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  • 751.
    Watz, Matilda
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Utilizing requirements to support sustainable product development: Introductory approaches for strategic sustainability integration2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The attention to sustainability impacts arising during the lifecycle of products is growing as industry wants to increase its contribution to a sustainable society. To do so, companies must find ways to navigate the complexity of the needs within the socio-ecological system in which they operate. In engineering design projects, the interpretation of needs into requirements is essential, as they represent the collective understanding of the design problem to be solved. Ideally, requirements are possible to verify and validate, which makes it challenging for industry to integrate socio-ecological considerations, often based on qualitative models, into requirements. Sustainability then tends not to be prioritized in trade-offs with traditionally identified requirements for engineering design.

    A qualitative research approach within design research methodology framed a sequence of studies guided by the research question ‘How can requirements be utilized to support Sustainable Product Development?’ First, a research gap was identified from a literature review which indicated a lack of socio-ecological systems contextualization in the identification, as well as the traceability of sustainability criteria to integrate into requirements. Secondly, a conceptual model was established for how management of requirements can be improved to facilitate traceability, as well as how contextual socio-ecological systems perspective can be introduced in the selection, of sustainability criteria for engineering design projects. For this purpose, the results from a multiple-case study based on semi-structured interviews with seven design and manufacturing companies was triangulated with findings of an in-depth literature analysis. Five key elements of management of sustainability in requirements were proposed in a profile model corresponding to different levels of sustainability maturity. A third study explored, based on literature and prototype causal loop diagramming, the potential of a group model building approach to enhance contextual understanding of strategically identified, i.e., company-tailored, sustainability criteria in relation to traditional requirements in early phases of the product innovation process. A final study investigated how a strategic sustainability perspective can be integrated with engineering design methods and value modelling to create a decision support for concept selection.

    The studies together indicate that key constituents of good requirements, traceability and systems contextualization, can be achieved also for socio-ecological sustainability considerations. This requires organizational commitment and will be reflected in the design of the operational management system for their product innovation process. Following the proposed five key elements of sustainability integration in requirements, a company is expected to increase the organizational sustainability maturity, and hence its capability to contribute to a sustainability transition. This research also shows that there is a gap in current methods and tools for enhanced socio-ecological systems contextualization. The two last studies of this thesis give promising approaches of tools and methods to be further developed and analyzed, namely group model building, system analysis and value modelling.

  • 752.
    Weddig, Erik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Bärare av mat: Arbetsfördelning och könsskillnader i restaurangbranschen utifrån ett genusperspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The distribution of work related tasks depending on gender leads to different appraisal depending on which gender is performing a task. This aim of this research is to study how gender differences influence task allocation within the restaurant industry. The study is inspired by a discourse analysis perspective complemented by constructivist and critical pragmatic theory. Interviews were conducted in two focus groups with seven participants in total. The analysis is divided into four sections which answer six discourse analytical questions using the interview material. The data is interpreted using gender theories as well as theories of masculinity and femininity. The study shows that conceptions of ability based on one's biological sex initially determine the distribution of tasks between men and women. Power, status and appreciation are unequally distributed qualities among tasks as well as gender in the restaurant industry. Fördelningen av arbetsuppgifter efter kön leder till att arbete värderas olika beroende på vilket kön personen har som utför arbetet. Syftet är att med diskursanalytisk metodansats studera könsskillnader och hur dessa påverkar arbetsfördelningen i restaurangbranschen. Studien är inspirerad av ett diskursanalytiskt perspektiv med konstruktivistiska och pragmatiska inslag. Jag genomförde intervjuer i två fokusgrupper med sammanlagt sju personer. Analysen är uppdelad i fyra delar och jag besvarar sex diskursanalytiska frågor utifrån intervjutextens innehåll. Tolkningen av datamaterialet sker utifrån genusteorier samt maskulinitets- och femininitetsteori. Studien visar att föreställningen om könets förmåga och vilja initialt bestämmer arbetsfördelningen mellan män och kvinnor. Makt och status är olika fördelat – allt beroende på arbetsfördelningen mellan män och kvinnor.

