empirical research.

  • 573.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University.
    Höst, Martin
    Lund University.
    Ohlsson, Magnus C.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lund University.
    Wesslén, Anders
    Experimentation in Software Engineering2015Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 574.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Supporting strategic decision-making for selection of software assets2016Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Lamprecht A.-L.,Maglyas A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 240, s. 1-15Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies developing software are constantly striving to gain or keep their competitive advantage on the market. To do so, they should balance what to develop themselves and what to get from elsewhere, which may be software components or software services. These strategic decisions need to be aligned with business objectives and the capabilities and constraints of possible options. These sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to support decision-makers in selecting appropriate types of origins in a specific case that maximizes the benefits of the selected business strategy. The approach consists of three descriptive models, as well as a decision process and a knowledge repository. The three models are a decision model that comprises three cornerstones (stakeholders, origins and criteria) and is based on a taxonomy for formulating decision models in this context, and two supporting models (property models and context models). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 575.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nilsbrede
    A general theory of software engineering: Balancing human, social and organizational capitals2015Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 109, s. 229-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists no generally accepted theory in software engineering, and at the same time a scientific discipline needs theories. Some laws, hypotheses and conjectures exist, but yet no generally accepted theory. Several researchers and initiatives emphasize the need for theory in the discipline. The objective of this paper is to formulate a theory of software engineering. The theory is generated from empirical observations of industry practice, including several case studies and many years of experience in working closely between academia and industry. The theory captures the balancing of three different intellectual capitals: human, social and organizational capitals, respectively. The theory is formulated using a method for building theories in software engineering. It results in a theory where the relationships between the three different intellectual capitals are explored and explained. The theory is illustrated based on an industrial case study, where it is shown how decisions made in industry practice are explainable with the formulated theory, and the consequences of the decisions are made explicit. Based on the positive results, it is concluded that the theory may have a good explanatory power, although more evaluations are needed. ©2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierInc.ThisisanopenaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense.

  • 576.
    Wärnå, Klas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Programmering i skolmatematiken: problemlösning eller problemskapande2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om hur programmering som verktyg i matematisk problemlösning har implementerats sedan det infördes som obligatoriskt i flera av gymnasiets mattekurser hösten 2018. Syftet är att reda ut vilka programmeringsspråk och programbibliotek som används ute i klassrummen och hur det upplevs av elever och lärare med avseende på svårighetsgrad, nytta för matematiken och om det bidragit till ett ökat intresse för programmering i allmänhet hos eleverna. Även eventuella könsrelaterade skillnader i dessa frågor har undersökts, då en av de politiska intentionerna med införandet varit att en förhoppning att främja flickors it-intresse.

    Arbetet tar sitt teoretiska avstamp i en genomgång av den politiska bakgrunden till införandet, tidigare studier i ämnet och en kort historik om programmeringens roll i läroplanerna.

    Med hjälp av digitala enkäter har fallstudier företagits i två klasser från olika gymnasieskolor i Skåne, där elever och lärare fått ta ställning till antal påstående genom att gradera på en skala hur väl påståendena stämmer samt komplettera med eventuell textkommentar. Enkäterna var anonyma men utformade på ett sådant sätt att lärare och elever kunnat kopplas samman klassvis.

    Av resultatet har framkommit att många elever visserligen uppfattar programmeringen som svår och inte anser att den underlättar förståelsen för matematik. Men det framkom också att skillnaden var stor i dessa frågor och svaren tycks hänga samman med lärarens tidigare erfarenhet av programmering och i vilken omfattning programmeringen lärts ut. Intresset för programmering i allmänhet tycks inte ökat nämnvärt p.g.a. att det ingår i matematiken, men det låter sig heller inte entydigt sägas om någotdera könet var mer positivt eller negativt inställd till programmeringen. En något större andel tjejer än killar valde det allra mest negativa alternativet i enkätfrågorna, men klumpar man samman de mest negativa respektive de mest positiva alternativen på varsin halva om mitten, var tjejerna å andra sidan något överrepresenterade bland de positiva alternativen.

    Python verkar vara ett lämpligt programmeringsspråk att använda. Det är viktigt att tillse att lärare har tillräcklig kunskap i programmering och att omfattningen i utlärandet av programmering inte blir alltför ytlig, för att eleverna skall tillägna sig nyttan av det. Obligatorisk programmering i matematik kan potentiellt bidra till att fler för upp ögonen för ämnet och på sikt minska den sneda könsfördelningen bland yrkesprogrammerare.

