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  • 1. Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Madelene
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Renström, Boo
    Needs as a basis for design rationale2008In: / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic, Mario Storga, Neven Pavkovic, Nenad Bojcetic, University of Zagreb, Dubrovnik, Croatia: University of Zagreb , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic principle for Needfinding [Faste, 1987; Patnaik & Becker, 1999] is that designers and engineers should interact directly with users to get direct insights into the user domain. Needfinding is not a new phenomena, it is almost forty years ago since the process was adopted at Stanford University’s product design program [Patnaik & Becker, 1999]. As the name, Need-finding, implies, this is an intertwined approach to find needs which are not readily articulated by users. The application of a Needfinding process offers qualitative methods to make those needs visible early on in product development. In fact, the process has become more interesting during recent time, since qualitative methods have gained more acceptance outside the academic realm [ibid.].The word qualitative indicates that what are sought for are qualities such as people’s experiences, what they perceive or interpret into a situation [Miles & Huberman, 1994; Patton, 2002]. Such data is contextually dependent, i.e., it must be generated in the context in which the phenomena occur. Besides context, people’s activities, behaviours and goals are important to observe and learn from. The objectives, for applying Needfinding, are to make the identification of needs and design a seamless effort, as well as an interest to identify opportunities to innovations. Needs last longer than any solution [Patnaik & Becker, 1999], since they are grounded in people’s activities. The solution and product that might meet such needs change over time. One example is how to store computer data, the products which satisfy the need has changed from, e.g., punch cards, magnetic tape, floppy discs [ibid.] to USB-flash memories. A guiding methodology in Needfinding is a flexible process, which is adapted to the task at hand [Kelley, 2001]. Such a process is conveyed in a few basic steps and, builds on a ‘philosophy’ which permeates all activities in order to adapt the process according to the project. Therefore, the designer’s ability to rely on such a process depends on familiarity with a number of methods for observations and interviews, as well as an aptitude for socio-technical skills. Hence, the purpose in this paper is to present and reflect on methods used in a running development project to identify needs in a product development project. This is done to contribute to the advancement of a need driven product development process. The disposition of this paper is as follows. First, our approach in studying the need identification activities is presented. Second, a theoretical frame for need identification and design is presented, i.e., Needfinding [Patnaik & Becker, 1999]. Third, the practice of finding needs is outlined and discussed.

  • 2.
    Guo, Yang
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Yao, Yong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    On Enhancement of Inter-Activity for Knowledge Sharing in eHealth2016In: 2016 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS (COMM 2016), IEEE, 2016, p. 247-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, knowledge sharing raises as an important issue that challenges for the eHealth management system. It becomes one of the most demanding applications with references to the dynamic inter-activities among different health actors and the complex data structures involved in this application. In this paper, we suggest an activity theory based ontology model to scientifically represent various health actors in the eHealth system. The goal of the suggest model is to enhance the inter activities among these health actors for the efficient knowledge sharing purposes. We also develop a prototype software system based on the suggested ontology model. The survey results collected from the system users show the feasibility of the developed software system.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Lars
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Norling, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Investigation of E-health solutions for chronic diseases and the cost benefits in Swedish Regions/County councils2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish healthcare is facing major challenges both today but more critically looking at predictions for the next 20 years. Healthcare costs will increase dramatically and competent personnel to support all the needs will be lacking. E-health solutions and the possibilities they open up regarding how care can be organized and administrated are seen in Sweden as the most important tool to counter those healthcare challenges. The Swedish government see this as a prioritized area and has together with Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting (SKL) signed on a vision to become the world leader in E-health by the year 2025. Studies have shown that E-health can give substantial cost savings with up to 180 billion SEK in saving yearly. We have in this thesis investigated to what extent E-health solutions in the area of chronic diseases are used by Regions/Counties as well as the outcome from a cost saving perspective. Problem formulation and the questions that have been investigated are, which E-health solutions are the different Swedish Regions/County councils (Landsting) using for chronic diseases and what are the cost (and capacity) benefits? What challenges are seen to implement new E-health solutions? We have been using the case study method in our research with interviews and questionnaires with the Regions/County councils as our main source of information. In our contacts we have explained that answers given in the general discussion will be anonymous and not to be linked to any specific Region/County council. This approach was made to get frankly and informative answers. Key findings are that there are today not many E-health solutions for chronic diseases made available by the County councils and the ones offered are generally not reaching a large percentage of the population with those diseases. The implementation curve for E-healthsolutions has been slow, but it differs considerably between regions. We can see that in the northern regions with more rural areas focus is put on solutions to solve the challenges with geographical distance to the patient. In the southern regions with more urban areas the regions more commonly use models to facilitate care for the patient in their home environment. We see a large potential to both improve quality of life for many people as well as reducing costs for healthcare by introducing digital tools in the area of chronic diseases. Especially methods easily accessed for a large part of the population through the 1177.se portal that can be used without extensive support from healthcare staff is something we see as an important area. Those methods have a potential to reach and impact a large part of the population without using much of healthcare resources. We suggest that regions collaborate in order to evaluate and introduce those systems and in the end reach a larger part of the population

  • 4.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, SWE.
    Franberg, Oskar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Siebenmann, Christoph
    KTH, SWE.
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, SWE.
    Measuring Uptake and Elimination of Nitrogen in Humans at Different Ambient Pressures2016In: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, ISSN 2375-6314, Vol. 87, no 12, p. 1045-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To measure nitrogen (N-2) wash-out and uptake requires elaborate set-ups, especially when doing the measurements at increased or decreased ambient pressure. Here we present a transportable device for quantifying N-2 turnover in humans which can be used at different ambient pressures. METHODS: A modified close-circuit electronic rebreather was used to assess N-2 turnover. Changes in N-2 volume within the rebreathing circuit, reflecting N-2 uptake or washout, were derived from the continuously monitored total system volume and the calculated volumes of oxygen and water vapor. The calculation of continuous N-2 volume curves was performed off-line using dedicated computer software. RESULTS: Four subjects participated in the proof-of-concept tests. At steady state, the drift in calculated N-2 volume in the rebreathing circuit over a 1-h duration was minimal. Three of the subjects participated in additional N-2 steady-state measurements where 1019 mL (BTPD) of N-2 was injected into the rebreathing circuit over 20 min and the measured volume increase was 1006 +/- 32 mL. Lastly, N-2 elimination was assessed during decompression to 0.5 atm and while breathing hyperoxic gas. N-2 uptake was measured during compression to 1.8 atm. The elimination and uptake curves were deemed to be realistic. DISCUSSION: A method for assessing N-2 turnover in humans has been developed and a first evaluation has been performed. It is easy to work with operationally and can be used at different ambient pressures. More research is needed in order to further validate it as a method for assessing N-2 turnover in humans.

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