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  • 951.
    Sammak, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Khader, Eyad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Situation leadership in small growing technical consultations companies in Sweden and Jordan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background Small and medium businesses (SME) are important elements in the strategies of economic growth and improvement. The SME have played a great role in regional and global economic recovery during many years and thus they are very desirable. Small business leaders have to fulfil a wide range of roles and responsibilities however, the most important role being the leader role. Valdiserri (Valdiserri and Wilson, 2010) stated that poor leadership is one of the main failure reasons for small businesses. Furthermore, different countries may have different leadership styles and culture. Aim The purpose of this thesis is to identify the differences between the leadership styles in small technical companies in Sweden, an industrialized country, and Jordan, a developing country Method We adopted the study case method to study the leadership style in small companies. Through pre-defined questionnaire surveys, the leaders of eight small businesses (four companies in Sweden and four in Jordan) were asked to answer multifactor questions. We then studied the answers based on three situational leadership models. The situational methods used in our study were the Fiedler model, the normative model and the SLII model. The answers were then analysed in order to determine the current as well as the appropriate leadership style based on the models. Results In brief, our study identified several examples of different leadership styles in various situations in small companies and presented the most suitable leadership in those situations. The thesis also shed light on differences in small technical company leadership in Sweden and Jordan. The analysis of the case studies of the studied companies showed that the situational leadership methods could be used in small companies. The study concluded that in order to identify the leadership style, more than one model had to be used. In general, the leadership style in the Swedish companies matched the recommended leadership style. The Jordanian companies’ leadership style however did not match the recommended leadership style. The models in our framework also revealed the reasons behind and also proved to be valuable tools in recommending the suitable leadership style for all companies. The used models in our thesis however lacked the appropriate tools to explain the differences between the Swedish and Jordanian companies. The differences are thought to be due to cultural aspects, however, these models does not take in account the cultural aspect nor the size of the companies, an issue pointed out by Gary (Yukl, 2002). Conclusion The situational leadership style model was shown to be fully applicable in our case study as in previous literature. The conducted study suggested that more than one model had to be used in order to identify the suitable leadership style. Interestingly, the models used were clearly applicable in Middle East companies. This was, to our knowledge, the first time these models were used in Middle East countries when studying leadership style. Furthermore, the studied situational leadership style showed a clear difference in leadership between Sweden and Jordan. The models recommended a participative style in the small technical companies both in Sweden and Jordan. However, the current practiced leadership style in the Jordan companies were not exhibiting the recommended leadership style. Interviewing the leaders in the Jordanian companies gave us a hint that this difference could be due to cultural differences. The cultural differences must thus be born in mind when interpreting the data and trying to understand the reasons behind the results when studying these models. The Jordanian companies used more power leadership (telling leadership) than their Swedish counterparts who exhibited a participating leadership. According to (Hofstede, 1991) leadership in Arab culture show higher power distance than in Nordic companies. Our results thus coincide with previous studies. However more studies need to be made in order to draw conclusions on whether this is a common phenomenon in all Jordanian or Middle East companies and our thesis present an interesting pilot study in this regard.

  • 952.
    Sancho Calderón, Diego
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Selection of contract type in construction contracts: Lump-Sum, Target-cost and Cost-plus contracts2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The construction contract is a document which governs the business relationship of Contractor and Employer for the duration of a construction project. However, the selection of the contract type for the project tends to be performed too shallowly. The present thesis aims to analyse how the contract type is chosen among the three paradigmatic contracts considered here: lump-sum contracts, target-cost contracts and cost-plus contracts. The basis of the study is a case study performed on Project X, a large mine construction project in Western Europe. The relevant literature to the subject was reviewed, mainly the principal-agent theory, literature on risk allocation and on contract selection. After identifying several factors which may influence the contract selection in the literature and in a preliminary interview, a survey was conducted to assess their relative influence in general and in particular for the Project X. The survey was responded by a small sample of highly qualified and experienced managers. and was complemented with in-depth interviews with the majority of them. Some research on the project and on contract documents of the NEC standard contract was also performed in order to provide a context of the characteristics of Project X. The findings of the three sources made it possible to confirm the influence on the selection of the contract type of many of the factors proposed. It was possible to shortlist a small number of factors which influenced the most the selection of the contract type for Project X. These were the preferred risk allocation by the parties, the ability to adapt the contract to scope changes, the knowledge of each contract type by the contracting parties, the improvement of the project delivery by the contract type and the aim to enhance cooperation between the parties. Factors not present in previous research were also discovered, such as the different financial costs of the contract types and the requirement of financial information by the funders of the parties. The very different opinions of the respondents to the survey and interviews regarding the selection of the contract type confirm that the parties should consider in more detail that complex process, because by now the parties are not really sure why they are choosing a certain contract type. Further research should be performed in the future to analyse the factors which influenced the contract type selection in other projects. The projects could also be analysed during their whole duration. Other contract types or variants of the three contract types studied in this thesis could also be added to the analysis.

  • 953.
    Sankaran, Pervaiz Ali and Sudha
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    'Online Shopping’ Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Norway2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction and loyalty of the online customers in Norway. The theoretical framework discusses in brief about the effects of customer loyalty and retention on customer satisfaction. The study on customer satisfaction and loyalty has been done from the perspective of a firm performing online business. To understand the customer satisfaction and loyalty level of online Norwegian shoppers, we pursued with the collection of quantitative data with the help of online survey. For survey purposes, a questionnaire was prepared and made available in www.nisaa.dk/survey. This study has no limits regarding different product categories. From marketing and strategic point of view we will point out those factors that might affect the customers, while purchasing goods online. To measure the customer satisfaction and loyalty of online shoppers in Norway, the survey results are calculated with the help of Simple Random Sampling method and Net Promoter Score (NPS) model. The results of the survey reveal that while a good percentage of Norwegians are satisfied with online shopping only less than half of them stay loyal to their online sellers. However, on the long run, these customers will be loyal and can be retained only when online businesses constantly satisfy them by providing detailed product information on websites, superior customer service, quality and timely delivery of goods and importantly effective website designs. Thesis key words: Online shopping, Customer satisfaction, Loyalty, E-commerce, Norway.

  • 954.
    Santos, Jose Fernando Lopez
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Abrahamyan, Lusine
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Mirzoyan, Tsovinar
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    An investigation into the relationship between the commitment of employees and their performance. A study within the Information and Communications Technology industry2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Employee commitment has been in the center of growing interests and studies for several decades. During this time different approaches and theories have been developed regarding this concept. In the same way the concept of employee performance related to the latter’s work has been the focus of attention due to a potential improvement that this term offers to an organization. A review of scientific literature explores how important it is to have committed employees and describes its impact on a company’s competitive advantage expressed through customer satisfaction, productivity, low employee turnover, tolerance to changes, low absenteeism, etc. Moreover, managing employees’ performance is also crucial related to the motivational theory with positive outcomes, such as employees’ relations, productivity, quality of the service or product, as well as financial performance of an organization. Besides, a number of authors have drawn attention to the need of exploring conceptually and empirically the relationship between employee commitment and performance. Even though, research has identified both positive and negative relationships between these two concepts, there still remain confusing points. In this thesis the relationship between employees’ commitment and performance in Information and Communications Technology industry in Armenia has been investigated. To note, no research related to this subject has been carried out in Armenia before. The critical review is followed by a field study in three ICT companies with an email-based interview conducted among 14 employees. As mentioned in the findings not only the importance of employee commitment to the firm but also the relationship and effects it has on employees’ performance as a key outcome have been identified. The findings are analyzed and discussed and conclusions are drawn at the end of the report.

  • 955.
    Sapač, Aleš
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Senčar, Monika
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Corporate Visual Identity of the Housing Company Karlskronahem: Evaluation and Possible Improvements2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate visual identity (CVI) plays a significant role in the way an organization presents itself to both internal and external stakeholders as well as expresses the values and ambitions of an organization, its business, and its characteristics. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate five elements of CVI: color, typography, company name, logo and web site. Our research is of an exploratory nature as we were trying to investigate literature findings in a case study to broader our knowledge of the problem. It is also of a descriptive nature because it is necessary to have a clearer picture of the things you wish to collect data for. As a research approach both qualitative and quantitative research were used. The strategy we decided to be the most appropriate for our research is a case study. We adopted case study strategy, using Karlskronahem as a single case within which the elements of their CVI – the name, logo, typography, colors as well as web site were embedded cases. It helped us to broaden our knowledge of CVI. We also used different data collection techniques for each element, so therefore using embedded cases was a good idea. Methods used in our cases were Internet-mediated questionnaire and computer-assisted self-administered questionnaires. The primary reason for using questionnaires is that we were concerned about data quality. We were dealing with complicated questions, while at the same time we had to gather responds from huge amount of responders. Some of the positive sides of questionnaires are that the respondent is in control and may decide to pause, reread a question, or think about an answer; it gives him more time to understand the meaning of the question and retrieve and compose an answer, which improves the quality of answers. After receiving the data, data analysis had to be made. Data analysis used in this thesis relies on theoretical propositions; therefore we compared the collected information with presented literature, enabling us to draw the necessary conclusions. Data collection started with getting in touch with Karlskronahem. First we wanted to find out who exactly is their target audience. One of them is ‘students’. The reason why we decided to focus only on students as a target group is because they seemed very critical and later on – because they enabled us to gather the very first, neutral impressions about their CVI. Student's target group does not only include students who are located in Karlskrona and Sweden but also from different countries. The aspect that we were most interested in when having in mind CVI – »What are audience's responses on different elements of CVI when they are first exposed to them«? To gather first impressions was important because we wanted to concentrate on design part of Karlskronahem's CVI and not gather responds about CVI that is already colored with different information about the company etc. We found that Karlskronahem’s brand name works quite good in local market, some improvements should be made for international ones. There are also some recommendations made for logotype, especially concerning familiar meaning and effect of the logotype. To improve this, changes of elaborateness, harmony, naturalness and proportion are proposed. Company’s typography and colors hold a special place in visual identity, which is also visible in their pleasant and successful representation and usage. Results also showed that web site’s overall appeal is efficient and positive. Brand familiarity evaluation judged in favor of one company. Possible recommendation and improvements for CVI are discussed in detail in data analysis and conclusion.