  • 577.
    Wüest, Dustin
    et al.
    FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts, CHE.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Combining Monitoring and AutonomousFeedback Requests to Elicit Actionable Knowledge of System Use2019Inngår i: Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality / [ed] E. Knauss and M. Goedicke, 2019, Vol. 11412, s. 209-225Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] To validate developers’ ideas of what users might want and to understand user needs, it has been proposed to collect and combine system monitoring with user feedback. [Question/problem] So far, the monitoring data and feedback have been collected passively, hoping for the users to get active when problems emerge. This approach leaves unexplored opportunities for system improvement when users are also passive or do not know that they are invited to offer feedback. [Principal ideas/results] In this paper, we show how we have used goal monitors to identify interesting situations of system use and let a system autonomously elicit user feedback in these situations. We have used a monitor to detect interesting situations in the use of a system and issued automated requests for user feedback to interpret the monitoring observations from the users’ perspectives. [Contribution] The paper describes the implementation of our approach in a Smart City system and reports our results and experiences. It shows that combining system monitoring with proactive, autonomous feedback collection was useful and surfaced knowledge of system use that was relevant for system maintenance and evolution. The results were helpful for the city to adapt and improve the Smart City application and to maintain their internet-of-things deployment of sensors.

  • 578.
    Xu, Xiaoji
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Zhi, Huanyu
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Study Of Game Elements Impacting On SE Course Completion Rate In MOOCs2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. SE is a growing field in both academia and industry, online SE education becomes more and more prevalent recent years. Massive Open Online Courses, as an emerging type of open educational resource, provide SE courses a much wider development space. But on the other hand, MOOCs limit SE courses because its low completion rate. Game elements are used to address this issue, but the impact of game elements on completion rate of specific MOOCs and SE courses in MOOCs are not clear. It is necessary to find whether and how game elements could help students finish SE courses. Explore the method and idea of improving SE courses in MOOCs through game elements.

    Objectives. In this study authors investigate what game elements are applied in SE courses in MOOCs platforms, evaluate the impact of MOOCs game elements on SE courses completion situation. Based on the analysis and summary of the data and result, propose suggestion to improve SE courses.

    Methods. Authors conduct a systematic literature to find the game elements used in SE courses in MOOCs. Conducting the survey to get the data of the MOOCs game elements on completion situation in general and data of survey is analyzed by mathematical statistics. The interview is used to find how the game elements of MOOC and SE education simulation impact on learning SE courses on MOOCs by inductive content analysis.

    Results. In systematic literature review, 23 studies are selected from 358 papers of six databases. Forty-one responses of questionnaires are received and twenty interviewees take part in this study. Authors find that game elements have been applied in MOOCs in various ways and research results about effort of game elements are positive. In this study, the results of analyzing the received data in survey show that there is no significant impact of game elements on course completion rate. The interview shows that specific game element is necessary for students finishing their courses and some game elements are not well designed in students’ perspective. Two specific suggestions to improve SE courses are proposed according to survey and interview result.

    Conclusions. This research collects data through SLR, survey and interview, and evaluates the impact of game elements on SE course completion situation through analysis, comparison and summary. The result is helpful to people who design and develop the game elements in MOOCs platform. Focusing on the character of SE education and SE courses, some suggestion of designing and modifying the game elements are provided. This enables the game elements designer to target designing and arranging game elements better.

  • 579.
    Yan, Guoning
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Zhan, Wenkai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Testing of mobile applications. A review of industry practices2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. With the rapid development of mobile devices, mobile applications have occupied an increasingly large market. Software testing is an important factor in ensuring software quality [59]. In order to develop high-quality mobile applications, software companies are increasingly paying attention to mobile application testing. We found that there are relatively few studies on mobile application testing methods and tools in the real industry, and this direction of research has been very helpful for some software companies' mobile application testing, so we chose this direction for exploratory research.

    Objectives. The purpose of our research is to investigate the software company's field of mobile application testing. We mainly study the methods and tools of mobile application testing that are now popular in enterprises, the challenges faced by mobile application testing in software companies and how they solve challenges.

    Method. We used two methods to answer our research questions. We chose literature review and survey as research methods. The literature review method gives us an insight into the areas of expertise and mobile testing. Survey is used to answer our research questions. Our data collection method is the questionnaire survey method. When we completed the data collection, we performed statistics and analysis on the data and answered our research questions.

    Result. Through the literature review method, we summarize the methods and tools for mobile application testing in the literature. By sending 46 surveys to different software companies, we analyzed and analyzed the methods and tools for mobile application testing that are popular in the enterprise and the reasons for choosing these methods. We also listed the company's mobile application testing. Challenges and solutions encountered.