  • 753.
    Westlund, Josefine
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Att vara fritidspedagog är inte alltid lätt. En undersökning om fritidspedagogers ohälsa som handlar om stress och utbrändhet s2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stress och utbrändhet har blivit allt mer vanligt i vår vardag och en stor bidragande faktor är arbetet. Flertal studier visar att arbetet är högt relaterat till stress och utbrändhet, specifikt i läraryrket. Dock har yrket fritidspedagoger glömts i dagens undersökningar vilket föreliggande studie anser som ett problemområde. Intentionen med undersökningen är därför att få en förståelse för ohälsa, som handlar om stress och utbrändhet bland fritidspedagoger. Studien grundas på en kvalitativ metod, som har utgått från sex semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultatet har visat att fritidspedagogerna dagligen möter stress på grund av dess mångfacetterade arbetsuppgifter vilket har påverkat fritidspedagogerna hälsa negativt, såväl psykisk och fysiskt. Vidare visades det att fyra av sex fritidspedagoger har varit utbrända, samtidigt som det fanns en rädsla bland fritidspedagogerna att bli utbrända inom snar framtid.

  • 754. Westman, Ida
    A Nordic case for Social Entrepreneurship: a narrated analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study centers on an exploration of the similarities and differences between social enterprises, commercial enterprises and public sector teams that operate within the same market. The study seeks to contribute to the establishment of social entrepreneurship theory by furthering knowledge of the boundaries of social entrepreneurship. The contextual influence on the development of social entrepreneurship theory is becoming increasingly well understood. As such, different theoretical streams are accounted for and systematically structured into a model containing four contextually anchored approaches, two American and two European, which compares their structures according to eight characteristics. It is on the basis of this model that three cases, one social enterprise, one commercial enterprise and one public sector team all operating towards work integration activities and placements for the long term unemployed are presented and analyzed from two perspectives: one focusing on how they compare to the characteristics and the other on how they compare to the approaches in their entirety. It shows how there are many similarities between the three cases that are lost when compared to each approach. Furthermore, the analysis discovered a limitation within existing social entrepreneurship models, as none of the models turned out to be fully applicable in a Swedish context. Therefore, this study proposes a tentative model for a Nordic approach, rooted in the specific socioeconomic and institutional context of the Nordic states. 

  • 755.
    Wetherell, Sarah
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES VIA IN-HOUSE NETWORKS2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research project was to seek greater understanding of how competence development processes may be developed through in-house workplace networks. The problem faced was that within the realms of competence development in networks there was an abundance of information both scientific and general regarding interactive, internet based social networks as learning communities. However scientific knowledge regarding competence development processes within in-house workplace networks seemed few and far between resulting in a knowledge gap. A hermeneutic approach was thus followed with aim to seek answers to the question “what are the experienced conditions of in-house networks (limitations and support) with regards to worker competence development processes”? Empirical findings revealed that processes surrounding the in-house network structure, organisational aims effecting the networks, social participation and individual inner processes were all experienced as conditions of in-house networks. Interpretation concluded that involvement, practice and reflection processes which are structured into in-house networks encourage competence development on individual, group and organisation levels.

  • 756. Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Rydhagen, Birgitta
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Adaptation Spinoffs from Technological and Socio-economic Changes2015In: Climate Change Adaptation and Development: Transforming Paradigms and Practices / [ed] Inderberg, Tor Håkon; Eriksen, Siri; O'Brien, Karen; Sygna, Linda, London, New York: Routledge , 2015, p. 161-177Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that societal change related to economic growth and development policies can affect the adaptive capacity of communities to a multitude of stressors including climate variability and change. Concerns have recently been raised about the consequences of climate mitigation and adaptation on vulnerable groups and the impacts of large-scale globalization processes on the adaptive capacities of local communities. This chapter addresses how side effects of technological and socioeconomic changes, which we refer to as spinoffs have potential to strengthen climate adaptation strategies. The spinoff examples fall under a two-dimensional framework according to whether they arise from orchestrated or opportunity-driven initiatives and technological or socio-economic changes. Three cases in developing countries undergoing rapid economic growth have been chosen as examples of different types of spinoffs and how they can positively influence climate adaptation and more particularly adaptive capacity. They are: information and communication technology (ICT) in South Africa, changing lifestyles in China and empowerment in India. The cases illustrate that new objects, inventions and trends constantly emerge which have potential to help people improve their livelihoods in ways that can be climate smart. People working as development workers and policy makers need to be observant and engage in open-minded dialogue with communities in order to recognize emergent technologies, lifestyles and trends to facilitate the use and development of on-going or potential spinoffs that positively affect adaptation to climate change.