  • 956.
    Saranovic, Lena Carlsson; Ulrika Larsson; Amra
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och samhällsvetenskap.
    Implementeringen av balanserade styrkort – med avseende på information, dialog och delaktighet2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att studera och analysera hur implementeringen av balanserat styrkort går till i två verksamheter med avseende på information, dialog och delaktighet. Metod: Vi har använt oss av semistandardiserade personliga intervjuer på lednings-, facklig och individnivå, i två tillverkande företag. Det material som vi erhållit ligger till grund för vår analys och våra slutsatser som vi har arbetat med utifrån vår problemdiskussion. Slutsatser: I de två tillverkande företagen vi studerade lades ingen vikt vid delaktigheten hos de anställda vid införandet av balanserat styrkort. Bristen på delaktighet skapade dålig eller ingen acceptans till förändringen. Detta i sin tur minskade engagemanget och motivationen hos de anställda och resultatet blev inte det ledningen förväntade sig.

  • 957.
    Savage, Akinwunmi
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Optimal Portfolio Rebalancing Strategy: Evidence from Finnish Stocks2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Portfolio rebalancing is an established concept in portfolio management and investing generally. Assets within a portfolio have different return and risk prospects, and this inevitably leads them to drift away from their initial allocation weights overtime. Portfolio rebalancing is arguably the only method by which such assets can be reset to their initial weights, thus ensuring the portfolio reflects the risk appetite of the investor. Like many other concepts and practices in finance, portfolio rebalancing is a somewhat contentious topic, and many studies have sought to unearth optimal methods or strategies for rebalancing portfolios. This study also entered the fray of portfolio rebalancing research by analysing three broad strategies to determine which would be most optimal. The rebalancing strategies evaluated were: Calendar interval rebalancing (annually, half-yearly, quarterly, and monthly); threshold percentage trigger rebalancing (where a pre-established percentage is used to determine when rebalancing should be done); and a hybrid approach incorporating both the latter and the former. An equally weighted portfolio of 19 Finnish stocks from the Helsinki OMX25 index was used in the analysis, and the study period spanned May, 2000 to April, 2010. The results of the analysis showed that rebalancing provides rewards in terms of improved returns compared to not rebalancing at all. However, none of the 54 sub-strategies analysed under the three broad categories generated enough net of costs returns to be considered exceptionally optimal. Thus, rebalancing is best implemented when risk control and the psychological benefits associated with active portfolio management are desired. The above notwithstanding, arguably the most formidable returns were generated with a threshold of ±50-60% (implying that the portfolio is rebalanced when any asset weight drops to 2.10-2.63% or rises to 7.89-8.42%). This strategy set-off a relatively small number of rebalances, implying relatively low costs. It was also better than all other strategies, and far superior to choosing not to rebalance at all.

  • 958.
    Savasadia, Kiran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Human Resource arbetets betydelse för lärande och kompetensutveckling inom två olika organisationer2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna magisteruppsats handlar om vilken betydelse Human Resource arbetet har för kompetensutvecklingen inom två olika organisationer. Under senare år har relativt stora satsningar gjorts på personalutbildning och andra kompetensutvecklingsinsatser i arbetslivet. Forskning har visat att kunskapsproduktionen i samhället ökar ständigt och för att finna en lösning på detta har många företag valt att satsa på kompetensutveckling. Det bakomliggande antagandet har varit att det i allt högre grad är kunskap och kompetens än kapital som växer i framtiden. Därför bör såväl privata som offentliga organisationer satsa på kompetensutveckling både kortsiktligt och långsiktligt för att kunna möta de framtida kraven. En väl fungerande verksamhet har en god inblick i vilka krav som ställs på företaget och vilken kompetens som de anställda bör ha. Många företag har under 1990- talet drabbats av neddragningar som har resulterat i att försämrade förutsättningar för utbildningar som har till syfte att kompetensutveckla personalen. Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att skapa förståelse för HR arbetets betydelse för lärandet och kompetensutvecklingen inom två olika organisationer. Med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer visar resultatet på att respondenterna från båda företagen anser att kompetensutveckling är en viktig del för företagets framtid. HR arbetet har en tydlig koppling till kompetensutvecklingen eftersom det är inom HR avdelningen som den mesta planeringen och struktureringen sker. Vad som även framkommit är att företagen vill kompetensutveckla de anställda men att resurserna ofta inte räcker till för kontinuerlig kompetensutveckling. Det vilar istället på den enskilde individens ansvar att på egen hand utöka sina kunskaper.

  • 959. Schubert, T.
    et al.
    Andersson, Martin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Old is gold?: The effects of employee age on innovation and the moderating effects of employment turnover2015Inngår i: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 24, s. 95-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is consistent evidence in the literature that an average employee’s age is negatively related to firm-level innovativeness. This observation has been explained by older employees working with outdated technological knowledge and being characterized by reduced cognitive flexibility. We argue that firms can mitigate this effect through employee turnover. In particular, turnover of R&D workers is deemed a vehicle for transfer of external knowledge to the firm, which can compensate for lower cognitive flexibility and up-to-date knowledge among older workers. We use a matched employer–employee data set based on three consecutive Community Innovation Survey surveys for Sweden to test our predictions. Our results suggest (a) that overall employee age impacts negatively on product innovation activities (both in terms of propensity and success), (b) that the effect of employee staying rate (measured by the share of employees who remain in the firm from one year to the next) on innovation follows an inverted U-shape implying an ‘optimal’ level of employment turnover and (c) that this ‘optimal’ value is lower for firms with older employees. The latter suggests that firms with older employees can at least partially compensate an aged workforce by increased employment turnover. © 2014, Taylor & Francis.

  • 960.
    Shah, Mansoor Ali
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    How the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) can be improved?2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Problem Discussion:Since last two decades the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) is progressing very well and has made international recognition in stock trading business. This progress is the result of reformation applied by the Security Commission of Pakistan, with help of the Government of Pakistan. But still in comparison with developed stock exchanges of the world, KSE is far behind in terms of infrastructure available for trading and technology using for trade. KSE needs to improve a lot to reach at the level of developed stock markets of the world. Purposes: The main purpose of study is to highlight the shortcomings present in following three aspects of KSE and provide the suggestions to accelerate the development process of it. Organizational structure of KSE Trading and Trading instruments of KSE Settlement process of KSE Secondary purpose of this research is to provide the basic information about the importance and functions of stock market, trading process and player which are involved in trading process and other information with reference to financial literacy. Conclusion: Currently, demutualization and incorporation should be the first priority of the KSE. As demutualization and incorporation is taking time so KSE should start stepping towards internationalization by developing business relations with other regional and international exchanges and try to attract the regional and international companies for cross border listing on its indices. Remaining three suggestions: separate markets for different capital companies, improvement in the derivative market and upgrading in trading, clearing and settlement process can be applied with the growth of KSE but these all are also necessary to achieve the world class standard of stock markets.

  • 961.
    Shahdaei, Koorosh
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Driving Strategic Transformation: Case of Service Delivery in Telecom Industry2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to sketch out a proposal for master thesis in the area management control. This thesis focuses on how managers should use the management control systems to enforce strategic transformation. These ideas are currently subject of academic and industrial research. As theoretical and practical foundation, this thesis will be inspiring for project oriented corporate specializing in service delivery especially in the field of Telecom sector. Considering today’s global rivalry, with continuous emerging complex projects, relating matrix organizations and customers, alongside with human factors drawn in; makes Service Delivery companies particularly unstable. In the era of information technology the service delivery companies are subject to continuous strategic transformation to be able to create sustainable competitive advantages and stay in the business. [1] framework is used as starting point of this paper. This framework proposes two excessive points of reference to categorize management control systems i.e. interactive versus analytical systems and level of management control. This thesis intends developing two novel ideas; firstly, that the framework of interpretation could be dragged out to cover parameters such as control system, and incentive system, management tool, and organizational structure; secondly, it investigates how these parameters would link up rationally in a combined manner. The organizational factor arises from the literature on project management that bringing together the issues for driving new product lines and related service deliveries. Management literature on control systems has inspired the idea of the tool for supporting a smooth strategic transformation. Among other things, it stresses the importance of matrix coordination for the service delivery organizations. Furthermore incentive factor could take part in enforcing transformation on strategic level even healthier. As a foundation for empirical study, a case study has been performed to explore the significance of above mentioned management control method. The studies represent several years of research with focus of strategic transformations. The studies suggested how these transformations were setup and interpreted in a framework of above mentioned parameters. A more efficient arrangement would contribute to a better interactive and analytical features. This approach, which is characterized for service delivery organizations, tenders an gripping idea to be explored in future researches.

  • 962.
    shareef, Haidar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Villatoro, Jose Carlos
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Identification of performance gaps in service interactions that influence customer satisfaction2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project is aimed to investigate how gaps in the form of mistakes and flaws can be identified and minimized during customer service interactions. The Service Concept model by Goldstein et al. (2002) is used to create strategic alignment and to minimize the gap between customers’ needs and the company’s intentions of the delivered service. Also, Watkinson’s (2013) principles on how to create satisfied customers and enhancing the customer experience is used as well as Chien et al. (2002) framework for customer satisfaction. The GAPS Model by Parasuraman et. al. (2004) is also used to identify service quality gaps. The study is designed following the case study methodology. Data was collected through a qualitative means, interviewing a mix of employees at three levels (back-office, front-end and managers) at the service department at company Services1. Major findings were that customer expectations, quality and objectives, alignment of service strategy and execution, communication, relationships, customer satisfaction knowledge, motivation and engagement, and sharing customer feedback of the customer service were not unified and clear for all the levels. There are mismatches in the previous topics at Services1 that influence performance in customer satisfaction.

  • 963.
    Shariat, Anna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Investeringsprocesser i storbanker: en undersökning på tre svenska storbanker2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    There are no general working processes that can stand for how all the investment process is preceded in the organization of major Swedish banks. It is not a question of investment process but rather a question of, investment processes. How these investment processes operates depends totally on the type and size of the current investment, which unit that is operating the processes and what situation the bank currently finds itself in. There is a written form that describes how the different processes should be operated and which capital budget models that should be used but the usage of these forms can be questioned.