    Conclusions. We answered all the research questions. We analyzed the feedback from 46 questionnaires and got information about mobile application testing. We read a lot of literature and summarized the relevant conclusions in the literature. Our findings can help people in related fields, and we can provide them with 46 data and analysis results. We can also provide mobile application methods and tools that are popular among readers in the enterprise.

  • 580.
    Yang, Kuankuan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cai, Ye
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Critical success factors for conducting Software Process Improvement in Very Small Entities2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background. It is significant to constantly change and improve the software process to thrive in the software market with rapidly changing requirement and situation. However, very small entities(VSEs) have difficulties to adopt software process improvement that have played an important role in software market, because they usually have some unique characteristics, such as informal and fewer documents, tight budget, and less human resources. Therefore, we believe it is necessary to study factors that are crucial to successful conducting SPI, to help inexperienced VSEs with limited resource implement SPI with reasonable cost.

    Objectives. The overall aim of our research is to analyse critical success factors about successfully conduct software process improvement for Very Small Entities. The objectives are based on the aim as following: 1) Identifying the special characteristics of VSEs which related to conducting SPI, 2) Identifying the state-of-the-art critical success factors when VSEs conducting SPI both in literature and practice: verifying and prioritizing the factors, and 3) Investigating the strategies that VSEs can take in order to successfully implement SPI.

    Methods. In order to investigate the critical factors and barriers need to focus and avoid during the improvement, we implemented a systematic literature review as the first phase. Then a survey questionnaire as the second phase to validate the results gained from the systematic literature review through consulting industrial software engineers.

    Results. The final result includes 80 success factors which have been mentioned at least once in the primary studies, a few characteristics of VSEs and strategies for SPI in VSEs. Among the 80 factors, we chose 29 factors as CSFs that were mentioned more than three times, then selected the first 15 CSFs as survey questions material. Through the survey, we gathered the evaluation of all factors from two areas and some suggestion or opinion of SPI in VSEs, explained the 29 CSFs and two ranking tables about top factors from the SLR and the survey, discussed 14 CSFs from both ranking tables, then provided specific strategies for each of the common 8 factors. Conclusions. For helping VSEs that intend to conduct SPI with limited resources, we answered our research questions through SLR and Survey, found 29 state-of-the-art success factors of SPI in VSEs, ranked 15 of them and provided a description, discussion, and strategies. Selected and prioritised success factors would be supportive for VSEs to ration their budget. Furthermore, we hope we can inspire VSEs who are having trouble to implement SPI by providing strategies.

  • 581.
    Yates, Andrew
    et al.
    Max Planck Institut für Informatik, DEU.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Replicating relevance-ranked synonym discovery in a new language and domain2019Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 11437, s. 429-442Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Domain-specific synonyms occur in many specialized search tasks, such as when searching medical documents, legal documents, and software engineering artifacts. We replicate prior work on ranking domain-specific synonyms in the consumer health domain by applying the approach to a new language and domain: identifying Swedish language synonyms in the building construction domain. We chose this setting because identifying synonyms in this domain is helpful for downstream systems, where different users may query for documents (e.g., engineering requirements) using different terminology. We consider two new features inspired by the change in language and methodological advances since the prior work’s publication. An evaluation using data from the building construction domain supports the finding from the prior work that synonym discovery is best approached as a learning to rank task in which a human editor views ranked synonym candidates in order to construct a domain-specific thesaurus. We additionally find that FastText embeddings alone provide a strong baseline, though they do not perform as well as the strongest learning to rank method. Finally, we analyze the performance of individual features and the differences in the domains. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 582.
    Ying, PuLe
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fan, LingZhi
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Methods For Test Case Prioritization Based On Test Case Execution History2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: Test case prioritization can prioritize test cases, optimize the test execution, save time and cost. There are many different methods for test case prioritization, test case prioritization method based on test case execution history is one kind of them. Based on the test case execution history, it’s easier to increase the rate of fault detection, hence we want to do a study about test case prioritization methods based on the test case execution history. Meanwhile, executing the feasible methods to compare the effectiveness of them. For the motivation of the thesis may be regarded as an example for experiencing approach for comparing test case prioritizations based on test case execution history, or as a study case for identifying the suitable methods to use and help improve the effectiveness of the testing process.

    Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to look for a suitable test case prioritization method that can support risk based testing, in which test case execution history is employed as the key criterion of evaluation. For this research, there are three main objectives. First, explore and summarize methods of test case prioritization based on test case history. Next, identify what are differences among the test case prioritization methods. Finally, execute the methods which we selected, and compare the effectiveness of methods.