  • 757.
    Winterfell, Christina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    MEDARBETARSAMTAL UR MEDARBETARENS PERSPEKTIV2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Medarbetarsamtal har sina rötter från 1800-talet och används idag ute i organisationerna som ett verktyg för att dels påverka både medarbetarnas och organisationens utveckling. Jag ville i denna studie undersöka medarbetarsamtal vidare genom medarbetarperspektiv. Studiens syfte var att undersöka och belysa upplevelsen och betydelsen av medarbetarsamtal hos medarbetare. Jag vill i denna studie tolka och förstå mina intervjuade informanter och valde därför i denna studie den hermeneutiska forskningsinriktningen. För att uppnå syftet har 6 kvalitativa intervjuer med semistrukturerad guide använts. Resultatet i studien indikerar att medarbetarsamtal ses som positivt för medarbetarna, men att de vidare kände att de inte fick något vidare gehör och respons för deras motivation och utveckling inom företaget i den grad de önskar.

  • 758.
    Zalar, Moa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Gruppdynamik i manliga idrottslag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine male sports teams and to increase our knowledge of the construction of group dynamic and effects on the team end its individuals. The method used is (3) semi-structured interviews as well as observations. The findings show that the group dynamic is a very important part of sport teams. The existing atmosphere is based on established traditions regarding how men should behave and on the role composition of the team. This, in turn, creates a special tone and communication within the team that promotes the we-feeling and community bond. The conclusion is that the group dynamic is central for functioning sports team and provides a security, a feeling of fitting in and of belonging. However, there is a need to be open to differences within team sports such as sexual orientation and the like.

  • 759.
    Zawadzki, Claudia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Bemötande hur vårdgivare upplever att de lär genom omsorgsarbetet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bemötande är ett ämnesområde som är väldigt centralt för omsorgen av äldre. Det är en företeelse som sker då vårdgivare och vårdtagare möter varandra. En viktig aspekt som bör belysas är utveckling av bemötande. Att ta reda på hur vårdgivaren upplever att den utvecklar sitt bemötande kan belysa på vilka sätt ett bemötande kan utvecklas och förbättras. Syftet med studien är att undersöka vårdgivares upplevelse av hur de utvecklar bemötandet och lär att bemötandet utgör påverkan på vårdtagares hälsofrämjande i omsorgsarbetet. Analysen och tolkningen gjordes utifrån åtta intervjuer där alla respondenterna hade erfarenhet av yrket. Tolkningen skedde med hjälp av hermeneutisk ansats för att få en djupare förståelse för svaren. Resultatet av studien visade att vårdgivaren upplevde att denne lär sig genom att bemöta varje unik individ samt anpassa sig efter varje situation och erfara varje unikt möte med vårdtagaren. Lärandet skedde även genom att kommunicera med vårdtagare i mötet men även med arbetskamrater som bidrog till lärande och därmed bemötandeutveckling, vårdgivaren lärde sig även att bemötandet påverkar vårdtagarens hälsofrämjande genom att vårdtagaren aktivt visade det genom sin kommunikation.

  • 760.
    Zhang, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Chen, Xi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Value-Driven Needfinding for Early Product: Service System Development. A Study Collaborates with Volvo Construction Equipments in Chinese Market2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many literatures have shown that needs last longer than any specific solutions, so understanding of customer needs seems a crucial factor in early Product-Service System (PSS) development. Nowadays, many western companies, especially manufacturing focused companies, have realized the difficulty of understanding market needs. In this thesis, a new Value-Driven Needfinding methodology for manufacturing company to apply in certain markets was investigated. To further demonstrate the implementation of the proposed methodology, a case study involving Volvo Construction Equipment exploring value-orient needs in Chinese market is showed. At the end, by providing the scenarios comparison, a PSS conceptual design will be illustrated to show the utilization of the customer needs, then opportunities for company future provision towards sustainability based on early PSS development will be discussed.

  • 761.
    Zhao, Jingjing
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    zheng, Wenbo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    The Trend of Emission Reduction is Inevitable:Is It an Opportunity or Challenge for Chinese Private Automotive Enterprises?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of economy, human concern more and more about environment protection and sustainability, especially the automotive industry, all the enterprises have been aware of that they will have no future if they cannot improve the technology of emission reduction or solve it by developing alternative energy. China has attracted lots of attention due to the rapid economy development. However, automotive industry in China, in particular, Chinese private enterprises only has short history. At present, China has been the first vehicles production country, but just for manufacture. Chinese private auto enterprises are also playing an important role in this process. What will they do after being a "Manufacture King"? In this thesis, we take BYD as a case study, use PEST, Five-forces, SWOT to analyse the factors those can affect the development of Chinese private automotive industry, besides, we also give some possible suggestions for them according to the analysis.