  • 964.
    Sheikh, Mohammad Arshad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Conversion Rate Problem of SMEs in Internet Marketing: a Developing Country Perspective2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, electronic commerce has become an important alternative or additional sales and marketing channel. Many companies are only selling through this channel while many others are using it as an additional channel for boosting their sales. Business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce represents an important research area because retail consumer expectations, attitudes, and behavior are studied. Companies can design their marketing models around desires and preferences of the customers. Because of inherent nature of e-commerce retail websites, customers can log on to the sites, perform research and product / price comparisons, fill in their shopping carts, and may log off without making any purchases. Main reasons on the part of website visitors for not converting into paying customers are low level of trust on this medium of purchases because customers are required to give out financial and personal data, customers can do comparison shopping or window shopping, high shipping costs, unclear pricing and return, and refund policies of the websites, etc. From the point of view of sellers, abandoned shopping carts represent potential sales that could not be realized. Companies are, for obvious reasons, interested in converting these lost customers into sales. Retail websites, of large as well as small-to-medium sized (SME) categories, experience this low conversion rate problem for customers including those from developing countries. Specifically, purpose of this research was formulated as four research questions: 1. Categories of products and services e-commerce consumers from Pakistan prefer to buy from internet. 2. Reasons for low conversion rates. 3. Extent to which Pakistani online customers are price-sensitive. 4. Choice between product / service differentiation and low price Pakistani customers would make. This thesis aimed to look at what goes on in the minds of customers from developing countries when they do not make purchases at retail e-commerce websites. A questionnaire asking customers from Pakistan as to what are their preferences about e-sellers and their main turn-offs at vendor websites was developed and circulated among the sample population. Analysis of data collected via the survey indicates the following with respect to the research questions: 1. In terms of preferences and features concerning products purchased over internet, Pakistani consumers are not basically different from their international counterparts as Pakistani consumers generally purchase the same kind of products and services as international consumers do according to what is reported in the relevant literature. However, some concerns revealed by subjects of the survey were related to reluctance of merchants to ship to Pakistani destinations, potential credit card problems, unavailability of services like Pay Pal in Pakistan, etc. 2. Main reasons for low conversion rates for Pakistani consumers are also similar to those reported for international consumers from a number of countries. Major reason of low conversion rates is low trust in websites because of concerns related to sharing personal and financial information on the internet. 3. Pakistani consumers are found to be relatively low users of e-shopping and strongly price sensitive. 4. Paksitani consumers are also found to not very much interested in availing differentiated products/services over the internet. This thesis also presents a review of relevant literature and offers some recommendations for future research into the relevant area.

  • 965.
    Shishkina, Violetta
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    New Public Management strategies: Implications for universities in emerging economies2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the implications of NPM (New Public Management) strategies for a University in emerging economy. The philosophy of adaptation to the market economy is supposed to result in the modernization of Russian HE (Higher Education) and Russia’s complete integration into the European HE community. A confluence of political, social, economic, and academic factors, however, influences the implementation of managerial reforms. In the present study, a single progressive provincial University was chosen as a case study, examined through the prism of NPM, and then extrapolated into a wider context of management and governance-related strategy formation and implementation. The case study suggests that other HEIs were able to integrate and implement the NPM principles successfully; that the main strategies used in NPM implementation are neither top-down nor bottom-up in nature, but a mixture of both models; that challenges facing reform involve issues of awareness, government support, and funding; and that the major implication of the University implementation of NPM is that it will increase the competitiveness of Russian HEIs with the European community. One suggests possible strategy of HE development in Russia. We identify area of further research regarding the implementation of NPM principles in Russia, and in comparison with other countries.

  • 966.
    Shizhou, Yanni
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Gu, Shishang
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Competing in the Chinese Instant Noodle Market–A market research on the “Present Wheater”brand of the Hualong Group Co., Ltd2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis mainly discusses in two aspects. The first aspect is how the customers think of the “Present Wheater” of the Hualong Group and what the position of the “Present Wheater” is in the Chinese instant noodle market. We tried to find those points not only from consumers’cognition, attitude and behavior to the “Present Wheater”, but also from the management level of the Hualong Group.The second part is what we can do to improve the current marketing strategy of the “Present Wheater” and help the “Present Wheater” gain more market shares so as to win its two main competitors. Three fields are touched: marketing research, consumer market and behavior,and the marketing mix. Theories from the three fields are applied to facilitate the discussion of our research. Marketing research theory gives a synthesized description of our research environment and helps us identify the market target and the market position of our research object. Theory from the consumer market and behavior are introduced to approach the design and the implementation of the questionnaire survey, so that we can get much useful information from the consumers in all aspects. The marketing mix is the core part in our research. We have tried to find something for our research object under the guidance of the Four Ps and provided our recommendations on the four aspects. The contribution of the research is twofold. First, the thesis helps the Hualong Group to clarify the position of the “Present Wheater” brand in the Chinese urban instant noodle market from the perspective of the consumers. Meanwhile,the research aims to help other congener Chinese domestic companies recognize the reasons for the Hualong Group succeeding in competing with the foreign companies in the Chinese instant noodle market so as to learn some lessons from the Hualong Group.

  • 967. Shoham, Aviv
    et al.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Gadget Loving: A Test of an Integrative Model2013Inngår i: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 29-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the seminal work of Bruner and Kumar (2007) on gadget loving, this paper views gadget loving as the attachment individuals have toward advanced electronic items and how such an attachment relates to actual use (i.e., actual gadgets ownership). It extends existing research in two important ways. First, it provides a retest of the reliability and validity of the gadget-loving scale in two new countries (Israel and Sweden), thus adding to the generalizability of the scale across cultures. Second, it develops and tests an integrative model that includes gadget loving as a central construct as well as several antecedents and consequences proposed as important topics for future research in the extant literature. The results show that inherent novelty seeking, technological innovativeness, and technical curiosity predict the gadget-loving trait, which in turn affects technological opinion leadership and gadget ownership. These findings have theoretical and practical implications.

  • 968.
    Shoo, Anitha
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Karibu Tours2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Karibu Tour is all about taking tourist from Europe to Tanzania to enjoy the white sand beaches, safaris, climbing mountain Kilimanjaro which is the highest mountain in Africa.

  • 969.
    Sidorova, Yulia
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Rosander, Oliver
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Sköld, Lars
    Telenor, SWE.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Finding a healthy equilibrium of geo-demographic segments for a telecom business: Who are malicious hot-spotters?2019Inngår i: Machine Learning Paradigms: Advances in Data Analytics / [ed] George A. Tsihrintzis, Dionisios N. Sotiropoulos, Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2019, s. 187-196Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In telecommunication business, a major investment goes into the infrastructure and its maintenance, while business revenues are proportional to how big, good, and well-balanced the customer base is. In our previous work we presented a data-driven analytic strategy based on combinatorial optimization and analysis of the historical mobility designed to quantify the desirability of different geo-demographic segments, and several segments were recommended for a partial reduction. Within a segment, clients are different. In order to enable intelligent reduction, we introduce the term infrastructure-stressing client and, using the proposed method, we reveal the list of the IDs of such clients. We also have developed a visualization tool to allow for manual checks: it shows how the client moved through a sequence of hot spots and was repeatedly served by critically loaded antennas. The code and the footprint matrix are available on the SourceForge. © 2019, Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature.

  • 970.
    Silva, Eugene Arnolis de
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Jonah, Olivia NanaYaa Glynis
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Leadership in Crisis: A Case Study on Leadership during the Economic Crisis in Britain2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the behaviour of business leaders during the economic crisis in Britain during the period 2007-2010. It looks at the theory of Leadership as presented by DuBrin, other writers and researchers comparing it to what is practiced in Britain in order to see if it is the right approach. Through historical data with proper research we are able to tell the approach that these Leaders have exhibited. We also looked at the Leadership style used in other countries that have gone or are going through economic crisis like the United States. The paper looks at the leadership traits, skills and responsibilities which are ideal in dealing with crises, in particular economic crises, and investigates the best leadership styles and traits for best practice in industry in dealing with economic crisis. A study of leadership at the national crisis level, more likely a macro-management scenario, gives a clear insight to leadership practices during crises. In this case, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to individuals who have/had a part in various organisations in making crucial decision or witnessed firsthand decision making during the recent economic crisis. In designing the questionnaire, majority of the answers were given based on a scale of one to ten, the Likert Scale. The results of the research pointed to certain traits which successful crisis leaders possess and also show the presence of transactional leadership mixed with charismatic leadership during crisis.

  • 971.
    Silveräng, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och samhällsvetenskap.
    Krona, Martin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och samhällsvetenskap.
    Möjliga strategier för mobila tjänster2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Problem: De teorier om strategier som finns idag och som används kan synas vara föråldrade. Då information skiljer sig från de traditionella tjänster och produkter finner vi ett behov att undersöka hur vidare strategierna kan användas inom den mobila kommunikationen och den nya ekonomin. Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att skapa förståelse för möjliga strategier som kan göra mobila tjänster lönsamma. Metod: Vi har använt en kvalitativ undersökning med ett positivistiskt angreppssätt. Genom en abduktiv ansats kommer vi att föra en diskussion genom teorin samt empirin. Empirin är inhämtad genom intervjuer på Vodafone samt Exsero i Karlskrona. Slutsatser: De teorier angående strategier som finns i litteraturen verkar till delvis stämma. Dock finns det vissa skillnader framförallt gällande kostnader och prissättningar. I den nya ekonomin finns det andra kostnader som måste tas hänsyn till vilket gör att en strategi baserad på bl.a. kostnadsöverlägsenhet inte kan användas. Vidare verkar det finnas mönster som visar på vissa upprepande strategier. Dessa strategier är; differentiering samt segmentering. First mover advantage och positiv feedback samt samarbete mellan complementors. Dock behöver varje företag anpassa sina strategier efter den situation som råder för tillfället. Därför menar vi att inga strategier kan anses som generella. Problem: Present day theories about strategies might seem out of date. Since information differs between traditional services and IT-services, we have found it necessary to investigate how strategies can be used within the IT-sector and the new economy. Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to increase our understanding for possible strategies that can make mobile services lucrative. Methodology: The investigation is qualitative and we are going to tackle the problem by using a positivistic method. By using an abductive process we will conduct a discussion throughout the theoretical and the empirical part of the assignment. The empirical material has been collected through interviews done at Vodafone and Exsero in Karlskrona. Conclusions: The theories about strategies do to some point describe reality correctly. There do seem to be differences concerning costs and prices. In the new economy there are different costs that have to be taken into account, this means that a strategy based on cost leadership does not comply with the given circumstances. We have seen a pattern in our investigation concerning several strategies. These strategies are: differentiation, segmentation, first mover advantage, positive feedback and collaboration between complementors. Companies that are willing to use these strategies must adapt these strategies to there own specific circumstances. Therefore we surges that these strategies cannot be implemented generally.