    Methods: To achieve the first and the second study objectives, a systematic literature review has been conducted using Kitchenham guidelines. To achieve the third study objective, an experiment was conducted following Wohlin guidelines.

    Results: In our thesis: 1) We conducted a systematic literature review and selected 15 relevant literatures. We extracted data of the literatures and then we synthesized the data. We found that the methods have different kinds of inputs, test levels, maturity levels, validation and "automated testing or manual testing". 2) We selected two feasible methods from those 15 literatures, Method 1 is Adaptive test-case prioritization and Method 2 is Similarity-based test quality metric. We executed the methods within 17 test suites. Comparing the result of two methods and non-prioritization, the mean Average Percentage of Defects Found (APFD) of Adaptive test-case prioritization execution result (86.9%) is significantly higher than non-prioritization (51.5%) and Similarity-based test quality metric (47.5%), it means that the Adaptive test-case prioritization has higher effectiveness.

    Conclusion: In our thesis, existing test case prioritization methods based on test case execution history are extracted and listed out through systematic literature review. The summary of them and the description of differences can be available in the thesis. The 15 relevant literatures and the synthesized data may be as a guideline for relevant software researchers or testers. We did the statistical test for the experimental result, we can see two different test case prioritization methods have different effectiveness.

  • 583.
    Yiran, Zhou
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Yilei, Liu
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The Challenges and Mitigation Strategies of Using DevOps during Software Development2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 584.
    Zhang, Guangyu
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Product Manager view on Practical Assumption Management Lifecycle about System Use2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In practice, software projects frequently fail in many fields, which causes the huge loss for the human being. Assumption faults are recognized as a main reason for the software project failures. As the world is changing fast, environment assumptions of software can be easily wrong. The daily assumption-related activities show not enough effectiveness and efficiency to deal with assumption faults. For example, no documenting of key assumptions, inappropriate assumption validation, lack of knowledge. In research, there is no empirical research about assumption management practice. Two assumption management frameworks were outlined. They both support the assumption formulation and assumption management. The formal assumption management framework provides an assumption-component mapping function to analyze assumption failures.

    Objectives. Our goal is figuring out how development team members handle environment assumptions today in practice and how they might handle them better tomorrow. To be specific, I test the applicability of the so far theoretical assumption management frameworks and investigate the assumption type, assumption formulation and assumption management in practical software development

    Methods. An interview-based survey was implemented with 6 product managers from Chinese software companies. They have rich experiences on assumption management and software development. I used directed content analysis to analyze the qualitative data. The result of the research is intended to be a static validation of the assumption management frameworks.

    Results. Interviewees consider that the assumption-component mapping function of the formal assumption management framework is useful in making decisions and analyzing the problems. However, using these frameworks takes too much effort. The functions of frameworks are covered by the development team members and the existing tools. Assumptions tend to be discovered when they frequently change and are important to the requirements. The main assumption types are user habit assumptions and quality attribute assumptions, which are both requirement assumptions. The user habit assumptions consist of name, description and value, while the quality attribute assumption formulation is name and value. The major assumption treatment activities are figuring out the value of assumptions, assumption monitoring, assumption validation and handling assumption failures. Assumption failures result in the loss of users and benefits. Assumption failures are always caused by the poor ability and experience of development team members.

    Conclusion. I create an assumption management model based on my result, and find out the advantages and disadvantages of the formal assumption management framework and semi-formal assumption management framework. The research could help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of assumption management practice. Also. The research can be treated as the starting point to study assumption management practice deeper.

  • 585.
    Zhang, Jianhao
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Chen, Xuxiao
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Software Evolvability Measurement Framework during an Open Source Software Evolution2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software evolution comes with the increasing growth of software applications both in size and complexity. Unlike the software maintenance, software evolution addresses more on the adaption of the new fast-changing requirements. Then the term of “software evolvability” comes with its importance for evaluating the evolution status of the software. However, it is not clearly identified especially in the context of open source software (OSS). Besides the most studies are about the description of software evolvability as a quality attribute, and very few research have done on the measurement of software evolvability during the software evolution process.

    Objectives In this study we perform an in-depth investigation on identification of the OSS evolvability, and figure out the appropriate metrics used for measuring the OSS evolvability. Based on that we finally proposed the open source software evolvability measurement framework (OSEM) which could be used for measuring the software evolvability generally in an OSS context.

    Methods: At first, we conducted a literature review by combining backward snowballing search with systematic database search. Two research questions which are RQ1 and RQ2 are proposed for helping us to retrieve the key information for building the needed framework. Then we performed a case study on VLC media player (an OSS project) to validate the processes of the proposed framework.