  • 762.
    Zidane, Chaima
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Den socialt blandade staden: En studie om blandstad och blandat boende som medel mot segregation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker vilka visioner Göteborg kommun har med blandstad och blandade boendeformer som medel mot segregation på översiktlig- och detaljnivå. Detta sker genom undersökningen av Göteborg kommuns gällande översiktsplan från 2009 och tre detaljplaner från Göteborg kommun. Undersökningen baseras på en innehållsanalys som genomförs utifrån studiens frågeställningar. Studien visar att det finns en skillnad mellan kommunens ambitioner på översiktlig nivå och deras avsikter på detaljnivå. Studiens resultat visade även att rådande maktstrukturer påverkar bostadsmarknaden och den kommunala fysiska planeringen i Göteborg kommun.

  • 763.
    Åberg, Charlotte
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Business Administration and Social Science.
    Bedöms attraktiva röster tillhöra attraktiva ansikten?2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien avsåg att undersöka om mer attraktiva röster bedöms tillhöra mer attraktiva ansikten. Både manliga och kvinnliga deltagare gjorde attraktionsbedömningar av fyra manliga och fyra kvinnliga röster samt fyra manliga och fyra kvinnliga ansikten. Deltagarna bedömde sedan vilka röster som tillhörde vilka ansikten. Resultatet av undersökningen visade att männen och kvinnorna var överens om vilka röster och ansikten som var mer attraktiva och vilka som var mindre attraktiva. Rösternas attraktionsbedömningar korrelerade positivt med ansiktenas attraktionsbedömningar vilket tyder på att människor till viss del bedömer att mer attraktiva röster tillhör mer attraktiva ansikten.

  • 764.
    Åhl, Sara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Karlsson, Sabina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Chefers arbetstillfredsställelse i äldreomsorgen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att kartlägga arbetstillfredsställelsen hos chefer i svensk äldreomsorg samt undersöka om det fanns några skillnader mellan chefer i privat och offentlig verksamhet. En rikstäckande webbenkätundersökning (N=104) genomfördes. Denna genererade både kvantitativ och kvalitativ data. Cheferna som sammantagen grupp visar på en förhållandevis hög arbetstillfredsställelse. Resultatet visade dock att det fanns signifikanta skillnader mellan privata och offentliga chefer vad gäller arbetstillfredsställelse. En högre grad av arbetstillfredsställelse kunde utläsas bland cheferna inom den privata sektorn. Utav totalt nio variabler kopplade till arbetstillfredsställelse, var det endast tre som inte påvisade signifikanta skillnader mellan sektorerna. Dessutom var det fyra av totalt åtta variabler tillhörande hygienfaktorer som uppvisade signifikant skillnad mellan sektorerna. När det gällde förutsättningar för att känna arbetstillfredsställelse, uttryckte de flesta vikten av att ha förtroende från medarbetare och ledning som det mest betydelsefulla. Eftersom vårt resultat visar på signifikanta skillnader mellan sektorerna föreslår vi ytterligare forskning för att få mer förståelse för detta fenomen. The aim of this study was to measure the job satisfaction of managers in Swedish elderly care, and examine whether there were any differences between managers in the private and public sectors. A nationwide online survey (N=104) was executed. This generated both quantitative and qualitative data. Managers as an overall group seem to be relatively satisfied in their job situations. The results however showed that there were distinct differences between private and public managers in terms of job satisfaction. A higher degree of job satisfaction could be seen among managers in the private sector. Of a total of nine variables related to job satisfaction, only three did not show significant differences between the sectors. Moreover, four out of eight variables related to hygiene-factors did show significant differences between the sectors. Regarding the prerequisites for experiencing job satisfaction, most of the respondents expressed the importance of having confidence from employees and management. Since our results show significant differences between the sectors, we suggest further research to investigate the area more thoroughly.

  • 765.
    Årevall, Agnieszka Janicka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Urban Agriculture: Sustainability Multiplier2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For some years now, the phenomena of urban agriculture have been present in the public discourse on cities and sustainability. It is often assumed that urban agriculture has the potential to contribute to an increased sustainability of the cities. However, many practical and theoretical obstacles might have to be overcome in order to realize this potential. One ambition of this thesis is to analyse urban agriculture as a “sustainability multiplier” – that is, as a practice that can positively affect a large number of dimensions of sustainability. Another ambition is to study how urban agriculture can contribute to lower the “ecological footprint” of our cities. Two concepts are essential in the discussion and have been given special attention in the thesis: “ecological footprint” and “sustainability”.