  • 972.
    Sjögren, Rasmus
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Wickström, Jacob
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    A study of ESG's contribution to firm performance: Evidence from the European region2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is an increasing subject of interest amongst customers, society and corporate leaders. As firms are adapting towards a more sustainable business, opportunities towards a leading position where both long-term corporate social responsibility and financial performance is of interest. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate firm’s Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) rating and its effect on their financial performance. The study is conducted on firms located in the European region. A related purpose is to investigate individual sectors to understand whether this relationship is different depending on the sector characteristics in which the firms operate in. This thesis uses secondary data for several firms over a time-period ranging from 2008-2017. In order to investigate several entities over this time-period, the data was constructed as panel data. To investigate the objective, panel regressions was performed. The compounded dataset, including firms from all sectors, shows that the Environmental rating has statistical significance on financial performance. The individual sectors that shows significance with any of the ESG-rating, indicates an often-negative relationship between ESG and financial performance. This thesis contributes as an ongoing analysis in the field of ESG and financial performance. The understanding from this and future studies assist customers, investors and corporate leaders when choosing to adapt towards more socially responsible activities. Further research in the European region is of interest, continuing investigating positive or negative aspects of ESG and a firm’s financial performance. 

  • 973.
    Sjöstrand, Ebba
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Nelson, Ylva
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Employee advocacy på Facebook: En studie ur konsumenternas perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Employee advocacy på Facebook - En studie ur konsumenternas perspektiv

    Författare: Ylva Nelson och Ebba Sjöstrand

    Handledare: Anders Wrenne

    Institution: Institutionen för industriell ekonomi, Blekinge Tekniska Högskola

    Kurs: Kandidatarbete i Företagsekonomi, 15 högskolepoäng

    Syfte: Den här studien syftar till att öka kunskapen om employee advocacy genom att studera forskningsområdet ur konsumenternas perspektiv.

    Metod: En enkätundersökning med 203 respondenter.

    Slutsatser: Studien visar att konsumenternas vilja att besöka att varumärkes Facebook-sida blir mindre vid kännedomen att företaget använder sig av belönad employee advocacy. Resultatet gick inte att härleda till konsumenternas ålder. 

  • 974.
    Sjöstrand, Emelie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Mårtensson, Evelina
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Faming, Jannie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Resurshantering i små aktiebolags redovisningsfunktion: Motiven bakom att använda externa eller interna resurser2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

     

    Titel: Resurshantering i små aktiebolags redovisningsfunktion: Motiven bakom att använda externa eller interna resurser

     

    Författare: Jannie Faming, Evelina Mårtensson och Emelie Sjöstrand

     

    Kurs: Kandidatarbete i Företagsekonomi, 15 högskolepoäng

     

    Handledare: Anders Wrenne

     

    Institution: Institutionen för Industriell ekonomi, Blekinge Tekniska Högskola

     

     

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att identifiera de avgörande faktorerna som påverkar beslutet att outsourca redovisningstjänster, närmare bestämt den löpande bokföringen, sett ur företagsägarens perspektiv. Vi avser även att undersöka betydelsen av och motiven bakom dessa faktorer för att svara på om små företags löpande redovisning, ur företagsägarens perspektiv, lämpar sig för offshore outsourcing eller inte. Denna studie ämnar bidra med ökad förståelse av outsourcingbeslutet ur ett företagsägarperspektiv och lägger grund för vidare forskning kring beslutsstödsmodeller för outsourcing i samband med löpande bokföring.

     

    Metod: För detta examensarbete har vi valt en kvalitativ undersökningsmetod med ett hermeneutiskt perspektiv. Till vår studie har vi samlat in data genom att göra besöksintervjuer med fem olika företagsägare.

     

    Slutsats: Vår slutsats är att offshore outsourcing av den löpande bokföringen inte är ett lämpligt alternativ för småföretag sett ur företagsägarens perspektiv och dennes inställning resurshantering och påverkansfaktorer. Företagsägare i småföretag värderar olika kombinationer av faktorerna fokus på kärnverksamhet, kontakt och kontroll framför kostnad, som är den starkaste påverkansfaktorn för offshore outsourcing. Företagsägarna sätter även stor vikt vid påverkansfaktorn kunskap och att den externa aktören ska inneha professionella kunskaper inom redovisningsområdet. Även om en extern aktör i ett låglöneland skulle kunna erbjuda rätt kompetens saknar en sådan aktör den lokala kunskapen om företagets närmiljö, vilken företagsägare i småföretag efterfrågar. Vår slutsats är således att offshore outsourcing av småföretags löpande bokföring inte är lämpligt eftersom detta tillvägagångssätt inte lever upp till företagsägarnas värderingar av de olika faktorerna. Även detta tillvägagångssätt skulle bidra till minskade kostnader väger det inte upp avsaknaden av de andra faktorerna. Detta eftersom företagsägare i småföretag värderar fokus på kärnverksamhet, kontakt, kontroll och kunskap framför sänkta kostnader.

    Nyckelord: Outsourcing, Resursbaserad teori, Transaktionskostnadsteori, Småföretag, Löpande bokföring

  • 975.
    Snarberg, Hanna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    The relevance of reinforcing strategic stress management and welfare programs in UN peacekeeping operations2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose Stress is a growing concern in many workplaces today and much research has been done on occupational stress. Some of these studies are focusing on military, police and other job categories where employees are exposed to extreme danger. However, very little research has been done on non-uniformed civilians working in volatile contexts. This thesis investigates what stressors civilian field personnel are exposed to while on assignment in different UN peacekeeping missions and what UN peacekeeping operations are doing to manage or mitigate the effects of negative long-term stress among civilian peacekeepers. Methodology Identification of environmental and organizational stress factors in different UN peacekeeping operations have been done with the help of an exploratory, cross-sectional online survey carried out in seven UN peacekeeping missions. Based on identified stressors, this thesis investigates how stress management can be improved in UN peacekeeping operations. Findings Long-term occupational stress can be damaging for the individual employee as well as the entire organization, therefore, a more pro-active stress management approach is required. The survey results showed that there are many different environmental and organizational stressors in UN peacekeeping missions. Civilian field personnel’s access to gym facilities must be improved in many missions. A number of actions can be taken on the organizational level to raise awareness about welfare and stress management. The main recommendations are: - More attention needs to be paid, at Headquarters and at mission level, in trying to reduce organizational stressors in missions; - Secretary General’s recommendations from 2008 and 2009 should be implemented, i.e. ensure gym facilities for all staff members; - Staff welfare should be a priority not an after-thought. Stress management strategies and welfare budgets, tailored to each mission, needs to be developed.

  • 976.
    Sophonthummapharn, Kittipong
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Leadership styles and E-commerce adoption: An analysis of Thai food exporters2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Being an effective leader in today business environment is a challenged task. The world has shifted to the digital era where social and business structures are rapidly changed. The trend of globalization forces all leaders to regularly learn more on what was changed and what is being changed. Today, companies that already adapt new business concept probably have a better application that satisfy more customers than companies that work in the old manner. What is work in the past is probably obsolete in today. One of the popular issues during the last two decades is the phenomenon of e-commerce. How leader reacts with the trend of ecommerce is primary purpose of this study. It is said that the way leader acts and behaves will directly affect company performance. This study explores the association between leadership styles and e-commerce adoption. The purposes of the study are to identify the type of leadership styles in associated with the level of e-commerce adoption and to measure that attitude of the leaders toward employing ecommerce. The study was conducted in Thailand and emphasized in exporting industry. Three hundred Thai food companies were systematically selected. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to those companies. The response rate was 70.67% Hypothesis was developed and tested with statistical significant level of 0.05. A Pearson chisquare test supported that there was a difference in e-commerce adoption between leadership styles. By using regression analysis, the study found two factors influenced the level of ecommerce adoption: type of leadership style and number of employees. The finding indicated that most managers were medium shared leadership style which inclined to task concern rather than people concern. The majority of companies have already adopted e-commerce into their business. The result showed that most of them were in the level of information based e-commerce. Leaders who have high shared leadership tend to have a higher level of e-commerce adoption than other two types of leadership. It would therefore seem that the leaders who are high in both task and people concern would be early adopters in e-commerce. Most managers had positive attitude toward e-commerce. They agreed and accepted the advantages of employing e-commerce into their business. The attitudes they had were ecommerce can generally help the firm increases profit, reduces operating costs, quickly expands business globally, fast communicates with customers, and improves its image.

  • 977.
    Stamatoudis, Ioannis
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    How and why innovation policies can fail2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 978.
    STAMENOVIC, Vladimir
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Stock Market’s Short-Term Reactions and Volatility as a Result of Political Instability in Serbia2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Volatility of financial markets has been mathematically defined and well researched, but its causes are harder to identify. Investors’ strategies are based on numerous factors based on well-known theories – EMH, or more behavioral theory. Volatility is especially high around so called “shock-days” when markets undergo sudden extreme changes of its indices (up or down several percent in one trading day). Political instability in a country has been proven to significantly influence market volatility and its returns. Serbian Stock Exchange (BELEX) publishes two indices BELEX15 and BELEXline and though still developing, it also exhibits the described characteristics of financial data series – GARCH analysis confirmed the presence of leptokurtosis, heteroscedasticity and volatility clustering. During the observation period, Serbia has been undergoing very serious political crisis / changes which have had implications on its stock market. Important political (or other type) events have been identified through the analysis of headlines of Serbia’s three main daily newspapers, and these were related to previously identified “shock-days” (change of index equal or more than 4% in any direction) which were recorded on BELEX stock exchange. Analysis confirmed the high correlation between unexpected events on a political stage in Serbia and shock-days occurrence on its stock market. Negative events, i.e. crisis, have had more serious impact on the market, resulting in bigger index changes, and internal politics influenced the market more severely than the unexpected events in other areas (foreign policy, economics…).

  • 979.
    Stanic, Zenja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Konkurrensen i dagligvaruhandeln. En studie av konkurrens på en lokal marknad vid nyetablering av en lågpriskedja.2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid prismätning av varukorg har det framkommit att prisnivå mellan de olika butikerna betydligt skiljer åt, mellan 17 – 47 % lägre genomsnittspris för varukorgen på Lidl än hos de andra dagligvaruhandlarna. Då konkurrenternas priser är en av de faktorer som påverkar prissättningen är det rimligt att tro att en nyetablering av en lågpriskedja på den lokala marknaden ökar prispressen och därmed får en priseffekt på hela marknaden speciellt när priserna så mycket skiljer åt som min prisunderökning visat. Nyetablering av en lågpriskedja kommer att aktualisera en rad frågor hos konkurrenter, konsumenter och leverantörer. Köparnas förhandlingsstyrka stärks och de andra aktörerna i branschen blir tvungna att se över sitt pris. I sin tur kommer de att sätta press på sina leverantörer så att leverantörernas förhandlingsstyrka försvagas, speciellt när det handlar om de små/lokala leverantörerna. För att kunna möta den växande konkurrensen bör aktörerna på marknaden försöka skapa/förbättra sina konkurrensfördelar och med exempelvis prissänkning, ny/bättre differentiering och/eller kostnadsreducering möta den växande konkurrensen.