    Results: Based on literature we could explicitly identify the OSS evolvability, and figure out the differences of software evolvability addressed in OSS context and non OSS context (e.g, the traceability refers to documentation in non OSS context, however in OSS context it refers to the release version of OSS project). Besides we also fulfill the evolvability measuring method by addressing the process of prioritization of evolvability sub-characteristics. In the end we implement the OSEM framework on VLC media player and get the well documented results which are clearly presented and easy to understand. Such results could be taken by the VLC developers as an input for the design and development of the VLC.

    Conclusions: We conclude that the open source software measurement framework (OSEM) is applicable, based on the time we spent on the case of VLC media player it is quite fast and efficient to use such framework. The results from the conduction of this framework are documented well and very clear for OSS users/developers to follow.

  • 586.
    Zhang, Yanpeng
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Zhou, Ce
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Introducing Domain Specific Language for Modeling Scrum Projects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. A clear software process definition is important because it can help developers to share a common understanding and improve the development effectiveness. However, if the misconceptions or misunderstandings are introduced to the team during the process definition, it will bring numerous uncertain problems to the projects and reduce the productivity. Scrum is one of the most popular Agile development processes. It has been frequently used in software development. But the misunderstanding of usage of the Scrum method always leads to situations where teams cannot achieve the hyper-productivity even failure. Therefore, introducing a reasonable graphical language for describing the Scrum process may help learners to gain a correct and common understanding of the Scrum method.

    Objectives. In this study, we introduce a graphical Domain Specific Language for modeling the Scrum process and specific Scrum projects. Further, we evaluated the proposed language to figure out if and how this language can help developers learn Scrum method and understand the specific Scrum projects. For the first, we decide to extract the essential elements and their relative relationships of the Scrum process, and based on that, we define and specify the graphical language. After that, we evaluate the proposed graphical language to validate whether this language can be considered as useful to help developers to learn Scrum method and understand the specific Scrum projects.

    Methods. In order to define the graphical language, we studied and reviewed the literature to extract the essential elements and their relationships for describing the Scrum process. Based on that, we defined and specified the graphical DSL. With the aim of evaluating the proposed graphical language, we performed the experiment and survey method. This experiment was conducted in an educational environment. The subjects were selected from the undergraduate and master students. At the same time, we carried out a survey to capture the developers‘ opinions and suggestions towards the proposed language in order to validate its feasibility.

    Results. By studying the literature, we listed and specified the essential elements for describing the Scrum process. By executing the experiment, we evaluated the efficiency and effectiveness of learning Scrum in using the proposed language and the natural language. The result indicates that the graphical language is better than the natural language in training Scrum method and understanding specific Scrum projects. The result shows that the proposed language improved the understandability of the Scrum process and specific Scrum projects by more than 30%.

    We also performed a survey to investigate the potential use of the proposed graphical DSL in industry. The Survey results show that participants think the proposed graphical language can help them to better understand the Scrum method and specific Scrum projects. Moreover, we noticed that the developers who have less Scrum development experience show more interests in this proposed graphical language.

    Conclusions. To conclude, the obtained results of this study indicate that a graphical DSL can improve the understandability of Scrum method and specific Scrum projects. Especially in managing the specific Scrum project, subjects can easily understand and capture the detailed information of the project described in the proposed language. This study also specified the merits and demerits of using the graphical language and textual language in describing the Scrum process.

    From the survey, the result indicates that the proposed graphical language is able to help developers to understand Scrum method and specific Scrum projects in industry. Participants of this survey show positive opinion toward the proposed graphical language. However, it is still a rather long way to applying such a graphical language in Scrum projects development because companies have to consider the extra learning effort of the graphical DSL. 

  • 587.
    Zhao, Chengqian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Impact of National Culture Dimensions on Scrum Implementations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Scrum is one of the most common used Agile method. It is based on empiricism. Scrum only provides a framework but the detailed implementations in practice are very different. and the environment has a big influence on it. National culture is proven to have an impact on Agile methodology. The implementation of Scrum practices should be influenced by national culture as well. Objectives. This paper reveals the relationship between national culture and Scrum implementation. It explores in which aspects that national culture has an influence on the implementation of Scrum practices and how the different national culture dimensions affect the implementations. Methods. A literature review is used to build a theoretical framework. This framework includes the potential relationships between national culture and Scrum practices, which are our hypotheses. Afterward, interview is used in a company that has Scrum teams in both Sweden and China. Their implementations of Scrum practices are interviewed and analyzed based on our hypotheses. Results. A framework of deducted relationship between Hofstede’s national culture dimensions and Scrum practices is built. National culture is found to have an influence on the implementations of five Scrum practices. Conclusions. National culture is found to have an influence on Scrum implementations. National culture through power distance dimension has the most impact on implementations of no title practice, manage burn down chart practice and no interference practice. National culture differences in the aspect of individualism dimension also affect the practice like no title in teams. Uncertainty avoidance degree in different nations also has the most impact on Scrum implementation such as using burn down chart practice and time-boxed dimensions. Moreover, influence from national culture in China makes the Scrum implementations more consistency than the influence from national culture in Sweden.

