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  • 1.
    Mårtensson, Benny
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Cooling integrated solar panels using Phase Changing Materials2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis, several cooling systems for PV-systems have been looked into by doing a smaller literature review and then a cooling module for a BIPV-panel was built out from the knowledge gathered. The cooling module used a PCM material separated into 12 bags and then placed in a 3x4 shaped pattern fastened to an aluminium plate that in turn was placed on the back of a PV-panel. This was tested in first a pilot test and then tested outdoors on panels with insulation on its back to simulate BIPV-panels. Temperature data from behind the panel was gathered with and without the cooling module and then compared with each other with added ambient temperature. It was found that the PCM cooled down the panels during similar weather conditions where the outside temperature and the amount of clouds where approximately the same, and it was also found that PCM technologies needs to be more optimised in terms of its material use, the amount of material, and its arrangement for it to be used in PV-panels. An economical calculation was made and it was found that it wasn't economically viable as it takes 14 years for the PV-panel with cooling to pay for itself while it takes 13 years for the PV-panel with cooling to pay for itself. These results are then discussed in comparison to other systems and earlier work done.

  • 2.
    Rasmussen, Tomas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Analys och optimering av värmesystemet vid centrallasarettet i Karlskrona, för att möjliggöra en ekonomisk och hållbar drift vid låg last2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Commissioned by the Blekinge County Council, I have been tasked to investigate the possibilities for optimizing the hospital in Karlskrona systems for hot water and steam production based on what is economically beneficial and environmentally sustainable in the summer period 15 May to 30 September. Today, the production of hot water and steam is provided by a wood chip boiler during winter, spring and autumn and with the combination of an electrical boiler and district heating during the summer due to the wood chip boiler not being able to be fired toward the low loads that occur during the warmer months. The combined production of both the electric boiler and district heating, has proven to be considerably more expensive than if the production could have been done with the wood chip boiler, due to the high electricity- and district heating prices. Blekinge County Council wishes to examine what measures could be taken for a more sustainable and economical production during the warmer months. The measures that have been investigated in this report is the application of an absorption chiller for increased heating surface, a small additional chip boiler and the cost of district heating at a possible cessation of steamproduction. The report shows that the proposed solutions are possible options for an economically beneficial and environmentally sustainable production during the warmer months. All solutions resulting reportedly in a cheaper and more sustainable production of hot water and steam, and with repayment periods that are lower than the depreciation and economic life. The solution that in short terms proves more profitable, in terms of cost per MWh and paybacktime, is the application of an absorption chiller. The report shows, however, that a greater cooling load than what has been investigated in the report is desired for  optimized sustainability. A small additional chip boiler also results in a lower productioncost than today, albeit with a longer paybacktime due to a higher investment cost. Advantages of an additional chip boiler, which is mentioned in the report, is that this option also results in a more sustainable and cheaper supplement at the tip of the loads during the colder months. Continued production with district heating alone is a third option which is being investigated, and that could be seen as advantageous if the hospital would choose to settle the central steam system. This work shows that the proposed solutions would be approximately 140-279 kronor cheaper per MWh during the solutions economical lifetime and with the current prices an installment periods of 0-24 years.

  • 3.
    Svensson, Matilda
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Solceller: Lönsamt och långsiktigt hållbart energiförsörjningsalternativ för Landstinget Blekinge?2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The County Council of Blekinge is one of the county’s largest property owner and has today a great need of external distribution och electricity due to the organization’s energy intensive operations. According to the County Council’s environmental plan there is a desire to investigate the possibilities of producing electricity with solar cells. Therefore this feasibility study has the purpose of analyzing its profitability anf long-term sustainability following a possible future investment.The report proceeds to describe potential and economic prerequisites for solar cells in Sweden, future energy systems, as well as changing conditions for the daily operations regarding maintenance and safety with a solar cell plant. Thereafter, with the use of a theoretical projection of a solarplant that resulted in two different, the study determines possible profitability, cost of produced electricity and an estimated yearly production relative to the County Council’s need of external electricity.

    To perform an adequate projection and receive knowledge about maintenance and safety interviews with special advisers and organizations which have invested in solar cell plants interviews was performed. The result is presented as two solar plants that differs in size and mounting. Alternative A) has an installed power of 101 kW with a cost of investment of 1 100 00 – 1 260 000 SEK, and alternative B) har an installed power of 145 kW to the cost of 1 500 000 – 1 740 000 SEK. Despite the differences was the disparity in pay-back-time and cost of produced electricity fractional, with our without subsidies.

    The profitability is the most benefitial with an issued subsidy for solar cells and implicates a shorter pay-back-period of 9,8 – 11,3 years for alternative A) and 10 – 11,5 years for alternative B). Relative to the economic lifespan of a solar plant of 25 – 30 years it is a profitable investment.With a higher estimated yearly production and easier mounting considering wind load a conclusion was drawn that alternative B) with an installed power 145 kW would benefit the County Council the most from an economic and sustainable perspective. Because after the pay-back-period has ended it would generate more savings of money and a greater lowering of carbon dioxide emissions as a result of the higher annual production of electricity.

    Several sources show that solar cells are a aprt of a future energy system and is long-term sustainable due to benefits considering lowered carbon dioxide emissions. At an investment the County Council of Blekinge could strengthen and develop a green brand with a renewable energy supply with a solar cell plant which would contribute to sustainable development according to the organization’s environmental plan, as well as national and European climate and environmental goals.

  • 4.
    Tuvesson, Anton
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Förhindra härdsmältningsförlopp: Vatteninmatningsflöde som hindrar tankgenomsmältning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The master thesis deals with problems that arise during nuclear meltdown in a nuclear powerplant of the type boiling water reactor. The work will be used as guidelines for strategies developed by Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG), this master thesis is a sub-element in the development of strategies for mastering the various phenomena that arise during a meltdown.  The purpose of the work is to investigate limitations for maintaining the reactor tank intact during the meltdown by, examining the minimum amount of water needed to avoid the meltdown getting through the reactor tank. Examining the cases that lead to meltdown and group them according to the event sequences. Examine the metal/water-reaction that occurs when the core becomes over 800°C and examine if the cases can be grouped into event sequences.  Methods used in the master thesis is PSA-analysis, event development threes, theoretical calculations and MAAPv5.03.  The result describes the groupings of the cases ending in meltdown and the groupings of the metal/water-reaction of the various cases. The result also describes a minimum flow that is required to prevent meltdown of getting through the reactor tank and flow up to a 100 kg/s.  The conclusion of the master thesis is that cases can be grouped according to event sequences and the influence of the metal/water-reaction, the groupings save time in the event of a breakdown. In each group the most difficult case was calculated so that the lowest flow to prevent the meltdown from getting through the reactor tank was presented among with different flows up to 100 kg/s. Future work should investigate the pressure and hydrogen gas created by the water input and its influence on the reactor inclusion. 

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