  • 980.
    Steen, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Svensson, Karin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Änghede, Angelica
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    E-learning – en utbildningsmetod och dess nytta2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Companies that invest in e-learning have different expectations regarding the outcome of the investment. According to literature and articles it is common that companies see reduction of costs as the primary benefit with e-learning. Therefore we ask ourselves the question if companies have attained the expected benefit of the investment in e-learning and to what extent cost reduction have been a determining factor in the investments? The purpose of the thesis is to examine if companies that invest in e-learning have attained the expected benefits. We also want to examine what the reason for investing in e-learning is and if cost reduction is the primary reason for investing. The study is founded on a qualitative method that is based on a case study in eight companies. The seven primary objects of study were interviewed during personal meetings while the interview with the secondary object of study was conducted over the telephone. The method for analysis is based on three different portions that are formed to give the reader a better overview of the chapter in a structured manner. “Blended learning” have proven to be the most used method of learning in the researched companies. The combination of e-learning and traditional learning contributes to increased efficiency and better accessibility at the same time as a physical interaction between teacher and student takes place. The companies did not have any expectations that e-learning would reduce costs, they wanted to achieve a higher level of efficiency and make education accessible for a broader audience. All the companies considered that their expectations on e-learning have been fulfilled and that the method of education is a well needed complement to traditional learning.

  • 981.
    Stein, Sebastian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för programvarusystem.
    Softtware Process Improvements in a Small Organisation: an Ethnography2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Software process improvements are required to increase the productivity of software companies. Generally, it is the aim to increase the quality of the produced software and to keep budget and time. Quality models for software process improvements were developed in context of large organisations and multi-national companies. In this study I investigated how software process improvements are done in a small software company. Ethnography was used as research method. It was the aim of this study to build up an understanding of how software process improvements are done and enabled in a small organisation. Fieldnotes were taken and later analysed using template analysis. Ethnography as the chosen research strategy proved to be applicable and feasible in software engineering research. The qualitative research strategy resulted in a detailed description of how one software company did software process improvements from a bottom-up perspective. Despite the learning potential of "how real world contingencies and possibilities interact and shape software process improvement efforts", such descriptions are rare in software engineering literature. Based on the field experiences and the analysed fieldnotes, the following results were identified: In the studied small software organisation, software process improvement efforts were pushed by the initiative of single employees. The studied company did not have enough resources to implement a complete quality model. In addition, management was heavily involved in daily work and therefore had not enough time to initiate and lead software process improvement efforts. For small software companies in a similar situation, the following guidelines can be given: First, a bottom-up approach with delegating responsibility from management to selected employees is needed. Second, management must ensure to be available if decisions must be taken. Third, improvements must be visible and feedback must be provided contemporary to gain momentum in the whole improvement effort. In some cases it might be important to create awareness of possible improvements. Here, employees should create internal lobbies by involving and convincing other employees of the improvement's importance. A joined effort will help to create enough pressure for change, so that improvement efforts get started.

  • 982.
    Stensson, Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Buyers, sellers and bids – The tendering market in public procurement2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the functioning of the tendering market in public procurement. The effects of the characteristics of buyers, sellers and bids in the tendering market are analyzed. A dataset of construction tenders in the county of Kalmar, Sweden is analyzed by using regression analysis. Several findings are made about how characteristics of size, level of organizational knowledge and location of buyers and sellers affect the functioning of the tendering market in public procurement. The market for public tenders is a part of the public procurement market which is described in the thesis from a European and Swedish perspective. The roles of public procurement authorities and of the supplying firms in this market are described and the interactions of these players are analyzed. Tendering involves an auction procedure and the thesis treats some aspects of auction theory. The subject of the thesis, to study the functioning of the public procurement market based on the characteristics of the players within it is a new approach but the characteristics that are studied in the thesis and their effects on the behavior of the participant in the public procurement market have all to some extent been described in the literature. A short presentation of the main findings of the analysis: -The location of a firm, here meaning the site of its headquarter, has an influence on the frequency with which the firm is bidding. The effect is a small positive correlation between the firm being local (in the place where the contract of the tender is to be carried out) and its participation in tender. -The organizational knowledge of a firm is positively correlated with the frequency with which it submits bids in public tenders. -The more organizational knowledge there is in the buying public entity, the smaller will the price variation be in the bids submitted in a tender. -There is a negative relationship between the size of the tender and the variation in price among the bids received. -Being a local firm slightly increases the chance of winning a tender. The study gives an indication that the studying of the described characteristics do have effects on the behavior of the participants in the market and it opens for further research in the area.

  • 983.
    Stenvinkel, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Strinsjö, Jens
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Generation Y:s värderingar och attityder kring framtidens chefsroll2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur Generation Y:s attityd och värderingar förhåller sig mot det ledarskap som bör tillämpas av framtida chefer. Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ ansats i form av individuella intervjuer och en fokusgrupp, således har studien baserats på det empiriska material som insamlats från de fyra individuella intervjuerna och vår fokusgrupp som genomfördes. Det empiriska såväl som det teoretiska materialet har sammanställts i sitt respektive kapitel och därefter analyserats med utgångspunkt ur våra frågeställningar. Slutsatser: De senaste åren har det förekommit artiklar i fack- och dagspress om hur individer ur Generation Y ställt sig ovilliga till att acceptera chefsrollen. Vårt resultat visar att det finns ett genuint intresse för civilingenjörs- och civilekonomstudenter att faktiskt acceptera chefsrollen. Det är dock med krav på kontinuerlig feedback, coachning och möjligheten till att arbeta fritt och kreativt som gör att dessa individer är benägna att acceptera chefsrollen i företagen.

  • 984.
    Stephen, John
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Management of civil society organisations (CSOs): A case study of selected CSOs in Tanzania2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research findings have revealed that CSOs play very important hands on role to bring about social and economic change to developing countries like Tanzania. The CSOs are very diverse and unique in terms of set up, mission and mandate, there is therefore no single model on how should CSOs perform their functions in Tanzania. However, there are common held approaches that apply to effective management practices and so bring about good outcomes to the neediest people in Tanzania. This study has evidenced CSOs having a pivotal role to beef up service provision by the government and private sectors to spearhead socioeconomic development by explaining roles CSOs have been having in bringing such developments in Tanzania. This study has confirmed findings from previous studies that number, roles and diversity of CSOs increased significantly from 1980s to 1990s, and consequently involvement of CSOs in service provision has increased dramatically in recent years. Among the CSOs under this study, the ones which have been on board for more than five years have been seen to operate in coordinated multiple fields compared to the CSOs which have been on board for less than five years which operate in fewer fields. This study has evidenced increased annual budgets over time among the studied CSOs in Tanzania and this is an indication that CSOs’ performance capacity to manage projects and finances has improved over time. The current increased performance capacity of CSOs addresses the raised critique regarding managerial competence of CSOs in developing countries like Tanzania. The need for CSOs addressing issues in line with priority areas which are highlighted in the Tanzania’s National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction (NSGRP) for rapid socioeconomic development of Tanzania has come out clearly from the findings of this study. This study recommends a more comprehensive study of CSOs to capture more issues and cover bigger geographical areas than what was done by this study.. This will help identify more areas which need improvement in future to strengthen the CSO sector and benefit ultimate project beneficiaries in Tanzania.

  • 985.
    Stergiou, Dimitrios
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    EOS Cryptocurrency Initial Coin Offering: A case study: How the EOS cryptocurrency raised more than $4.4 billion in its 2017 ICO2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past year, alongside the sharp increase in the price of Bitcoin, a new investment trend has emerged, known as Initial Coin Offering (ICO). ICOs enable newly-formed blockchain companies to raise large amounts of capital directly from the public. The process involves generating digital assets (tokens) and selling them to the public for cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin or Ethereum. Tokens are essentially "digital chips" that give their owners the right to access the products and services of the company. Alternatively, they may also be used for speculative purposes as the buyer has the option of negotiating them on cryptocurrency exchanges.The purpose of this thesis is to approach scientifically the ICO phenomenon. In the introductory chapters, reference is made to the concept of cryptocurrencies and their mode of operation, but also to the blockchain technology for which they exist. The thesis then focuses on the issue of the Initial Coin Offering, the process of which is described in detail. The thesis also presents a comparative analysis of the regulatory framework so far applied in the major financial markets. Finally, the effect of all the above factors is examined through the case study of the EOS ICO, which lasted for a year and thus constituting the longest ICO so far.