  • 588.
    Zhou, Yuan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gao, Jian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Smart Elicitation of User Feedback in Mobile Applications2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Nowadays, mobile applications and services have occupied an essential part in our daily life. We use them to fulfill our needs for communication, news, or entertainment. Within a fierce competitive market, mobile applications need continually improvement through collections of user feedback to satisfy users’ needs. However, in mobile applications, lack of a comprehensive consideration in designing feedback mechanism makes it difficult to efficiently collect user feedback. It shows only approximate one third online user reviews that contain helpful information for improvement. In addition, users may be disturbed by feedback request, result in rejecting to provide feedback.

    Objectives. This study aims to provide a comprehensive consideration for elicitation of user feedback in mobile applications.

    Methods. This study followed a mixed qualitative-quantitative research approach. Firstly, we conducted an experiment and a semi-structured interview to investigate how do users provide feedback when they are using a mobile application. Then a content analysis and a statistical analysis were conducted for analyzing collected data.   

    Results. Users’ preference of feedback approaches and the encouraging/discouraging factors for users to provide feedback were identified. We also assessed user-perceived suitable timings for interruption of feedback request.

    Conclusions. The result shows, generally, users prefer to provide feedback when asked by feedback request. Three encouraging factors and Three discouraging factors are identified. The beginning of mobile application execution is perceived as best moment for interruption of feedback request. In addition, this study also provides a three-time-dimensions approach for researching disturbances caused by interruption of feedback request as well as other peripheral information.

  • 589.
    Zúñiga-Prieto, Miguel
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, ESP.
    González-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Insfran, Emilio
    Universitat Politècnica de València, ESP.
    Abrahão, Silvia
    Universitat Politècnica de València, ESP.
    Dynamic reconfiguration of cloud application architectures2018Inngår i: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 327-344, artikkel-id Special Issue: SIArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-based cloud applications are software systems that continuously evolve to satisfy new user requirements and technological changes. This kind of applications also require elasticity, scalability, and high availability, which means that deployment of new functionalities or architectural adaptations to fulfill service level agreements (SLAs) should be performed while the application is in execution. Dynamic architectural reconfiguration is essential to minimize system disruptions while new or modified services are being integrated into existing cloud applications. Thus, cloud applications should be developed following principles that support dynamic reconfiguration of services, and also tools to automate these reconfigurations at runtime are needed. This paper presents an extension of a model-driven method for dynamic and incremental architecture reconfiguration of cloud services that allows developers to specify new services as software increments, and the tool to generate the implementation code for the services integration logic and the deployment and architectural reconfiguration scripts specific to the cloud environment in which the service will be deployed (e.g., Microsoft Azure). We also report the results of a quasi-experiment that empirically validate our method. It was conducted to evaluate their perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived intention to use. The results show that the participants perceive the method to be useful, and they also expressed their intention to use the method in the future. Although further experiments must be carried out to corroborate these results, the method has proven to be a promising architectural reconfiguration process for cloud applications in the context of agile and incremental development processes.

  • 590.
    Åbom, Karl
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Comparison of effectiveness in using 3D-audio and visual aids in identifying objects in a three-dimensional environment2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Modern commercial computer games use a number of different stimuli to assist players in locating key objects in the presented Virtual Environment (VE). These stimuli range from visual to auditory, and are employed in VEs depending on several factors such as gameplay design and aesthetics. Objectives: This study compares three different localization aids in order to evaluate their effectiveness in VEs. Method: An experiment is carried out in which testplayers are tasked with using audio signals, visual input, as well as a combination of both to correctly identify objects in a virtual scene. Results: Results gained from the experiment show how long testplayers spent on tests which made use of different stimuli. Upon analyzing the data, it was found that that audio stimulus was the slowest localization aid, and that visual stimulus and the combination of visual and auditory stimulus were tied for the fastest localization aid. Conclusions: The study concludes that there is a significant difference in efficiency among different localization aids and VEs of varied visual complexity, under the condition that the testplayer is familiar with each stimuli.