  • 766.
    Öman, Jennie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Karlsson, Josephine
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Konflikter -En kvantitativ studie om effekter av konflikter och konfliktstrategier på arbetsplatsen.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    A quantitative study was conducted with the aim to investigate whether individuals use a specific conflict strategy when they are in a task conflict or a relationship conflict in their workplace. The study also examined whether individuals experience positive or negative effects of a task conflict or a relationship conflict when a specific conflict strategy have been used. Previous research explains the effects of task conflicts and relationship conflicts at the workplace (De Dreu, 2008) Likewise lifts the effects of the conflict strategies interaction, avoidance, and power and coercion (Hoerr, 2005; Meyer, 2004; Trudel & Reio Jr., 2011). However it does not tie together what the conflicts and conflict strategies have for effects together. This also means that it is impossible to discern if there is a strategy that is frequently used in a specific conflict type. The study group consisted of 62 participants from different workplaces that responded to a survey. The results showed that the participants have experienced positive and / or negative effects when they are in a task conflict or a relationship conflict and use a specific conflict strategy. The authors could not discern whether individuals use a specific conflict strategy when they are in a task conflict or a relationship conflict.

  • 767.
    Öster, John
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    "Stad vid Strömmen – En studie i Norrköping om funktionens betydelse för en hållbar stadsutveckling"2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbete som fokuserar på stadens fysiska strukturer samt stadens funktioner inom ett område i centrala Norrköping. I arbetet redovisas dels en allmänteoretisk beskrivning av begreppen hållbar utveckling, stadens fysiska strukturer och stadens funktion, och därefter en analys av det aktuella planområdet utifrån dessa aspekter. Inledningsvis återges grundläggande historie-, och nutidsbeskrivning av Norrköping samt problembeskrivning för det planområde som uppsatsen avser ge förbättringsförslag för. Uppsatser ger även fördjupad kunskap i såväl allmänteoretiska som platsspecifika ämnen så som hållbar utveckling, stadens fysiska strukturer, stadens funktion samt om medborgardeltagande. Informationen är hämtad hållbar utveckling, stadens fysiska strukturer, stadens funktion samt om medborgardeltagande. Det planförslag som presenteras i arbetet syftar till att itergrera de olika delarna i centrala Norrköping ur planeringssynpunkt samt ge ett tryggare och livligare centrum i Norrköping med ett ökat flöde av folk och där vissa kvarter inte bara passeras förbi obemärkta utan även ger invånarna anledning att stanna till. Planförlaget analyseras därefter utifrån både långsiktiga och kortsiktiga konsekvenser för samtliga olika faktorer som tagits upp tidigare. Här skall man tydligt kunna se hur väl planförslaget uppfyller sitt syfte. Dessutom presenteras en framtidsanalys för hur jag ser på stadens möjligheter att få en fortsatt hållbar stadsutveckling.

  • 768.
    Östling, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Torkaman, Nima
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Leadership education in Sweden 2010 and its connection to current values: an institutional approach2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a comparative study with the purpose of connecting the Swedish leadership education with the current social values. By utilizing a historical as well as a broad theoretical perspective we wish to create a clear understanding of the current market. The study made use of both the quantitative and the qualitative research methodologies through the use of interview. Ten of the most prominent leadership educators in the Swedish business sector were interviewed to gain credible insight as they account for over half of the Swedish leadership education market. Educators were asked questions about the content of their leadership courses, their assessment of social values in the Swedish workplace, connections between the concepts in their leadership courses and Swedish social values, and how these factors influenced their leadership education. The Swedish social values influencing leadership education within the researched companies were stability, justice and equality, participation, and individuality, in congruence with the secondary data collected from extensive research. The awareness of situational-based leadership was very high and the concept was used frequently. In relation to other discussed concepts such as value based leadership and transformational leadership, situational-based leadership is the dominating concept among leadership topics. The stated current values are also very well suited with situational-based leadership. It was noted however, that situational-based leadership and its supporting models and theories aim to create self-motivated people towards self-actualization at work; and such values were seldom expressed in the secondary data describing social values. The most empowering force behind this situation was the requirements directly made by the customer and requirements carrying values of society. The results were also analyzed within an institutional theory context based on the obvious homogeneity in the results. We concluded that there was a strong sense of isomorphism and with such strong patterns in behavior we can accurately state that the field of leadership education is an institutional field. Furthermore, the study depicted a gap within Swedish leadership education, between a pervasive focus on institutional maintenance, and a growing need for flexibility and innovation in the modern international marketplace. Business leaders are struggling to balance self-actualization in the business workplace with their own and subordinate Swedish social values. After three decades the Swedish interpretation of situational-based model is still the most prominent and dominant idea.

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