  • 986.
    Stevrin, Peter
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och ekonomi.
    Tillitskrisen: Om tillit, misstro och kontroll i det framväxande informationssamhället1998Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok har sin bakgrund i ett omfattande utvecklings- och för-ändringsarbete som pågått under en femårsperiod i Blekinge och med anknytning till Högskolan i Karlskrona/Ronneby. Detta arbete har bestått i att omvandla regionen - särskilt Ronneby kommun och högskolan - i riktning mot att på konkreta sätt använda informationstek-nologi för att förnya, förbättra och effektivisera olika verksamheter. Det har varit en förmån för mig att ha haft tillfälle att aktivt medverka i den-na strategiska omställningsprocess. I mitt fall började denna medverkan i förändringsarbetet att tillsam-mans med en grupp personer skapa ett långsiktigt projekt för att göra Blekinge till ett "framtidslaboratorium" för olika verksamheter, där det skulle bedrivas, vad vi kallade "fullskaleexperiment". Vi skisserade bl a på ett tioårigt projekt för utveckling och tillämpning av framtidens pro-gramvara. Detta projekt bedrevs under benämningen Projekt 2002. Ty-värr kom detta projekt inte att realiseras på det sätt som var planerat, främst p g a ekonomiska skäl. Men lärdomarna från projektet tog vi med oss till andra satsningar, vilka kom att göras framöver. Ett mjukvaruin-riktat laboratorium kom dock till stånd till följd av projektet. Detta kom sedermera att vidareutvecklas och ingå i högskolans framtidssatsningar på tillämpad informationsteknologi. Med denna framtidsinriktning för regionala satsningar som bakgrund fick jag och min kollega sedan många år tillbaka - Åke Uhlin - i uppdrag av ledningen för Ronneby kommun att utforma ett visionärt förslag till hur kommunen bättre borde anpassa sig till framtiden. Resultatet blev en strategisk agenda med en bred inriktning på tillämpning av in-formationsteknologi, främst genom att sammanbinda olika verksamheter och skilda delar av kommunen med varandra. Den strategiska agendan innehöll förslag om datornätverk, framtidsbibliotek, datorisering av skolan m m. Allt som fanns i denna agenda har nu ungefär fem år senare i stort sett förverkligats. Det sista som återstår att förverkliga i agendan - och som man nu är igång med - är att bygga och implementera ett nät-verk mellan företagen i kommunen samt mellan företagen och olika de-lar av kommunen. Vår upplevelse en tid efter det att agendan höll på att förverkligas var, att man med den entusiasm som fanns avseende satsningarna på olika områden med hjälp av informationsteknologin, förbisåg en del strate-giska aspekter, vilka vi ansåg vara väl så viktiga för framtiden. Det ska framhållas, att dessa aspekter inte hade fått en tillräckligt framskjuten position i agendan, vilket kan vara en förklaring till att de till så stor del negligerades. Det som skedde var, att man i stort sett nöjde sig med att implementera informationsteknologin på "det bestående" och ha för-hoppningar om att detta skulle påverka allt det andra, som också var nödvändigt att förändra i positiv riktning. Vi föreslog därför kommunen att göra nya satsningar på mer "mjuka" aspekter av den lokala och kommunala verkligheten och i medborgarnas vardag. Vi kallade detta för att göra medvetna satsningar på och påverka den sociala och mentala infrastrukturen. Dessa synpunkter från oss resulterade i att vi fick i uppdrag att ut-veckla ett andra steg i den strategiska agenda, som kom att ligga till grund för omställning av Ronneby till ett s k informationssamhälle. I det andra steget ingick satsningar på barn och ungdomar, etablerandet av ett ungdomsparlament, kulturaktiviteter, entreprenörskap för unga, skapandet av gemensamma mötesplatser m fl. I stort nämndes ytterst lite om informationsteknologins betydelse för den framtida utvecklingen. Vi betonade betydelsen av att de ansvariga såg till att genomföra agendan som helhet genom att åstadkomma största möjliga medverkan och på-verkan från medborgarna och företagen i kommunen. Detta andra steg syftade således till att uppmärksamma betydelsen av den sociala och mentala infrastrukturen i samband med samhälleliga omställningspro-cesser och att ge ett antal strategiska rekommendationer hur dessa strukturer skulle kunna påverkas. När denna andra del av agendan skulle implementeras råkade kom-munen i all hast byta ledning, vilket bl a bidrog till att det uppstod ett vaccuum i det utvecklings- och förändringsarbete, som pågått fram till denna tidpunkt. Det ska dock sägas, att man fortsatte med det första steget, men att man inte hade energi nog, att aktivt påbörja det andra steget. Syftet med detta steg var ju att ge ännu bättre förutsättningar för att kunna utnyttja de relativt sett omfattande investeringar, som fortlöpande gjorts inom det informationsteknologiska området. Det som skedde i Ronneby kommun avseende satsningar på informa-tionsteknologi "smittade" snart av sig till regionen som helhet och till andra kommuner inom länet. Främst kom detta att gälla Karlskrona kommun, vars TelecomCity inspirerats av de satsningar, som gjorts i Ronneby avseende SoftCenter. På regional nivå kom det att bildas ett övergripande projekt kallat IT-Blekinge, som drog igång olika satsningar inom hela regionen. Ett nytt laboratorium för utveckling av tillämp-ningsinriktad mjukvara kom att etableras i Ronneby under namnet SIKT - Samhälle, Informations- och Kunskapsteknologi. Detta laboratorium finns numera inom högskolans ram, efter att ha etablerat samarbete med några utvecklingsintresserade företag på både regional och nationell nivå. Men fortfarande ansåg vi, att de framtidssatsningar som gjordes inte skedde med en inriktning, som gick tillräckligt djupt för att åstadkomma nödvändiga och önskvärda resultat. Man tänkte och handlade på ungefär samma sätt som tidigare. Den kultur i vid mening, och de tankemönster som dominerat under lång tid, fortsatte att dominera, trots alla de för-hållandevis stora satsningar som skett inom olika områden relaterade till i första hand informationsteknologi. Vi hade också relativt tidigt upplevt, att det fanns ett påtagligt gap mellan de som var förespråkare för det nya, och de som hade svårt att förstå nödvändigheten av den pågå-ende omställningsprocessen. De senare litade helt enkelt inte på dessa framtidssatsningar och delade inte de prioriteringar som gjordes. Vi upptäckte dessutom att de fanns fler företeelser i situationen, som kunde relateras till fenomen som tillit och misstro, t ex mellan olika aktörer, i förhållande till nykomlingar i regionen, mellan kommunerna etc. Vi såg därför framför oss behovet av ett tredje steg i den strategiska agendan för utveckling och förändring av Blekinge som region och spe-cifikt för Ronneby kommun. Mot denna bakgrund fick Åke Uhlin och jag ett speciellt uppdrag av Landstinget i Blekinge att studera samban-den mellan tillit, kultur och regional utveckling. Vi såg tillit bl a som ett kulturfenomen samt att kultur och tillit på olika sätt antogs bidra till den regionala välståndsutvecklingen. I en liten skrift presenterades vår studie om sambanden mellan tillit, kultur och regional utveckling avse-ende Blekinge både ur historiskt och framtidsinriktat perspektiv (Stevrin & Uhlin 1997). Vi gav dessutom i denna skrift några rekommendationer till den regionala ledningen för genomförande. Men dessa rekommenda-tioner var även avsedda för kommunerna och andra aktörer inom regio-nen. Mot denna bakgrund kom vårt intresse för tillit som strategisk faktor för utveckling och förändring inom samhällets skilda områden ytterliga-re att förstärkas. Vi fann samtidigt vid våra undersökningar inom olika vetenskapliga områden, att tillit inte - enligt vår uppfattning - tillräckligt kommit att uppmärksammas och belysas. För att lyckas med föränd-rings- och utvecklingsarbete på olika nivåer inom det informations- och kunskapssamhälle, som flertalet bedömare anser, att vi numera befinner oss i, räcker det absolut inte enbart att satsa på informationsteknologi, utan det fordras förståelse för att satsningar måste ske inom de områden, vilka kan betecknas och betraktas som "mjuka". Ett centralt område med denna karaktär anser vi utgörs av tillit, eftersom tillit egentligen kan ses som förutsättningen och grunden för allt civiliserat liv - inte minst när det gäller socialt och ekonomiskt liv. Därmed kan tillit sägas vara den faktor, som främst bidrar till ett socialt systems produktivitet, effektivi-t et och överlevnadsförmåga. Tillit som strategisk faktor har stor betydel-se för framgång såväl för regioner som för enskilda företag och organi-sationer. Vad vi har funnit är, att man tar mer eller mindre för givet att sats-ningar av ett visst slag, t ex inom området informationsteknologi, nästan automatiskt ska föra med sig positiva förändringar av annat slag, t ex fler nystartade företag. Men om tilliten till informationsteknologi inte finns i tillräcklig utsträckning, hjälper det inte att satsa ännu mer på in-formationsteknologi eller om inte entreprenörsandan och riskbenägen-heten finns, hjälper inte heller denna typ av framtidssatsningar särskilt mycket. Om man fortsätter att tänka industriellt eller om man fortsätter att tänka om människor inom och utanför regionen på ett visst sätt, hjäl-per det inte särskilt mycket med mer satsningar på informationsteknolo-gi eller andra typer av likartade satsningar. Det kommer enbart att ske förändringar på ytan och inte på djupet, vilket med stor säkerhet innebär att de grundläggande problemen består och att de i värsta fall på sikt kommer att förvärras. Vi har också funnit att det inte förekommer särskilt många djuplodade analyser av vad tillit på olika nivåer i samhället egentligen innebär, vilken betydelse tilliten har för utveckling och förändring samt vilka samband som kan finnas mellan tillit och andra kulturella och samhälle-liga fenomen. Nämnas kan att det inte heller finns några mer omfattande analyser inom det organisationsteoretiska området avseende dessa as-pekter. I de fall som det finns sådana analyser tenderar de till att vara begränsade till det specifika område som avhandlas. Dessutom har vi också funnit, att det inte gjorts särskilt många konkreta studier av tillit, där man närmare försökt belysa sambanden mellan tillit, misstro och kontroll. Vår avsikt är därför att i ett särskilt projekt belysa och analysera tillit huvudsakligen med hjälp av studier av vad som hittills framkommit inom olika vetenskapliga discipliner. Detta görs dels ur ett historiskt, filosofiskt och värderationellt perspektiv, dels ur ett samhälleligt och organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv. Dessutom kommer vi under åtminstone tre år framöver att bedriva ett antal praktiskt inriktade studier i Blekinge för att belysa tillitens betydelse för vad som sker och förmodligen också kommer att ske samt hur man ska ta hänsyn till tillit, misstro och kontroll för att kunna påverka detta skeende. Denna bok utgör dokumentationen av den del av projektet, som avser tillitens samhälleliga och organisatoriska aspekter. Den har finansierats av Rådet för arbetsmiljö-forskning. Denna bok handlar således om tillit, misstro och kontroll ur ett sam-hälleligt och organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv med särskild fokusering på kultur, lärande och de framtidssatsningar som görs med hjälp av in-formationsteknologi. Den grundar sig på den växande övertygelsen om att tillit, relationer och andra djupt liggande mänskliga förmågor kom-mer att ha en ökande betydelse för att framgångar ska nås och för att den kommande utvecklingen ska ske i positiv riktning. Behovet av tillit antas öka, samtidigt som det idag finns tecken på att tilliten minskar samt att dagens organisationer och affärsliv till stora delar bygger på misstro. Informationsteknologins användning fordrar mer tillit, samtidigt som teknologin ger upphov till ökade möjligheter att inte visa tillit. Åke och jag har tillsammans medverkat i olika förändrings- och ut-vecklingssatsningar under årens lopp - inte enbart i Blekinge - och har från något olika utgångspunkter kommit fram till tillitens växande betydelse för samhällelig och organisatorisk utveckling. Denna insikt om tillitens betydelse har vuxit fram av åtskilliga projekt, gemensamma samtal och erfarenheter. Åke kommer själv i en senare bok att redogöra för vad han tycker att särskilt viktigt att lyfta fram, när det gäller tillit, misstro och kontroll. Han kommer att göra detta ur ett historiskt och kunskapsteoretiskt perspektiv med särskild tyngdpunkt på metodologisk och kunskapsmässig tillit. Det har hittills varit förhållandevis lätt för oss att få gehör för våra olika idéer och förslag inom Blekinge och dess kommuner. Utan detta välvilliga bemötande hade med stor säkerhet inte denna bok kommit till. Ett tack riktas särskilt till de personer i Ronneby kommun, som stött vå-ra propåer och gett oss av sin tid för att diskutera olika framtidsfrågor. Ett tack också till Landstinget i Blekinge, som stött vårt initiativ avseen-de tillitens betydelse för kulturen och den regionala utvecklingen. Flertalet av våra kolleger inom institutionen vid högskolan i Karls-krona/Ronneby har många gånger undrat, vad vi egentligen håller på med. De har självklart ställt frågan: Vad har egentligen tillit och misstro med företagsekonomi och informationsteknologi att göra? Men när vi fått möjligheter, att i enskilda samtal och gemensamma diskussioner visat vad vi gör har förståelsen ökat och olika kreativa bidrag lämnats, vilka på olika sätt påverkat innehållet i denna bok. Tack alla ni som hittills deltagit i denna del av processen. Vi sätter stor förhoppning till att ni kommer att fortsätta som aktiva deltagare i den framtida processen. Även om det är jag själv som står bakom denna boks innehåll, är den, som alltid i sådana här projekt, således ett resultat av samverkan med flera parter. Jag har upplevt att denna samverkan skett i situationer mer präglade av tillit än av misstro. Detta gäller inte minst de samtal som jag under arbetets gång haft med min hustru Sara, om vad tillit egentligen är för någonting. Det är naturligtvis inte lätt att i en process, där jag ska sammanfatta idéer, tankar, händelser, erfarenheter etc, alltid visa mig tillit till det jag håller på med i stunder, där mitt självförtroende ibland vacklat inför den omfattande och komplexa uppgift, jag tagit på mig. Tack Sara för ditt sätt att lita på mig. Det är min förhoppning, att ni som kommit att läsa denna bok blivit mer övertygade än tidigare, om att det inför framtiden gäller att sätta sin tillit till tilliten och att misstro misstron, vilket bör få som konsekvens att tilliten ökar och misstron minskar. Men detta bör de facto inte inne-bära, att det ibland kan vara både befogat och hälsosamt att visa tvivel, misstänksamhet och misstro gentemot människor vi har att göra med eller företeelser som inträffar. När du läser denna bok är det också min förhoppning att du tar emot vad jag har att säga både med tillit och en viss misstro utifrån frågeställningen: I vilken utsträckning kan jag lita på vad författaren säger och det sätt som denne säger det på? Kan jag lita på hans sätt att berätta sin berättelse om tillit, misstro och kontroll? Detta är på något sätt frågornas frågor och handlar ytterst om vilken grund som tilliten i de allra flesta fall egentligen vilar på. Mitt enda svar är att erbjuda dig som läsare att följa med på resan och se vad som går att lära om tillit - för tillit är ju ytterst något vi som människor lär oss. Örnahusen den 12 april 1998 Peter Stevrin