  • 591.
    Åkesson, Anders
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lewenhagen, Kenneth
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Node.js in Open Source projects on Github: A literature study and exploratory case study2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been performed with an aim to provide an insight into how Node.js is used and the Node.js technology adaptation in the open source community. This research displays the diversity of Node.js and can inspire the reader to further development or continued research.

    Studies into different usages of Node.js have been missing in academic research and therefore this study gives a new, important insight into this technology.

    The authors used the exploratory case study methodology. For data collection, the authors created a JQuery and HTML script that fetched the desired dataset from Github and that were used as a static base for the study. Based on the usage areas extracted from the literature study, the authors specified different categories of usage. The dataset was manually investigated and placed into the categories, if they were relevant.

    The results show that web applications is by far the most well represented category with over 50% of all usages falling into this category. Network applications and Web servers come in at second and third position with 14% and 13% respectively.

    This study provided further categories and the authors could generate a set of diagrams, showing a trend on how the different usage areas changed from 2010 to 2015.

  • 592.
    Ölund, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Karlsson, Jonatan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Investigation of the key features in ECMAScript 20152016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis looks and investigates the developers knowledge about JavaScript and more specifically ECMAScript 2015. JavaScript is a very popular programming language and can be used to create web applications, desktop applications and even fully functional SQL-databases. When the interest for JavaScript in general rises it becomes more and more important to really know that the community implements and adapts to what is specified by the ECMA committee, since they have members from different very large companies around the world i.e Microsoft and Google. This research displays the immense update of ECMAScript will inspire the reader to further his knowledge of ECMAScript 2015 and what the features are of it.

    We are doing this by conducting a survey amongst developers that are currently studying in the field or are working in the field to get a grip on how the knowledge is regarding the most common ECMAScript 2015 features. What we saw was that the result are very positive about ECMAScript 2015 and the new features helps solving actual problems that the community are facing. We also found that some of the features may enhance the readability and maintainability though some may not enhance it.    

  • 593.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Distributed Project Management2014Inngår i: Software Project Management in a Changing World / [ed] Ruhe, Guenther; Wohlin, Claes, Springer , 2014, s. 301-320Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 594.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Van Solingen, Rini
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Calculating the extra costs and the bottom-line hourly cost of offshoring2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 96-105Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring software development activities to a remote site in another country continues to be one of the key strategies to save development cost. However, the assumed economic benefits of offshoring are often questionable, due to a large number of hidden costs and too simple cost calculations. This study is a continuation of our work on calculating the true hourly cost that includes the extra direct and indirect costs on top of the salary-based hourly rates. We collected data from an empirical case study conducted in a large international corporation. This corporation develops software-intensive systems and has offshored its ongoing product development from Sweden to a recently on-boarded captive company site in India. In this paper, we report a number of extra costs and their impact on the resulting hourly cost as well as the bottom-line cost per work unit. Our analysis includes quantitative data from corporate archives, and expert-based estimates gathered through focus groups and workshops with company representatives from both the onshore and the offshore sites. Our findings show that there is additional cost that can be directly or at least strongly attributed to the transfer of work, working on a distance, and immaturity of the offshore site. Consideration of extra costs increases the hourly cost several times, while the performance gaps between the mature sites and the immature site leads to an even higher difference. As a result, two years after on-boarding of the offshore teams, the mature teams in high-cost locations continue to be 'cheaper' despite the big salary differences, and the most positive hypothetical scenario, in which the company could break even, is unrealistic. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, offshoring of complex ongoing products does not seem to lead to short-term bottom-line economic gains, and may not even reach breakeven within five years. Second, offshoring in the studied case can be justified but merely when initiated for other reasons than cost. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 595.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Calefato, Fabio
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cost Savings in Global Software Engineering Where's the Evidence?2015Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 26-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 596.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kuhrmann, Marco
    Keil, Patrick
    Virtual Teams: Guest Editor’s Introduction2014Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 41-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 597.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nills Brede
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šablis, Aivars
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development2017Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, nr JUN, s. 71-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large software development projects involve multiple interconnected teams, often spread around the world, developing complex products for a growing number of customers and users. Succeeding with large-scale software development requires access to an enormous amount of knowledge and skills. Since neither individuals nor teams can possibly possess all the needed expertise, the resource availability in a team's knowledge network, also known as social capital, and effective knowledge coordination become paramount. Objective: In this paper, we explore the role of social capital in terms of knowledge networks and networking behavior in large-scale software development projects. Method: We conducted a multi-case study in two organizations, Ericsson and ABB, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized focus groups with ten software teams and surveyed 61 members from these teams to characterize and visualize the teams' knowledge networks. To complement the team perspective, we conducted individual interviews with representatives of supporting and coordination roles. Based on survey data, data obtained from focus groups, and individual interviews, we compared the different network characteristics and mechanisms that support knowledge networks. We used social network analysis to construct the team networks, thematic coding to identify network characteristics and context factors, and tabular summaries to identify the trends. Results: Our findings indicate that social capital and networking are essential for both novice and mature teams when solving complex, unfamiliar, or interdependent tasks. Network size and networking behavior depend on company experience, employee turnover, team culture, need for networking, and organizational support. A number of mechanisms can support the development of knowledge networks and social capital, for example, introduction of formal technical experts, facilitation of communities of practice and adequate communication infrastructure. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of social capital and knowledge networks. Therefore, we suggest that, along with investments into training programs, software companies should also cultivate a networking culture to strengthen their social capital, a known driver of better performance.

  • 598.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    SINTEF, Trondheim, NOR.
    Levinta, Georgiana
    Spotify, SWE.
    Floryan, Marcin
    Spotify, SWE.
    Spotify Guilds: How to Succeed With Knowledge Sharing in Large-Scale Agile Organizations2019Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 51-57, artikkel-id 8648260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The new generation of software companies has revolutionized the way companies are designed. While bottom-up governance and team autonomy improve motivation, performance, and innovation, managing agile development at scale is a challenge. We describe how Spotify cultivates guilds to help the company share knowledge, align, and make collective decisions.

  • 599.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wigander, Jonas
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Esser, Hendrik
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Corporate-level communities at ericsson: Parallel organizational structure for fostering alignment for autonomy2019Inngår i: Lect. Notes Bus. Inf. Process., Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 355, s. 173-188Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational management traditionally has taken care of all the important strategy, structure, and work-design decisions, as well as most of the ongoing decisions about work procedures. In large-scale corporations with many geographically distributed sites and high divisional detachment, such strategies are yet doomed to result in implementing irrelevant work methods and procedures that conflict with the local interests. As Tayloristic habits are disappearing, organizations willingly or unwillingly change their decision-making approaches to enable more participation and influence from the performers. These trends are associated with the rise of participation-based parallel structures, such as quality circles, task forces or communities of practice. In this paper, we present our findings from studying corporate-level communities by the means of a multi-case study at Ericsson. We found that the main hindrances are related to the limited decision-making authority of parallel structure, member selection and achieving representation across the organizational units. Our results suggest that parallel structures highly depend on the authority of the members within their local communities, and their ability to not only channel the dialog between the units they represent and the community, but also enable the active engagement of the unit in the community studies. As such, we believe that special attention shall be put on the ambassador role of the community members. © The Author(s) 2019.

  • 600.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nils
    SINTEF, NOR.
    Krekling, Thomas
    Buskerud Fylkeskommune, NOR.
    Stray, Viktoria
    Universitetet i Oslo, NOR.
    Offshore Outsourcing Costs: Known or Still Hidden?2019Inngår i: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 40-47, artikkel-id 8807622Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore outsourcing of software development has been both famous for the promises of great cost reductions, and infamous for the hidden costs associated with the challenges of organizing software work over distance. Experience shows that many of these costs do not receive the deserved attention and are often excluded when making offshoring decisions. As a result, there is often a significant deviation between the expected and the realized costs of offshoring. In this paper, we investigate the awareness of the extra costs when making an offshoring decision, and the significance of the actual cost deviations. We conducted a single case study of a company that carried out an offshore outsourcing pilot project. We collected qualitative data from interviews, observations and a retrospective, and quantitative data on the costs and effort associated with the project. We conclude that the company was aware of the hidden cost factors, but largely underestimated their significance. The costs that surfaced in the studied project accounted for a total deviation of 181% and several individual cost categories with more than 400% overrun. The two main cost drivers in our study were the distance and poor process fit, which escalated the investments needed to make the collaboration work. Our results suggest that pilots are useful to understand the key problem areas in an offshoring collaboration, but too limited to shed light on all potential problems (e.g. turnover) due to the short timeframe. We also conclude that results of pilot projects shall not be the only data source when calculating the true costs of offshoring, since the start-up phase of an offshoring relationship carries large investments. Finally, we provide recommendations for companies in a similar situation on how to run and learn from offshore outsourcing pilot projects. © 2019 IEEE.

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