  • 987.
    Sthen, Kristoffer
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Indirect and direct business models and their effects on performance in IT companies2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies financial performance data for Swedish publically traded information technology companies over five years beginning 2008 to 2012. This thesis examines performance for two types of business models: so called direct business models and indirect business models. The performance data is used to determine if there are any differences in financial performance. The analysis shows that companies using direct business models have a significantly lower financial performance than companies using indirect business models. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the difference can be explained by the type of right sold. Selling asset ownership rights or selling matching rights have a significant negative impact on performance while selling usage rights have a positive impact on performance. This thesis offers support to the notion that more and more information technology companies adopt indirect business models.

  • 988.
    Stone, Trudy-Ann
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Business Networks in Clusters and Industrial Districts: The Governance of the Global Value Chain2013Inngår i: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 92, nr 2, s. 438-440Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 989.
    Storm, Kristian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Schönström, Ulrika
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Selection of inbound innovations in an open innovation framework2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore the components of the innovation value chain, in particular the relationship between the main influencing factors and how inbound innovations are evaluated and selected in practice within an open innovation framework.

    Problem formulation: The innovation value chain involves a number of phases. A common description is that of a sequence consisting of idea generation, idea selection and idea diffusion. The literature on idea generation is quite vast, and multiple methodologies exist to allow companies to implement frameworks for idea generation and sourcing. But how does one select which ideas to invest in and progress to development and implementation? Specifically, when externally sourced inbound ideas are included, there is a need to understand how these ideas are rated and selected. This leads us to our research question; How is the selection process designed for external innovations in an open innovation framework?

    Method: A European company was selected to understand how this process is implemented in practice. This is described and analyzed by a single embedded case study. The sources of data consisted of interviews and documentation. The research process was iterative, consisting of a cycle of literature review, semi-structured interviews and documentation review. The data was then analyzed using investor triangulation, to ensure the quality of the data and validity of the case study, and was categorized according to the main influential factors identified.

    Findings: It is found that the case company has two initiatives for sourcing of inbound innovations. In both these cases, the selection process is well developed and formalized, and a process similar to the evaluation matrix method is implemented to evaluate and rank inbound ideas. The particular method employed ranks innovations along different dimensions, however there are differences depending on the time scope of the particular initiative. For iGrow, the more short-term scope initiative, business viability is among the highest ranking parameters, while for weFund, the more long term scope initiative, the scientific merits of the innovation and the alignment with the company’s long term strategy is more important. It is also found that there is a strong connection to the company strategy in the selection process, however this connection is more diffuse and not formalized. Based on the data analysis, it is found that the company may benefit from creating a stronger coupling between innovation selection and company strategy by formalizing the connection. It is also found that including sequencing opportunities in the innovation evaluation matrix may better allow for a chain of innovations to be created that steers the company towards the goals set in the company strategy.

  • 990.
    Strand, Lars-Olof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Retaining Knowledge Workers: A ranking of the most valuable Rewards2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the past decades of a growing trend in the western-world where knowledge workers are replacing traditional workers the importance of finding ways to attract, retain and engage the former is becoming even more challenging as the preferences of this kind of workers is totally different than for other workers. Non-monetary rewards such as achievement, autonomy and feedback have for a long time been highlighted by researchers to be of importance, yet the human relations departments (HR) still seem not to have realized the importance of such rewards and while HR strategies often are focusing on total rewards as a summary of monetary and non-monetary rewards there is a lack of an uniform ranking of the importance in between them.

    The purpose of this thesis is to make a ranking of the non-monetary rewards being most valuable for a knowledge worker to retain them within a company. The job mobility for this group is high and failing to retain them would except for short-term costs and organizational knowledge loss risk to create a lack of competitive advantage in long-term.

    Based on an extensive review of literature and papers by both researchers and practitioners with aspect to motivation theories, knowledge workers and rewards a theoretical framework has been constructed derived to five propositions which have been tested in a single case study. The empirical data was collected from a case being described in-depth and consist of archival data from employee surveys during seven years of time which have been supported by interviews and observations to achieve a triangulation of data. During analysis the findings have been put in relation to the environmental factors present within the case to achieve a rich and trustworthy case study.

    The findings confirms earlier research that autonomy is one of the highest ranked reward for a knowledge worker but that affiliation is of equal or even higher importance. The result also indicates that the difference between knowledge workers and other kinds of workers with aspect to affiliation is low or even non-existent. The thesis has also shown that autonomy, praise/recognition and career/personal development is of far more importance for a knowledge worker than for other kind of workers which may act as an important input to HR professionals.

    Furthermore this thesis has by the construct of a theoretical framework based on content theories of motivation contributed with a theoretical ground to the system of total rewards defined by HR professionals.

  • 991.
    Strandberg, Per
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och samhällsvetenskap.
    Att mäta betydelsen av formell och informell kommunikation vid beslutsprocesser2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att mäta betydelsen av kommunikation och hur viktigt de olika kommunikationstyperna är vid beslutsfattande. Organisationens struktur och formella språk samt krav på formalitet påverkar kommunikationen.

  • 992.
    Strauss, Håkan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Rasmussen, Markus
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Designen av balanserat styrkort- En studie om en privat organisation som finansieras av offentliga medel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Designen av balanserat styrkort – En studie om en privat organisation som finansieras av offentliga medel.

    Författare: Håkan Strauss och Markus Rasmussen

    Handledare: Anders Wrenne

    Institution: Managementhögskolan – Blekinge Tekniska Högskola

    Kurs: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi, 15 högskolepoäng

    Syfte: Den här studien avser att bidra med kunskap om hur en organisations ägarstruktur och finansieringsstruktur påverkar designen av balanserat styrkort.

    Metod: Studien använder sig av en deduktiv ansats utifrån befintliga modeller och teorier. Det empiriska materialet samlas in genom en kvalitativ arbetsmetod via den undersökta organisationens årsredovisning, hemsida och intervju.

    Slutsats: Studien pekar på att den undersökta organisationens design av balanserat styrkort påverkas till största del av dess ägarstruktur. Finansieringsformen påverkar till viss del genom dess ersättningsform. 

  • 993.
    Sula, Arben
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Goreta, Ante
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Wilthorn, Joakim
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Internredovisning och beslut: En fallstudie av Boverket i Karlskrona2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Slutsatsen på vår problemformulering är att Boverket använder sig av olika standardiserade rapporter (mallar) som säkerställer information. Rapporterna är uppföljning av: Finansiär, kostnadsbärare och kostnadsställe. Genom att rapporterna är standardiserade innebär det att som avsändare/mottagare använder/ talar samma språk. Det innebär att när informationen från rapporterna ska kommuniceras vidare (uppåt och neråt) inom organisationen, sker det på ett mer effektivt sätt. Det i sin tur underlättar för snabbare och mer välgrundade beslut. Alla de här rapporterna samlas i det stora internredovisningssystemet, som ger t.ex. Generaldirektören möjlighet att få en total helhetsbild av organisationen eller specifika delar av den. Ytterligare en slutsats är att vid situationer när Boverket hyr in professionella konsulter som skall utreda/komma fram till underlag (förstudie) för ett särskilt beslut. Då ser processen ut som så att konsulterna har full tillgång/insyn i internredovisningssystemet, ger dem bättre förutsättningar till att skapa en förstudie som ger ett välgrundat/välutrett underlag till beslutsfattare för eventuella framtida beslut.

  • 994.
    Suleiman, Abdulqadir M.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Economic and Strategic Consequences For SMEs in Norway Following Implementation of the New EU Chemicals Legislation, REACH.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    On the last day of May 2008, new chemicals legislation, REACH came into force in Norway following its implementation within the EU in 2007. The regulation streamlines and improves an earlier legislative framework for chemicals of the European Union. To be able to comply with the new regulation, enterprises will have to put in place considerable measures and undertake possibly restructuring part of or the entire enterprise. Such measures could include the need for training, external consultancy and need for new practical software. Other measures include strategic changes in the enterprises such as the centralization of operations, change of short/long term plans, venturing into areas, change in procurement procedures etc. These may vary from enterprise to enterprise depending on their position on the supply chain as defined by the new legislation. Importers and producers of chemicals have more duties under REACH than downstream users and distributors. This study investigates how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the chemical industry in Norway have been affected by the implementation of the legislation; the main focus of the study is on the economic and strategic effects of REACH on SMEs. Most SMEs in Norwegian chemical industry fall under REACH’s definitions of downstream users and distributors meaning they have fewer duties compared to producer and importers. Despite fewer duties, the effect of REACH on SMEs is quite comprehensive and far-reaching.

  • 995. Sundqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Drevenhorn, Annica
    Adriansson, Christoffer
    Att redovisa eller inte redovisa intellektuellt kapital: En studie om det redovisade intellektuella kapitaletspåverkan på marknadsvärdet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 996.
    Sundqvist, Helena
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    The Swedish Automotive Cluster: How will it be affected by foreign acquisitions at the end of the value chain?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis it is analyzed how the Swedish automotive cluster will be affected by foreign acquisitions at the end of the value chain. This is a relevant topic as the Swedish automotive industry is a very important industry in Sweden. It is of interest to evaluate how the recent shifts of ownership for the Swedish automotive manufacturers will affect the Swedish automotive cluster as a whole. It is also relevant from a theoretical point of view and this thesis draws on the extensive knowledge about agglomeration and industry clusters. Further, it also exploits the national competitive advantages and selected disadvantages that can affect a national industry cluster. Based on relevant theories, a research model is selected which combines Sweden’s competitive advantages, the Swedish automotive cluster’s dynamism and its development stage into a framework which allows for conclusions about how foreign acquisitions are likely to affect the Swedish automotive cluster. By applying the research model it is shown that the Swedish automotive cluster is a dynamic and mature cluster and that this indicates that the affects of foreign ownership is believed to be positive. The foreign investments show that the Swedish automotive cluster is an attractive cluster that foreign companies want to tap into or invest in. Risks with foreign ownership in industry clusters are also pointed out based on a case study of the Swedish pharmaceutical cluster. The thesis research is mainly based on a phenomenological philosophy and the research purpose is mainly exploratory although some parts are descriptive and explanatory. The method used is qualitative but some quantitative data is used to support relevant findings.

  • 997.
    Sunesson, John
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och samhällsvetenskap.
    Svedberg, Emma
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och samhällsvetenskap.
    Johnsson, Anders
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och samhällsvetenskap.
    Internprissättning "Betydelsen av situation och syfte"2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    När ett företag inför decentralisering medför det att det uppstår mer eller mindre självständiga enheter, som ofta handlar internt med varandra. Genom decentralisering vill företagen korta ner tiden för beslutsprocesser och ge ett större ekonomiskt ansvar för varje enhet, man vill med detta nå en effektivisering inom företaget. Problem som kan uppstå vid decentralisering är att samordning och kontroll av enheter försvåras. Dessa problem försöker företag lösa genom att införa ett internprissystem. Internprissystemet byggs på företagets specifika situation och dess syfte med internprissättningen. Internprissättning är ett komplicerat område, men det handlar om att kunna styra, kontrollera och motivera de självständiga enheterna. Internprissättningen kan också användas för att öka kostnadsmedvetenheten i enheterna. Uppsatsen består av en teoridel, där teorier om internprissättning presenteras och en del bestående av tre fallstudier. De tre fallstudierna har genomförts hos Karlshamns, Svedala Compaction Equipment AB och Landstinget Bleking. I fallstudierna undersökte vi företagens situation, syfte, internprissättningsmetoder och vilka problem de har/haft med sin internprissättning. De internprissättningsmetoder som företagen använder, stämmer utifrån teorin till viss del överens med deras situationer och syften, det kan dock inte sägas att de använder en optimal metod. Problemen som företagen upplever är väl sammankopplade med den metod de använder för sin internprissättning.

  • 998.
    Svanberg, Tim
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Prediktioner och förklaringsmodeller för konkurser i aktiebolag: en studie av tre svenska aktiebolag i konkurs2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Title: Predictions and explanation models for bankruptcy in stock-companies – A study of three failed Swedish companies Author: Tim Svanberg Supervisor: Emil Numminen Department: School of Management, Blekinge Institute of technology Course: Bachelor’s thesis in business administration, 10 credits Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to find explanation for bankruptcy with the help of prediction models. The purpose is also to add explanation by using Behavioral analysis Method: Quantitative research of bankruptcies using financial prediction models and qualitative study of psychological pitfalls. The study is deductive. Results: I found that it is possible to explain the bankruptcies using the prediction models. The behavioural perspective adds further explanation. The results from the companies that didn’t go bankruptcy were ambiguous.

  • 999.
    Svanström, Karl Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Brunius, Niklas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för programvaruteknik och datavetenskap.
    Effektivare fakturering med hjälp av XML2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Detta examensarbete utreder hur elektronisk fakturering förhåller sig till traditionell fakturering, samt hur traditionell elektronisk fakturering i form av traditionell Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), kan påverkas av märkspråket XML eller eXtensible Markup Language som det står för. Under utrednings gång har vi stött på vissa motgångar. Motgångarna bestod av att ämnet vi valt att belysa, XML i faktureringssystem, var alldeles för nytt för att genom intervjuer kunna bevisa vår hypotes. XML används helt enkelt inte inom elektronisk fakturering på det sätt vi förutsatt. Vi har därför löst problemet genom att jämföra XML med de traditionella EDI metoderna med hjälp av artikel - och litteratur studier, samt förlitat oss på vad de företag vi intervjuat har gett för svar. I vår bakgrundsinformation har vi beskrivit hur XML fungerar och hur dess bakgrund ser ut. Vi har även beskrivit vilka tillämpningar XML kan användas på, samt beskrivit fakturering, både hur den kan ske manuellt dvs. i pappersform samt hur den elektroniska faktureringen kan fungera. Vi har även tagit med lagar gällande elektronisk fakturering samt kort beskrivning av vad traditionellt utbyte av affärskommunikation i form av traditionell EDI innebär i vår bakgrund. För att kunna få svar på vår frågställning har vi, som vi nämnt ovan, genomfört ett flertal intervjuer av företag, samt använt vetenskaplig litteratur och artiklar. Företagen vi intervjuat har bestått av både företag som tillverkar affärssystem och användare av affärssystem som innefattar faktureringssystem. Utredningen är uppbyggd på företagens svar, som vi sammanställt i resultatform, varpå vi analyserat resultatet. Vi har även i utredningens resultat jämfört skillnader mellan traditionell EDI och XML, och analyserat dem. På samma sätt har vi gjort med de alternativ vi ansett vara relevanta till de benämnda teknologierna. Ett krav för XML: s genomslagskraft är dock att standarder för det elektroniska utbytet av information införs. Detta är dock under utveckling, då det finns starka drivkrafter som till exempel Microsoft som trycker på. XML är en ny teknik som har möjligheter att utgöra grunden för mer flexibla faktureringssystem. XML har möjligheter att erbjuda ett mycket bra alternativ vid elektronisk fakturering då det har stora kostnadsfördelar samt är lättare och går snabbare att implementera än de traditionella EDI lösningarna, som till exempel EDIFACT. Dock krävs som sagt standarder för att XML skall slå igenom. Vi tror dock inte på en universell standard, utan ett flertal anpassade standarder beroende på bransch, företagens storlek samt hur respektive företags branschs ser ut för tillfället. Vi har även dragit slutsatsen att elektronisk fakturering, oavsett metod, är ett bättre alternativ än traditionell fakturahantering där fakturor hanteras manuellt. Detta pga. att stora tids - och kostnads besparingar kan göras.

  • 1000.
    Svensson, Martin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för management.
    Routes, Routines and Emotions in Decision Making of Emergency Call Takers2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency call takers listen to callers expressing mundane errands, but also to callers who describe severe accidents, agony and deaths. The emergency setting is further complicated by having to perform triage under time-pressure, but without possibilities of seeing the patient. The setting rests on an imperative of speedy management—there are few or no possibilities to postpone or reconsider decisions. At the same time, the mode of communication (telephone) may cause overflow or insufficient information, resulting in an uncertain and ambiguous decision setting. A focal point for the organization is therefore the individual capability of conducting triage. However, call takers are also helped by organizational routines, which are manifested in decision support systems, in order to navigate this uncertain and ambiguous setting. Taken together, the emergency setting brings a tension to the fore—how does this emotional setting, with features of vivid and interruptive experiences that possibly detour normative decisions, interact with routines that are supposed to provide for both stability and that recurrent decisions can be made under similar conditions? Drawing on the fields of psychology, decision making, organization theory and communication theory the tension is investigated by a series of four studies. The first study is a field study of the emotional landscape of emergency call taking. Emergency call takers rated callers’ emotional expressions in authentic emergency calls, the level of intensity and expressed need for help. The second study is an experiment, using a speech sample from authentic emergency calls in order to find out whether expressed emotion and intensity contribute to perceived need for help. The third study focuses on management strategies of call takers. More specifically, how do emergency call takers manage double-faced emotional management—i.e., their own and the caller’s emotions—simultaneously? The fourth study focuses on how call takers make decisions, more specifically how call takers use intuitive and emotional capabilities to complement or challenge rational aspects of the decision support systems. The studies reveal that certain emotions occur more often than others and that the level of intensity of expression contributes to perceived help need. Call takers have also developed specific emotional management strategies in order to cope with both callers’ and their own emotions. Finally, call takers were found to use rational and formal routines as well as non-formal, intuitive and emotionally based individual routines in order to derive their decisions. These findings are put into organizational context in terms of implications for emergency call taking. Limitations to the development of situation-specific expertise and obstacles for organizational learning are identified. Also, emergency call taking would benefit from drawing on knowledge found outside of the medical domain. However, the most important finding is that interpretation of emotional expressions in callers’ voices can trigger modifications of the triage routine in use.

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